In the Hawaiian religion, Pele, is the goddess of volcanoes and fire and the creator of the Hawaiian Islands. Referred to as "Madame Pele" or "Tūtū Pele" as a sign of respect, she is a well-known deity within Hawaiian mythology, is notable for her contemporary presence and cultural influence as an enduring figure from ancient Hawaii. Epithets of the goddess include Ka wahine ʻai honua. In different stories talking about the goddess Pele, she was born from the female spirit named Haumea; this spirit is important when talking about Hawaii's gods due to how she is a descendant from Papa, or Sky Father, a supreme being. Due to Pele being born, she has become a notable deity known to the Hawaiian culture, she is known as "She who shapes the sacred land", known to be said in ancient Hawaiian chants. Kīlauea is a active volcano, located on the island of Hawaiʻi and is still being extensively studied. Many Hawaiians believe Kilauea to be inhabited by a "family of fire gods", one of the sisters being Pele, believed to govern Kilauea and is responsible for controlling its lava flows.
There are several traditional legends associated with Pele in Hawaiian mythology. In addition to being recognized as the goddess of volcanoes, Pele is known for her power, passion and capriciousness, she has numerous siblings, including Kāne Milohai, Kamohoaliʻi, Nāmaka and numerous sisters named Hiʻiaka, the most famous being Hiʻiakaikapoliopele. They are considered to be the offspring of Haumea. Pele's siblings include deities of various types of wind, fire, ocean wave forms, cloud forms, her home is believed to be the fire pit called Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit caldera of Kīlauea, one of the Earth's most active volcanoes. Pele shares features similar to other malignant deities inhabiting volcanoes, as in the case of the devil Guayota of Guanche Mythology in Canary Islands, living on the volcano Teide and was considered by the aboriginal Guanches as responsible for the eruptions of the volcano. Legend told that journeyed on her canoe from the island of Tahiti to Hawaii; when going through with her journeys, it was said that she tried to create her fires on different islands, but her sister, Nāmaka, was chasing her wanting to put an end to her.
In the end, the two sisters fought Pele in the end was killed. With this happening, her body was destroyed but her spirit lives in the Halemaumau crater on Kilauea, they say, "Her body is the steam that comes from the volcano. She can change form, appearing as a white dog, old woman, or beautiful young woman". In addition to her role as goddess of fire and her strong association with volcanoes, Pele is regarded as the "goddess of the hula", she is a significant figure in the history of hula because of her sister Hiʻiaka, believed to be the first person to dance hula. As a result of Pele's significance in hula, there have been many hula dances and chants that are dedicated to her and her family; the hula being dedicated to Pele is performed in a way that represents her intense personality and the movement of volcanoes. In one version of the story, Pele is the daughter of Kanehoalani and Haumea in the mystical land of Kuaihelani, a floating free land like Fata Morgana. Kuaihelani was in the region of Kahiki.
She stays close to her mother's fireplace with the fire-keeper Lono-makua. Her older sister Nā-maka-o-Kahaʻi, a sea goddess, fears that Pele's ambition would smother the home-land and drives Pele away. Kamohoali'i drives Pele south in a canoe called Honua-i-a-kea with her younger sister Hiʻiaka and with her brothers Kamohoaliʻi, Kanemilohai and arrives at the islets above Hawaii. There Kane-milo-hai is left on Mokupapapa, just a reef, to build it up in fitness for human residence. On Nihoa, 800 feet above the ocean she leaves Kane-apua after her visit to Lehua and crowning a wreath of kau-no'a. Pele picks him up again. Pele used the divining rod. A group of chants tells of a pursuit by Namakaokaha'i and Pele is torn apart, her bones, KaiwioPele form a hill on Kahikinui. In another version, Pele comes from a land said to be "close to the clouds," with parents Kane-hoa-lani and Ka-hina-liʻi, brothers Ka-moho-aliʻi and Kahuila-o-ka-lani. From her husband Wahieloa she has a son Menehune. Pele-kumu-honua entices her Pele travels in search of him.
The sea pours from her head over the land of Kanaloa and her brothers say: The sea floods the land recedes. Pele is considered to be a rival of the Hawaiian goddess of snow, Poliʻahu, her sisters Lilinoe and Kahoupokane. All except Kahoupokane reside on Mauna Kea; the kapa maker lives on Hualalai. One myth tells that Poliʻahu had come from Mauna Kea with her friends to attend sled races down the grassy hills south of Hamakua. Pele was greeted by Poliʻahu. However, Pele became jealously enraged at the goddess of Mauna Kea, she opened the subterranean caverns of Mauna Kea and threw fire from them towards Poliʻahu, with the snow goddess fleeing towards
In Hawaiian mythology, Kū or Kūkaʻilimoku is one of the four great gods. The other three are Kanaloa, Kāne, Lono. Feathered god images or ʻaumakua hulu manu are considered to represent Kū. Kū is worshipped under many names, including Kū-ka-ili-moku, the "Snatcher of Land". Kūkaʻilimoku rituals included human sacrifice, not part of the worship of other gods. Owing to the multiplicity inherent in Hawaiian concepts of deity, Kū may be invoked under many names, which reference subordinate manifestations of the god. Ku-moku-haliʻi Ku-pulupulu Ku-olono-wao Ku-holoholo-pali Ku-pepeiao-loa/-poko Kupa-ai-keʻe Ku-mauna Ku-ka-ohia-laka Ku-ka-ieie Ku-ka-o-o Ku-kuila Ku-keolowalu Ku-ula or Ku-ula-kai Ku-nui-akea Ku-kaili-moku Ku-keoloewa Ku-hoʻoneʻenuʻu Ku-waha-ilo He is known as the god of war and the husband of the goddess Hina; some have taken this to suggest a complementary dualism, as the word kū in the Hawaiian language means " to stand " while one meaning of hina is " to fall ". This analysis is not supported by evidence from other Polynesian languages which distinguish the original "ng" and "n".
Hina's counterpart in New Zealand for example, is Hina, associated with the moon, rather than Hinga, "fallen down". Thus, the Hawaiian name Hina is rather connected to the other meaning of hina, denoting a silvery-grey color. Kū, Kāne, Lono caused light to shine in upon the world, they are uncreated gods. Kūkaʻilimoku was the guardian of Kamehameha I who erected monuments to the deity at the Holualoa Bay royal center and his residence at Kamakahonu. Three enormous statues of the god Kū were reunited for the first time in 200 years at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu in 2010, they were dedicated by Kamehameha at one of his temples on the archipelago in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries. These rare statues were acquired by the Bishop Museum, the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem and the British Museum in London. One feathered god image in the Bishop Museum, Honolulu is thought to be Kamehameha I's own image of his god; however it is still unclear whether all feathered god images represent Kū.
He is known as the god of War, politics and Fishing Manō, ʻIo, Niuhi, ʻĪlio, Iʻa ʻUla, ʻIeʻIe, ʻŌhiʻa Lehua Tūmatauenga, Māori war deity. The Kailua-Kona lighthouse was built on land known as Kūkaʻilimoku Point. Beckwith, M.: Hawaiian Mythology. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. Tregear, Edward: Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. Lyon and Blair, Wellington.. Pukui, Mary Kawena. University of Hawaii PRess, Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-1392-8
In Hawaiian religion, the deity Lono is associated with fertility, rainfall and peace. In one of the many Hawaiian stories of Lono, he is a fertility and music god who descended to Earth on a rainbow to marry Laka. In agricultural and planting traditions, Lono was identified with food plants, he was one of the four gods. Lono was the god of peace. In his honor, the great annual festival of the Makahiki was held. During this period and unnecessary work was kapu. In Hawaiian weather terminology, the winter Kona storms that bring rain to leeward areas are associated with Lono. Lono brings on the rains and dispenses fertility, as such was sometimes referred to as Lono-makua. Ceremonies went through a yearly cycle. For 8 months of the year, the luakini was dedicated to Ku-with strict kapus. Four periods each month required strict ceremonies. Violators could have their property seized by priests or overlord chiefs, or be sentenced to death for serious breaches; some Native Hawaiians may have misidentified Captain James Cook as Lono's incarnation, which may have caused Cook's death.
It is uncertain whether Cook was mistaken for the god Lono, or one of several historical or legendary figures named Lono-i-ka-Makahiki. It was traditionally held that the god Lono had appeared as a human who established games and the annual taxing. Before departing to "Kahiki", he promised returning "by sea on the canoes ʻAuwaʻalalua". An unidentified queen identified it as a "Spanish man of war", recalling the alleged arrival of a Spanish galleon. Mary Pukui interpreted this from ʻAu-waʻa-la-lua. However, Pukui may have been referring to the Portuguese man o' war, which Hawaiians called ʻAuwaʻalalua. Better known to the Hawaiian mythology is an earlier Lono-i-ka-makahiki from the ʻUmi line of ruling Hawaii Island aliʻi; this Lono was born and raised near the graves of Keawe and his descendants, which were near the place of Captain Cook's monument. This Lono may have cultivated the arts of warfare and puns as well as riddle games and spear-dodging games for the Makahiki. However, it is unlikely either late ruling chiefs on the ʻUmi line was the mythological Lono who departed to Kahiki.
Both chiefs were born in Hawaii, no legend tells of either of them sailing away with a promise to return. A more plausible candidate for the god Lono is the legendary Laʻa-mai-Kahiki, who purportedly lived several centuries earlier. Laʻa came as a younger member of the Moikeha family of North Tahiti, older members of whom had settled earlier in the Hawaiian archipelago, he brought with him a small hand-drum, a flute for the hula. Upon his arrival, the locals heard his flute and the rhythm of the new drumbeat, believing it was the god Kupulupulu. Kupulupulu was worshiped as god of the hula, who took the form of the flowering lehua tree as well as the god of native fauna that sustained early Polynesian settlers. On Oahu, this Laʻa-mai-kahiki took wives in various districts. Oahu Island was the stronghold of Lono's worship, he seems to have sailed back to Tahiti at least once before his final departure. This traveler of a great Tahitian family, who appeared like a god, enriched the New Year festivals with games and drama influencing the Hawaiians into believing he was a god.
The late Gonzo writer Hunter S. Thompson wrote that he believed himself to be the resurrected Lono while on assignment in Hawaii for Running magazine with artist and friend Ralph Steadman. In a letter included in the book The Great Shark Hunt, Thompson describes his arrival to Kailua Bay in 1981: The word traveled swiftly, up and down the coast, by nightfall the downtown streets were crowded with people who had come from as far away as South Point and the Waipio Valley to see for themselves if the rumor was true - that Lono had, in fact, returned in the form of a huge drunken maniac who dragged fish out of the sea with his bare hands and beat them to death on the dock with a short-handled Samoan war club. Thompson's writings on the experience have been compiled into a book, The Curse of Lono, illustrated by Ralph Steadman; as Lono, Thompson is shown as wearing the head of a marlin as a mask, with his eyes doubling as the eyes of the fish. Kamapua'a Rongo, Māori god of cultivated plants Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia Thompson, Hunter.
The Great Shark Hunt: Strange Tales from a Strange Time, 1st ed. Summit Books, 105-109. ISBN 0-671-40046-0. Martha Warren Beckwith. "The Kumulipō". Leilehua Yuen. "Makahiki, the Hawaiian New Year". Archived from the original on 2013-01-28
Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as animals, the waves, the sky. Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaiʻi between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna." Hawaiian religion is polytheistic, with four deities most prominent: Kū, Lono and Kanaloa. Other notable deities include Laka, Haumea, Papahānaumoku, most famously, Pele. In addition, each family is considered to have one or more guardian spirits known as ʻaumakua that protected family. One breakdown of the Hawaiian pantheon consists of the following groups: the four gods – Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa the forty male gods or aspects of Kāne the four hundred gods and goddesses the great multitude of gods and goddesses the spirits the guardians Another breakdown consists of three major groups: the four gods, or akua: Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa many lesser gods, or kupua, each associated with certain professions guardian spirits, ʻaumakua, associated with particular families One Hawaiian creation myth is embodied in the Kumulipo, an epic chant linking the aliʻi, or Hawaiian royalty, to the gods.
The Kumulipo is divided into two sections: night, or pō, day, or ao, with the former corresponding to divinity and the latter corresponding to mankind. After the birth of Laʻilaʻi, the woman, Kiʻi, the man, the man succeeds at seducing and reproducing with the woman before the god Kāne has a chance, thereby making the divine lineage of the gods younger than and thus subservient to the lineage of man. This, in turn, illustrates the transition of mankind from being symbols for the gods into the keeper of these symbols in the form of idols and the like; the Kumulipo was recited during the time of Makahiki, to honor the god of Lono. The kahuna were well respected, educated individuals that made up a social hierarchy class that served the King and the Courtiers and assisted the Maka'ainana. Selected to serve many practical and governmental purposes, Kahuna were healers, builders, prophets/temple workers, philosophers, they talked with the spirits. Kahuna Kūpaʻiulu of Maui in 1867 described a counter-sorcery ritual to heal someone ill due to hoʻopiʻopiʻo, another’s evil thoughts.
He said. Prayers were said. "If the evil spirit appears and possesses the patient he or she can be saved by the conversation between the practitioner and that spirit."Pukui and others believed kahuna did not have mystical transcendent experiences as described in other religions. Although a person, possessed would go into a trance-like state, it was not an ecstatic experience but a communion with the known spirits. Kapu refers to a system of taboos designed to separate the spiritually pure from the unclean. Thought to have arrived with Pāʻao, a priest or chief from Tahiti who arrived in Hawaiʻi sometime around 1200 AD, the kapu imposed a series of restrictions on daily life. Prohibitions included: The separation of men and women during mealtimes Restrictions on the gathering and preparation of food Women separated from the community during their menses Restrictions on looking at, touching, or being in close proximity with chiefs and individuals of known spiritual power Restrictions on overfishingHawaiian tradition shows that ʻAikapu was an idea led by the kahuna in order for Wākea, the sky father, to get alone with his daughter, Hoʻohokukalani without his wahine, or wife, the earth mother, noticing.
The spiritually pure or laʻa, meaning "sacred" and unclean or haumia were to be separated. ʻAikapu included: The use of a different ovens to cook the food of male and female Different eating places Women were forbidden to eat pig, coconut and certain red foods because of their male symbolism. During times of war, the first two men to be killed were offered to the gods as sacrifices. Other Kapus included Mālama ʻĀina, meaning Niʻaupiʻo. Tradition says that mālama ʻāina originated from the first child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani being deformed so they buried him in the ground and what sprouted became the first kalo known as taro; the Hawaiian islands are all children of Papa, Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani so meaning that they are older siblings of the Hawaiian chiefs. Second child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani became the first Aliʻi Nui, or "Grand Chief"; this came to be called Niʻaupiʻo, the chiefly incest to create the "godly child". Punishments for breaking the kapu could include death, although if one could escape to a puʻuhonua, a city of refuge, one could be saved.
Kāhuna nui mandated long periods. No baby could cry, dog howl, or rooster crow, on pain of death. Human sacrifice was not unknown; the kapu system remained in place until 1819. Prayer was an essential part of Hawaiian life, employed when building a house, making a canoe, giving lomilomi massage. Hawaiians addressed prayers to various gods depending on the situation; when healers picked herbs for medicine, they prayed to Kū and Hina and female, right and left and supine. The people worshiped Lono during Kū during times of war. Histories from the 19th century describe prayer throughout the day, with specific p
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess". C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness, beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". In the English language, a male deity is referred to as a god, while a female deity is referred to as a goddess. Religions can be categorized by. Monotheistic religions accept only one deity, polytheistic religions accept multiple deities. Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle. Although most monotheistic religions traditionally envision their God as omnipotent, omniscient and eternal, none of these qualities are essential to the definition of a "deity" and various cultures conceptualized their deities differently.
Monotheistic religions refer to God in masculine terms, while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways – masculine, feminine and without gender. Many ancient cultures – including the ancient Mesopotamians, Greeks and Norsemen– personified natural phenomena, variously as either deliberate causes or effects; some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts. In Indian religions, deities were envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind. Deities were envisioned as a form of existence after rebirth, for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, where they become guardian deities and live blissfully in heaven, but are subject to death when their merit is lost; the English language word "deity" derives from Old French deité, the Latin deitatem or "divine nature", coined by Augustine of Hippo from deus. Deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European origin to *deiwos; this root yields the ancient Indian word Deva meaning "to gleam, a shining one", from *div- "to shine", as well as Greek dios "divine" and Zeus.
Deva is masculine, the related feminine equivalent is devi. Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Greek thea. In Old Persian, daiva- means "demon, evil god", while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the "heavenly, terrestrial things of high excellence, shining ones"; the linked term "god" refers to "supreme being, deity", according to Douglas Harper, is derived from Proto-Germanic *guthan, from PIE *ghut-, which means "that, invoked". Guth in the Irish language means "voice"; the term *ghut- is the source of Old Church Slavonic zovo, Sanskrit huta-, from the root *gheu-,An alternate etymology for the term "god" comes from the Proto-Germanic Gaut, which traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to-, derived from the root *gheu-. The term *gheu- is the source of the Greek khein "to pour"; the German root was a neuter noun. The gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity. In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities.
There is no universally accepted consensus on what a deity is, concepts of deities vary across cultures. Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance, it has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe", to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling", to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages". A deity is conceptualized as a supernatural or divine concept, manifesting in ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some or all aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires. In other cases, the deity is a principle or reality such as the idea of "soul"; the Upanishads of Hinduism, for example, characterize Atman as deva, thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle is part of every living creature, that this soul is spiritual and divine, that to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more deities. Polytheism is the belief in and worship of multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, with accompanying rituals. In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Henotheism accepts the existence of more than one deity, but considers all deities as equivalent representations or aspects of the same divine principle, the highest. Monolatry is the belief that many deities exist, but that only one of these deities may be validly worshipped. Monotheism is the belief. A monotheistic deity, known as "God", is u
Hawaiʻi is the largest island located in the U. S. state of Hawaii. It is the largest and the southeasternmost of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of volcanic islands in the North Pacific Ocean. With an area of 4,028 square miles, it has 63% of the Hawaiian archipelago's combined landmass, is the largest island in the United States. However, it has only 13% of Hawaiʻi's people; the island of Hawaiʻi is the third largest island in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand. The island is referred to as the Island of Hawaiʻi, the Big Island, or Hawaiʻi Island to distinguish it from the state. Administratively, the whole island encompasses Hawaiʻi County; as of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat and largest city is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County. Hawaiʻi is said to have been named after Hawaiʻiloa, the legendary Polynesian navigator who first discovered it. Other accounts attribute the name to the legendary realm of Hawaiki, a place from which some Polynesian people are said to have originated, the place where they transition to in the afterlife, or the realm of the gods and goddesses.
Captain James Cook, the English explorer and navigator, captain of the first European expedition that discovered the Hawaiian Islands, called them the "Sandwich Islands" after his patron, the Earl of Sandwich. Cook was killed on the Big Island at Kealakekua Bay on 14 February 1779, in a mêlée which followed the theft of a ship's boat. Hawaiʻi was the home island of Paiʻea Kamehameha known as Kamehameha the Great. Kamehameha united most of the Hawaiian islands under his rule in 1795, after several years of war, gave the kingdom and the island chain the name of his native island. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,086 square miles, of which 4,028 square miles is land and 1,058 square miles is water; the county's land area comprises 62.7 percent of the state's land area. It is the highest percentage by any county in the United States. At its greatest dimension, the island is 93 miles across, it has a land area of 4,028 square miles comprising 62% of the Hawaiian Islands' land area.
Measured from its sea floor base to its highest peak, Mauna Kea is the world's tallest mountain, taller than Mount Everest, since the base of Mount Everest is above sea level. Ka Lae, the southernmost point in the 50 states of the United States, is on Hawaii; the nearest landfall to the south is in the Line Islands. To the northwest of the island of Hawaii is the island of Maui, whose Haleakalā volcano is visible from Hawaii across the Alenuihaha Channel; the island of Hawaiʻi is built from five separate shield volcanoes that erupted somewhat sequentially, one overlapping the other. These are: Kohala – extinct Mauna Kea – dormant Hualālai – active Mauna Loa – active within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Kīlauea – active: erupting continuously from 1983 to 2018. Geologists now consider these "outcrops" to be part of the earlier building of Mauna Loa; because Mauna Loa and Kīlauea are active volcanoes, the island of Hawaii is still growing. Between January 1983 and September 2002, lava flows added 543 acres to the island.
Lava flowing from Kīlauea has destroyed several towns, including Kapoho in 1960, Kalapana and Kaimū in 1990. In 1987 lava filled in "Queen's Bath", a large, L-shaped, freshwater pool in the Kalapana area; some geologists count seven volcanoes as building the island, which include the submarine volcanoes Māhukona and Lōʻihi as parts of the base of the island. Māhukona off the northwest corner of the island has disappeared below the surface of the ocean. 22 miles southeast of Hawaii lies the undersea volcano known as Lōʻihi. It is an erupting seamount that now reaches 3,200 feet below the surface of the ocean. Continued activity at current rates from Lōʻihi will cause it to break the surface of the ocean sometime between 10,000 and 100,000 years from now; the Great Crack is an eight-mile-long, 60-foot-wide and 60-foot-deep fissure in the island, in the district of Kau. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Great Crack is the result of crustal dilation from magmatic intrusions into the southwest rift zone of Kilauea.
While neither the earthquake of 1868 nor that of 1975 caused a measurable change in the Great Crack, lava welled out of the lower 6 miles of the Great Crack in 1823. Visitors can find trails, rock walls, archaeological sites from as old as the 12th century around the Great Crack. 1,951 acres of private land were purchased during the presidency of Bill Clinton to protect various artifacts in this area, as well as the habitat of local wildlife. The Hilina Slump is a 4,760-cubic-mile section of the south slope of the Kīlauea volcano, slipping away from the island. Between 1990 and 1993, Global Positioning System measurements showed a southward displacement of about 4 inches per year. Undersea measurements show that a "bench" has formed a buttress and that this buttress may tend to reduce the likelihood of future catastrophic detachment. On 2 April 1868, an earthquake with a magnitude estimated between 7.25 and 7.9 rocked the southeast coast of Hawaii. This was the most destructive earthquake in the recorded history of Hawaii.