Sugo Station is a railway station in the city of Takizawa, Iwate Prefecture, operated by the Iwate Ginga Railway. Sugo Station is served by the Iwate Ginga Railway Line, is located 10.2 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Morioka Station and 545.5 kilometers from Tokyo Station. Trains of the Hanawa Line, which terminates at Kōma continue on to Morioka Station, stopping at all intermediate stations, including Aoyama Station. Sugo Station has two opposed side platforms connected to the station building by a footbridge; the platforms are at different elevations. The station is staffed; the ticket machine operates from 5:30 a.m. to the midnight. Sugo Station was opened on 18 March 2006. In fiscal 2015, the station was used by an average of 994 passengers daily. Japan National Route 4 Official website
Ōdate Station is a railway station in Ōdate, Japan, operated by the East Japan Railway Company. Ōdate Station is a station on the Ōu Main Line, is located 402.9 km from the terminus of the line at Fukushima Station in Fukushima Prefecture. It is a terminal station on the Hanawa Line, is located 106.9 km from the opposing terminus of the line at Kōma Station in Iwate Prefecture. The station also served the now-defunct Kosaka Smelting & Refining Kosaka Line. Ōdate Station has a single side platform and single island platform serving three tracks. Ōdate Station opened on November 1899, on the Japanese Government Railways. The owned Kosaka Line began operations in 1909, the owned Akita Railway began operations from July 1, 1914; the Hanaoka Line opened on January 26, 1916. The Akira Railway was nationalized on June 1, 1934. A statue of Hachikō was first erected in front of the station in July 1935, but was subsequently melted down for its metal content in World War II, was not restored until November 1986.
After World War II, the JGR became the Japanese National Railways. The Hanaoka Line closed on April 1, 1985; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987. Kosaka Line passenger operations ceased on October 1, 1994, freight operations ended on March 12, 2008. In fiscal 2012, the station was used by an average of 1,084 passengers daily. Ōdate Station Bus Stop Shūhoku Bus Main Office JR East Station information
A public–private partnership is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors of a long-term nature. Governments have used such a mix of private endeavors throughout history. However, the late 20th century and early 21st century have seen a clear trend towards governments across the globe making greater use of various PPP arrangements. PPPs are best seen as a special kind of contract involved in infrastructure provision, such as the building and equipping of schools, transport systems and sewerage systems. There is no consensus about how to define a PPP. PPPs can be understood of both as a language game; when understood as a language game, or brand, the PPP phrase can cover hundreds of different types of long term contracts with a wide range of risk allocations, funding arrangements and transparency requirements. And as a brand, the PPP concept is closely related to concepts such as privatization and the contracting out of government services; when understood as a governance mechanism the PPP concept encompasses at least five families of potential arrangements, one of, the long term infrastructure contract in the model of the UK's Private Finance Initiative.
Particular types of arrangements have been favored in different countries at different times. Infrastructure PPPs as a phenomenon can be understood at five different levels: as a particular project or activity, as a form of project delivery, as a statement of government policy, as a tool of government, or as a wider cultural phenomenon. Different disciplines emphasize different aspects of the PPP phenomena; the engineering and economics professions take a utilitarian, functional focus emphasising concerns such as project delivery and relative value-for-money compared to the traditional ways of delivering large infrastructure projects. In contrast, public administrators and political scientists tend to view PPPs more as a policy brand, as a useful tool for governments to achieve their objectives. Common themes of PPPs are the sharing of risk and the development of innovative, a way of financing over a long-term for the public and private sectors; the use of private finance is another key dimension of many PPPs those influenced by the UK PFI model, although this aspect has waned since the global financial crisis of 2008.
The PPP phenomenon has been controversial. The lack of a shared understanding of what a PPP is makes the process of evaluating whether PPPs have been successful complex. Evidence of PPP performance in terms of VfM and efficiency, for example, is mixed and unavailable. According to Weimer and Vining, "A P3 involves a private entity financing, constructing, or managing a project in return for a promised stream of payments directly from government or indirectly from users over the projected life of the project or some other specified period of time"; because P3s are directly responsible for a variety of activities, as indicated by Weimer and Vining, P3s can evolve into monopolies motivated by rent-seeking behavior. PPPs involve a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial and operational risk in the project. In some types of PPP, the cost of using the service is borne by the users of the service and not by the taxpayer.
In other types, capital investment is made by the private sector on the basis of a contract with government to provide agreed services and the cost of providing the service is borne wholly or in part by the government. Government contributions to a PPP may be in kind. In projects that are aimed at creating public goods like in the infrastructure sector, the government may provide a capital subsidy in the form of a one-time grant, so as to make the project economically viable. In some other cases, the government may support the project by providing revenue subsidies, including tax breaks or by guaranteed annual revenues for a fixed time period. In all cases, the partnerships include a transfer of significant risks to the private sector in an integrated and holistic way, minimizing interfaces for the public entity. An optimal risk allocation is the main value generator for this model of delivering public service. There are many drivers for PPPs. One common driver involves the claim that PPPs enable the public sector to harness the expertise and efficiencies that the private sector can bring to the delivery of certain facilities and services traditionally procured and delivered by the public sector.
Another common driver is that PPPs may be structured so that the public sector body seeking to make a capital investment does not incur any borrowing. Rather, the PPP borrowing is incurred by the private sector vehicle implementing the project. On PPP projects where the cost of using the service is intended to be borne by the end user, the PPP is, from the public sector's perspective, an "off-balance sheet" method of financing the delivery of new or refurbished public sector assets. On PPP projects where the public sector intends to compensate the private sector through availability payments once the facility is established or renewed, the financing is, from the public sector's perspective, "on-balance sheet". Financing costs will be higher for a PPP than for a traditional public financing, because of the private sector higher cost of capital. However, extra financing costs can be offset by private sector efficiency, savings resulting from a holistic approach to delivering the project or se
Akita Prefecture is a prefecture located in the Tōhoku region of Japan. The capital is the city of Akita; the area of Akita has been created from the ancient provinces of Mutsu. Separated from the principal Japanese centres of commerce and population by several hundred kilometres and the Ōu and Dewa mountain ranges to the east, Akita remained isolated from Japanese society until after the year 600. Akita was a region of principally nomadic tribes; the first historical record of what is now Akita Prefecture dates to 658, when the Abe no Hirafu conquered the native Ezo tribes at what are now the cities of Akita and Noshiro. Hirafu governor of Koshi Province, established a fort on the Mogami River, thus began the Japanese settlement of the region. In 733, a new military settlement—later renamed Akita Castle—was built in modern-day Akita city at Takashimizu, more permanent roads and structures were developed; the region was used as a base of operations for the Japanese empire as it drove the native Ezo people from northern Honshū.
It shifted hands several times. During the Tokugawa shogunate it was appropriated to the Satake clan, who ruled the region for 260 years, developing the agriculture and mining industries that are still predominant today. Throughout this period, it was classified as part of Dewa Province. In 1871, during the Meiji Restoration, Dewa Province was reshaped and the old daimyō domains were abolished and administratively reconstructed, resulting in the modern-day borders of Akita; the famous Heian period waka poet, Ono no Komachi, is said to have been born in Yuzawa City, Ogachi Town, located in the southeast of the prefecture. Located in the north of Honshu, Akita Prefecture faces the Sea of Japan in the west and is bordered by four other prefectures: Aomori in the north, Iwate in the east, Miyagi in the southeast, Yamagata in the south. Akita Prefecture is rectangular in shape 181 km from north to south and 111 km from west to east; the Ōu Mountains mark the eastern border of the prefecture, the higher Dewa Mountains run parallel through the center of the prefecture.
Like much of northern Japan, the prefecture has cold winters away from the sea. The Oga Peninsula is a prominent feature of the coastline. Thirteen cities are located in Akita Prefecture: These are the towns and villages in each district: Like much of the Tōhoku Region, Akita's economy remains dominated by traditional industries, such as agriculture and forestry; this has led many young people to migrate to other large cities. Akita Prefecture is, it has the lowest number of children as a percentage of the population, at 11.2%. As of 2010, it has a population of just over 1 million people; the high rate of depopulation in Akita Prefecture has led to the merging of smaller communities, which has affected the smallest of the merged communities. As depopulation in these communities and the migration to larger communities continues and health facilities have closed in some areas, leading to the continuation of the migration of families to larger cities for better access to health and educational opportunities.
The decline in younger generations has led to concerns for sustaining rural communities facing issues of aging and depopulation. Akita is famous for its sake breweries, it is well known for having the highest consumption of sake in Japan, thought to be the origin of the Akita breed of dog which carries the prefecture's name. The women of the region, referred to as Akita bijin, have gained widespread renown for their white skin, rounded faces and high voices, all of which are considered desirable. Ono no Komachi is a famous example of an Akita bijin. Akita is known for the following regional specialties: Kiritanpo Nabe Gakko Rice – Akita komachi Sake Recently there have been efforts to revitalize rural communities facing depopulation with different forms of green tourism as well as agritourism; these efforts aim at urbanites and in some cases foreign tourists, advertising the pristine forests of Akita prefecture as well as its many intangible cultures and sprawling rice fields. In Akita there has been a push for home stays, farmers markets for locally produced foods, the integration of outsiders into local cultural practices, for example the Namahage ritual on New Year's Eve, which draws a large number of tourists to Akita Prefecture every year.
Near Lake Tazawa, there are a number of hot springs resorts. These are popular with tourists from all over Japan. In addition, its numerous seasonal festivals offer a glimpse of traditional Japan; some famous examples are the Akita Kantō, the Omagari Fireworks, Namahage Festival, the Yokote Kamakura Festivals. Kakunodate is a charming old town, known as the little Kyoto, full of preserved samurai houses; the Aoyagi house is the former residence of Odano Naotake, the man who illustrated Japan's first modern guide to the human anatomy. The house is now a gallery of medical illustrations and traditional crafts. Starting in 2009, Akita began experiencing a huge surge in Korean tourism after the airing of the popular drama Iris, which featured several scenes shot in Akita, most notably at Lake Tazawa and Oga's GAO Aquarium. Kariwano Big Tug Festival, Daisen Amekko Festival, Odate Kamakura Snow Statue Event, Yokote Tsuchizaki Shinmei Festival, Akita Akita Kanto Festival, Akita Nishimonai Bon Dancing Festival, Ugo Kemanai Bon Dancing Fe
Ōbuke Station is a railway station on the Hanawa Line in the city of Hachimantai, Iwate Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Ōbuke Station is served by the 106.9 km Hanawa Line, is located 9.0 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Kōma. Ōbuke Station has two ground-level opposed side platforms connected by a level crossing. The station has a Midori-no-madoguchi staffed ticket office. Ōbuke Station opened as a station serving the village of Ōbuke. The station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987. A new station structure was built, opening on 23 February 2018, allowing free access between either side of the station. In fiscal 2015, the station was used by an average of 269 passengers daily. National Route 282 Ōbuke Post Office Hachimantai City Hall List of railway stations in Japan Official website
Takizawa Station is a railway station on the Iwate Ginga Railway Line in the city of Takizawa, Iwate Prefecture, operated by the third-sector railway operator Iwate Ginga Railway Company. Takizawa Station is served by the Iwate Ginga Railway Line, is located 12.2 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Morioka Station, 547.5 kilometers from Tokyo Station. Trains of the JR East Hanawa Line, which terminates at Kōma continue on to Morioka Station, stopping at all intermediate stations, including Takisawa Station. Takizawa Station has one island platform and one side platform serving three tracks, connected to the station building by a footbridge; the station is staffed. A special fenced area for rail enthusiasts and photographers, called "Takizawa Station Train Spotters", was set up at the south end of platform 2/3 on 14 October 2017. Takizawa Station opened on 21 January 1906; the station building was rebuilt in September 1967. The station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987, was transferred to the Iwate Ginga Railway on 1 September 2002.
In fiscal 2015, the station was used by an average of 3,095 passengers daily. Iwate Prefectural University Morioka University List of railway stations in Japan Official website
The Hanawa Line is a railway line in Japan linking Kōma Station in Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Ōdate Station in Ōdate, Akita Prefecture, Japan. The line extends 106.9 km with a total of 27 stations. Known as the Towada-Hachimantai Shikisai Line, the Hanawa Line is operated by East Japan Railway Company. Legend Rapid: Hachimantai Rapid ● - Stop ▲ - Koma-bound trains only stop ｜ - Pass ◇, ∨, ∧ - Trains can pass each other at this station ◆ - Trains can pass each other at this switchback ｜ - Trains cannot pass The Japanese Government Railways opened the Kōma to Tairadate section on 27 August 1922, extended the line in sections from November 1926, reaching Rikuchu-Osato on 17 October 1931. List of railway lines in Japan