A kōan is a story, question, or statement, used in Zen practice to provoke the "great doubt" and to practice or test a student's progress in Zen. The Japanese term kōan is the Sino-Japanese reading of the Chinese word gong'an; the term is a compound word "public. According to the Yuan dynasty Zen master Zhongfeng Mingben, gōng'àn originated as an abbreviation of gōngfǔ zhī àndú, which referred to a "public record" or the "case records of a public law court" in Tang dynasty China. Kōan/gong'an thus serves as a metaphor for principles of reality beyond the private opinion of one person, a teacher may test the student's ability to recognize and understand that principle. Commentaries in kōan collections bear some similarity to judicial decisions that cite and sometimes modify precedents. An article by T. Griffith Foulk claims... Its literal meaning is the'table' or'bench' an of a'magistrate' or'judge' kung. Gong'an was itself a metonym—an article of furniture involved in setting legal precedents came to stand for such precedents.
For example, Di Gong'an is the original title of Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee, the famous Chinese detective novel based on a historical Tang dynasty judge. Zen kōan collections are public records of the notable sayings and actions of Zen masters and disciples attempting to pass on their teachings. Gong'ans developed during the Tang dynasty from the recorded sayings collections of Chán-masters, which quoted many stories of "a famous past Chán figure's encounter with disciples or other interlocutors and offering his own comment on it"; those stories and the accompanying comments were used to educate students, broaden their insight into the Buddhist teachings. Those stories came to be known as gongan, "public cases"; such a story was only considered a gongan. This practice of commenting on the words and deeds of past masters confirmed the master's position as an awakened master in a lineage of awakened masters of the past. Koan practice developed from a literary practice, styling snippets of encounter-dialogue into well-edited stories.
It arose in interaction with "educated literati". There were dangers involved in such a literary approach, such as ascribing specific meanings to the cases. Dahui Zonggao is said to have burned the woodblocks of the Blue Cliff Record, for the hindrance it had become to study of Chán by his students. Kōan literature was influenced by the pre-Zen Chinese tradition of the "literary game"—a competition involving improvised poetry; the style of writing of Zen texts has been influenced by "a variety of east Asian literary games": The extensive use of allusions, which create a feeling of disconnection with the main theme. During the Song dynasty the use of gongans took a decisive turn. Dahui Zonggao introduced the use of kanhua, "observing the phrase". In this practice students were to observe or concentrate on a single word or phrase, such as the famous mu of the mu-koan. In the eleventh century this practice had become common. A new literary genre developed from this tradition as well. Collections of such commented cases were compiled which consisted of the case itself, accompanied by verse or prose commentary.
Dahui's invention was aimed at balancing the insight developed by reflection on the teachings with developing samatha, calmness of mind. This development became in effect silent illumination, a " of koan-study into the "silence" of meditation", it led to a rejection of Buddhist learning: Some extent of Buddhist learning could have been recognized as a precondition for sudden awakening in Chan. Sung masters, tended to take the rejection and nondialectically. In effect, what they instituted was a form of Zen fundamentalism: the tradition came to be anti-intellectual in orientation and, in the process, reduced its complex heritage to simple formulae for which literal interpretations were thought adequate; this development left Chinese Chan vulnerable to criticisms by neo-Confucianism, which developed after the Sung Dynasty. Its anti-intellectual rhetoric was no match for the intellectual discourse of the neo-Confucianists; the recorded encounter dialogues, the koan collections which derived from this genre, mark a shift from solitary practice to interaction between master and student: The essence of enlightenment came to be identified with the interaction between masters and students.
Whatever insight dhyana might bring, its verification was always interpersonal. In effect, enlightenment came to be understood not so much as an insight, but as a way of acting in the world with other people This mutual enquiry of the meaning of the encounters of masters and students of the past gave students a role model: One looked at the enlightened activities of one's lineal forebears in order to understand one's own identit
Franck "Francky" Vandendriessche is a former Belgian football goalkeeper. Among his former clubs are K. S. V. Waregem and Cercle Brugge. Vandendriessche played one game with Belgium against Croatia due to the injuries of both Geert De Vlieger and Frédéric Herpoel and Belgium lost 4-0, he was in the team for the 2002 World Cup. After his playing career, Vandendriessche became goalkeeping coach for his former team Mouscron, but due to financial uncertainty at Mouscron, he decided to move to RAEC Mons during the summer break of 2009. Assistant manager Geert Broeckaert would follow him a bit later. On 10 July 2009 he became goalkeeping coach of the Belgian national team but was sacked on 6 October 2009 for having given a journalist from the Flemish newspaper Het Laatste Nieuws details about team selection before it had been announced; the Belgian goalkeeper Stijn Stijnen retired from the Belgian football team on the same day in connection with this incident. He was from 2007, the goalkeeping coach at Excelsior Mouscron until June 2009, a short time became the goalkeeper coach at RAEC Mons.
Juhan Leinberg known as prophet Maltsvet, was a founder of a religious sect named after him in Estonia. Juhan Leinberg was born in Järvamaa, Norra parish. In his youth he was a farmer, miller and seller in Tallinn. In 1854 he started holding preachings in Northern Estonia and called on people to give up collecting wealth. A short imprisonment in 1858 increased his popularity, the number of his followers reached 200-300 families. In 1860 Leinberg started to promote re-establishing to the Crimea, going there himself in February 1861; the most fanatic of the Maltsvetians waited in May and June 1861 at Lasnamäe for the coming of the "White ship", to take them to the promised land. The followers of Maltsvet had an important part in the peasant rebels in Albu and Ahula in November 1861. By the mid-1860s, Maltsvet's influence had worn off. After his return to Estonia in 1865 he started in business again. Leinberg died in Järvamaa, Pruuna parish; the movement of the Maltsvetians is treated by Eduard Vilde in the novel Prophet Maltsvet.
Published in 1908, this was the third book of a trilogy. Like the others, it mixed fact and fiction, but was based on letters and notes of interviews with Crimean Estonians. Finnish author Aino Kallas wrote a short story titled Lasnamäen valkea laiva, which portrays the members of Leinberg's religious sect waiting for a white ship to take them into paradise, as Leinberg had promised according to the story