A preschool known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school. It may be publicly or operated, may be subsidized from public funds. Terminology varies by country. In some European countries the term "kindergarten" refers to formal education of children classified as ISCED level 0 - with one or several years of such education being compulsory - before children start primary school at ISCED level 1; the following terms may be used for educational establishments for this age group: Pre-Primary from 6 weeks old to 6 years old- is an educational childcare service a parent can enroll their child in before primary school. May be used to define services for children younger than kindergarten age in countries where kindergarten is compulsory; the Pre-Primary program takes place in a Nursery School. Nursery School from 0 months to 5 years old- is a pre-primary educational child care institution which includes Preschool.
Daycare from 0 months to 2½ years old- held in a Nursery School, but can be called "a child care service" or a "crèche". Preschool from 3 to 4 years old- held in a Nursery School. Preschool education is important and beneficial for any child attending nursery school because it gives the child a head start through social interactions. Through Cognitive and Physical developments based learning a child in preschool will learn about their environment and how to verbal communicate with others. Children who attend Preschool learns how the world works around them through communication. During this school year children will learn how to properly express themselves, communicate with their classroom, follow classroom rules, proper hygiene and how to sleep during naptime, they will learn simple English like how to identify all the letters in the alphabet, write their full name, the beginnings of phonics and how to trace all the letters in the alphabet. In Math class they will learn how to identify basic shapes, recognize size difference, count to 100, how to trace numbers 1-10 and simple adding & subtracting.
In Science class they do simple things learning the name's of different types of weather, the names of the season and animals name, environmental habits & sounds. In Social Studies they'll learn about places that teenager or adult see/visit in everyday life, how things work in certain public places and what are the names & jobs of the people who work in our communities. During recesses-playtime-lunchtime, children will interact with their peers playing dress-up, interacting on the playground, eating lunch/snack together and how to play certain games with others. Children can express themselves creativity during Arts & Crafts class by learning the names of the colors, creating an craft projects using their imagination, listening to music and learning the different sounds of an instrument; some nursery schools do immersion programs or dual language programs were a child can learn to understand and speak different languages at this age too. *By the end of preschool children will know how to recite their full name, home phone number, know their parents/guardian full name, the names of the days of the week & month.
Pre-K from 4 to 5 years old- held in Nursery School and is an initiative to improve access to pre-primary schools for children in the USA. There is much more than teaching a child colors, shapes and so on; the children need to learn how to follow rules, feed themselves with minimal assistance, learning how hygiene skills, learn how to use the bathroom without needing as much help. The teachers are there to help guide children into the right path making sure he/she is sharing, retaining information learned in the classroom and helping make sure the child becomes be a model citizen by teaching them to treat others with respect & kindness. In Pre-K children will recap all that they learned in Preschool and expand on what they know. In English class children will learn basic phonics on how to sound out words, how to write their name, write all the letters in the alphabet and how to read & write simple sight words. In Math class children will learn how to tell time, learn all the 2D/3D shapes, count into 3-digits numbers, be able to add & subtract 2 digit numbers, count by ones, tens and what is a minute, hour, day and year is.
In Social Studies class they will have to be able to identify places on a map such as the country they live in, the name os the continents, learn the names of different ethnic-racial groups, their cultures & customs and where people originate on the map. In Science class they learn how weather works and impacts the environment, how food is harvested and how it gets to the supermarket, how to plant seeds in a garden, reduce/reuse/recycle, how to group animals based on habit and environment on a map. During recesses-playtime-lunchtime children learn how to follow step by step instructions in many extra curricular activities, use their imagination to problem solve puzzles or during a game, play dress up to create stories, learn how to share with others. Children can express themselves creatively during Arts & Crafts time by learning about secondary colors, using their imagination to create step-by-step art projects, doing certain dances to music, reading music to play an instrument. By the end of Pre-K the child should have the basic knowledge to enter Kindergarten and excel and shoul
Cadet college is a special military school system of British India and Pakistan. This system was first established in the pre-Partition, pre-Independence era in order to support the push to indigenise the officer corps of the British Indian Army, a reward to the social classes that had provided loyal support for the British Empire's war efforts in the 1914-1918 First World War and which in return expected greater opportunities for participation at higher levels; the first to be established was the Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College in March 1922 at Doon Valley, in Punjab Province following the severe difficulties in acceptance and adjustment faced by the first batch of South Asian cadets sent directly to Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in England. RIMC was lost with the partition of the country and the army in August 1947 and became the Indian Republic's Rashtriya Indian Military College; the first cadet college to be built by the newly established Pakistan Army was the Punjab Cadet College Hasanabdal, Attock District in Punjab in 1954.
Faujdarhat Cadet College was built in Chittagong East Pakistan in 1958. In 1922 the British Indian Army established the King George Royal Indian Military Schools at Jhelum and Jalandhar cantonments in Punjab Province for the separate purpose of providing education to the sons of the enlisted men and Other Ranks of the Army. Schools opened between 1925-1930 at Jhelum and Ajmer. In 1945 two more King George Royal Indian Military Colleges were started at Belgaum and Bangalore by King George VI. After independence and partition the Jhelum campus was upgraded to the status of a military college and is known as Military College Jhelum; the expansion of the Pakistan armed forces, the broadening of the social base of its officers corps from the 1960s onwards has led to the expansion in the number of cadet colleges and their distribution around the country. The Pakistan Armed Forces that act as feeder schools for the services officer training academies of the Pakistan Army and Air Force, it was first introduced by Ayub Khan military ruler of Pakistan.
On in late 90's many private Cadet Colleges were made by Pakistani citizens to stand and collaborate with Pakistan armed forces in order to provide pre military academia training to the youth of Pakistan. Most of the managed Cadet College are registered by Pakistan Armed Forces. Renowned Cadet College in private sector include Cadet College Fateh Jang, Cadet College Kallar Kahar, Cadet College Jhelum and Cadet College Rawalpindi In Eastern Pakistan the first cadet college was established in 1958, with three more cadet colleges were established between 1958 and 1964. No more cadet colleges were established after 1964 and after the independence of Bangladesh, the report of the first Education Commission headed by Qudrat-e-Khuda, recommended the dismantling of the cadet colleges, they are intended to prepare young students from a broad range of socioeconomic and linguistic backgrounds to pass the demanding physical, educational and behavioural standards of the Inter Services Selection Board. This is distinct from the purpose of regular cantonment schools intended to educate the children of service members.
The schools are overseen by the Joint Staff Headquarters of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Elementary school (United States)
An elementary school is the main point of delivery of primary education in the United States, for children between the ages of 4–11 and coming between pre-kindergarten and secondary education. In 2001, there were 92,858 elementary schools in the United States, a figure which includes all schools that teach students from grade one through grade eight. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in the fall of 2017 35.6 million students attended public primary schools. It is from kindergarten through fifth grade. Primary education tends to focus on basic academic learning and socialization skills, introducing children to the broad range of knowledge and behavioral adjustment they need to succeed in life – and in secondary school. In general, a student learns basic arithmetic and sometimes rudimentary algebra in mathematics, English proficiency, fundamentals of other subjects. Learning standards are identified for all areas of a curriculum by individual states, including those for mathematics, social studies, physical development, the fine arts, reading.
While the concept of state learning standards has been around for some time, the No Child Left Behind Act has mandated that standards exist at the state level. Basic subjects are taught in elementary school, students remain in one classroom throughout the school day, except for physical education, library and art classes; the curriculum in public elementary education is determined by individual school districts. The school district selects curriculum guides and textbooks that reflect a state's learning standards and benchmarks for a given grade level; the broad topic of social studies may include key events, documents and concepts in American history, geography, in some programs, state or local history and geography. Topics included under the broader term "science" vary from the physical sciences such as physics and chemistry, through the biological sciences such as biology and physiology. There is much discussion within educational circles about the justification and impact of having curricula that place greater emphasis on those topics that are tested for improvement.
The teaching of social studies and science are underdeveloped in elementary school programs. Some attribute this to the fact. Reading and math proficiency affect performance in social studies and other content areas. Most, if not all, teachers are held accountable for testing scores towards the end of the academic year; because of this pressure, it compromises the pedagogy of teachers and the extent of teaching other subjects. Moreover, it is reported that the accountability that teachers are faced with contradicts their pedagogy resulting in teaching students in ways they don’t consider professional and successful; this new unwanted adjustment in pedagogy, when narrowing down the extent to which teachers teach other subjects, leads them to emphasize on the specific test-worthy information, to appear in multiple choice standardized tests. The enormous amount of information that students need, tend, to memorize for these multiple-choice tests, neglects them from material that involves critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
In American writer and activist, Jonathan Kozol’s book, “Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America”, he reinforces this matter when he describes this type of pedagogy as having “no theatricality”. Although standardized testing allows for comparisons in regards to student achievement throughout a diverse number of schools, the pressure that teachers obtain for the accountability of high testing scores negatively affects students and their future lifelong skills. Elementary School teachers are trained with emphases on human cognitive and psychological development and the principles of curriculum development and instruction. Teachers earn either a Bachelors or master's degree in Early Childhood and Elementary Education. Certification standards for teachers are determined by individual states, with individual colleges and universities determining the rigor of the college education provided for future teachers; some states require content area tests, as well as instructional skills tests for teacher certification in that state.
Public Elementary School teachers instruct between twenty and thirty students of diverse learning needs. A typical classroom will include children with a range of learning needs or abilities, from those identified as having special needs of the kinds listed in the Individuals with Disabilities Act IDEA to those that are cognitively, athletically or artistically gifted. Teachers use a variety of ways to teach, with a focus on getting pupils attention. Humor is sometimes used. Cartoons, for example, can capture ideas in one image. A study of seven industrialized nations found that in 2006, the average starting salary of American public primary school teachers with minimum qualifications was $34,900. In this regard the United States was second only to Germany; the 2007 a survey conducted by the American Federation of Teachers reported that the average salary for an American teacher was $51,009.
Pre-kindergarten is a classroom-based preschool program for children below the age of five in the United States and Turkey. It may be delivered within a reception year in elementary school. Pre-kindergartens play an important role in early childhood education, they have existed in the US since 1922 run by private organizations. The U. S. Head Start program, the country's first federally funded pre-kindergarten program, was founded in 1967; this attempts to prepare children to succeed in school. The term "pre-kindergarten" is used interchangeably with the concepts of "nursery care" and "child care", they could involve academic training, or they could involve socializing activities. Pre-kindergartens differentiate themselves from other child care by focusing on building a child's social development, physical development, emotional development, cognitive development, they follow a set of organization-created teaching standards in shaping curriculum and instructional activities and goals. The term "preschool" more approximates the name "pre-kindergarten", for both focus on harvesting the same four child development areas in subject-directed fashion.
The term "preschool" refers to such schools that are owned and operated as private or parochial schools. Pre-kindergartens refer to such school classrooms that function within a public school under the supervision of a public school administrator and funded by state or federally allocated funds, private donations. Most school districts describe Pre-Kindergarten as "an early learning program to prepare children for kindergarten who are identified as at risk". Pre-kindergarten provides learning to children who are 4 years old on or before September 1. Preschool provides learning to children who are 3 years olds on or before September 1. Most programs are 3 hours but extended day is offered in some schools. "K-2" is used interchangeably with "pre-kindergarten". Although early childhood education experts criticize the use of the term as a way to rationalize utilizing a kindergarten model and teaching kindergarten skills in pre-kindergarten classes, public school districts continue to incorporate the term as a way to integrate pre-kindergarten into the stable of accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act.
In 2013, Michigan and the city of San Antonio, enacted or expanded Pre-K programs. In New York City, mayor Bill de Blasio was elected on a pledge of Pre-K for all city children. A poll conducted in July for an early education nonprofit advocate found that 60 percent of registered Republicans and 84 percent of Democrats supported expanding public preschool by raising the federal tobacco tax. Funding for Pre-K has proven a substantial obstacle for expanding programs; the issue produced multiple approaches. Several governors and mayors targeted existing budgets. San Antonio increased sales taxes, while Maine look to gambling. In Oregon 20% of kids have access to publicly funded Pre-K of any kind, a 2016 campaign is working to fund Pre-K to 12 education, for all kids whose parents want them to have the option of Pre-K. A 2012 review by the National Institute for Early Education Research at Rutgers University identified Oklahoma and West Virginia as among the leaders in public program quality and fraction of enrolled children.
Florida had the highest enrollment in 2012 — four-fifths of all four-year-olds. About 84 percent were in religion-based or family centers; that state's preschool programs did not fare well on quality measures. Other states with more than 50 percent enrollment included Wisconsin, Iowa and Vermont. Florida was one of the first states to establish free prekindergarten; the programs offer a jump start to young children on their education. The program is open to all 4 and 5-year-olds who reside in Florida and have birthdays before September 1st of the current school year. Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten gives each child an opportunity to perform better in school and in the future. A strong emphasis is put on literacy skills and smaller class sizes; these high-quality programs aid children in becoming strong readers and improving social and developmental skills. There are several different programs for parents to choose from, they differentiate in class size, instructional hours, teacher credentials. Florida VPK programs offer specialized instruction for children with special needs.
Benefits of the VPK program include better behavior, preparation for Kindergarten, a promoted love of learning for children. The skills children learn at home are enhanced by Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten. A 2018 study in the Journal of Public Economics found in Italy that pre-kindergarten "increased mothers' participation in the labor market and lowered the reservation wage of the unemployed, thus increasing their likelihood of finding a job" but "did not affect children's cognitive development, irrespective of their family background."Pre-Kindergarten gives each child an opportunity to perform better in school and in the future. A strong emphasis is put on literacy skills and smaller class sizes; these programs aid children in becoming strong readers and improving social and developmental skills. There are several different programs for parents to choose from, they differentiate in class size, instructional hours, teacher credentials. Select programs offer specialized instruction for
Primary education called an elementary education is the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education. Primary education takes place in a primary school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by middle school, an educational stage which exists in some countries, takes place between primary school and high school. Primary Education in Australia consists of grades foundation to grade 6. In the United States, primary education is Grades 1 - 3 and elementary education consists of grades 1-6; the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 2 was to achieve universal primary education by the year 2015, by which time their aim was to ensure that all children everywhere, regardless of race or gender, will be able to complete primary schooling. Due to the fact that the United Nations focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, as they are both home to the vast majority of children out of school, they hypothesized that they might not have been able to reach their goal by 2015.
According to the September 2010 fact sheet, this was because there were still about 69 million school-age children who were not in school with half of the demographic in sub-Saharan Africa and more than a quarter in Southern Asia. In order to achieve the goal by 2015, the United Nations estimated that all children at the official entry age for primary school would have had to have been attending classes by 2009; this would depend upon the duration of the primary level, as well as how well the schools retain students until the end of the cycle. Not only was it important for children to be enrolled in education, but countries will have needed to ensure that there are a sufficient number of teachers and classrooms to meet the demand of pupils; as of 2010, the number of new teachers needed in sub-Saharan Africa alone, equaled the current teaching force in the region. However, the gender gap for children not in education had been narrowed. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of girls not in education worldwide had decreased from 57 percent to 53 percent, however it should be noted that in some regions, the percentage had increased.
According to the United Nations, there are many things in the regions that have been accomplished. Although enrollment in the sub-Saharan area of Africa continues to be the lowest region worldwide, by 2010 "it still increased by 18 percentage points—from 58 percent to 76 percent—between 1999 and 2008." There was progress in both Southern Asia and North Africa, where both areas saw an increase in enrollment, For example, In Southern Asia, this had increased by 11 percent and in North Africa by 8 percent- over the last decade. Major advances had been made in the poorest of countries like the abolition of primary school fees in Burundi where there was an increase in primary-school enrollment which reached 99 percent as of 2008. Tanzania experienced a similar outcome; the country doubled its enrollment ratio over the same period. Moreover, other regions in Latin America such as Guatemala and Nicaragua, Zambia in Southern Africa "broke through the 90 percent towards greater access to primary education."
1st grade: 6 to 7 years old 2nd grade: 7 to 8 years old 3rd grade: 8 to 9 years old 4th grade: 9 to 10 years old 5th grade: 10 to 11 years old 6th grade: 11 to 12 years old 7th grade: 12 to 13 years old 8th grade: 13 to 14 years old 9th grade: 14 to 15 years old crèche École maternelle toute petite section Cycle I petite section moyenne section grande section Cycle II grande section École primaire CP CE1 Cycle III CE2 CM1 CM2 SecondaryCollège Brevet diploma Lycée Baccalauréat diploma In Somalia, pupils start primary school when they are 7 and finish it at the age of 11 starting from form 1 to form 4. Pupils must firstly have attended casual school known as dugsi and learnt the Muslim holy book Qur'an, the meaning of the Arabic language. Pupils who had not done this are not permitted to start primary school as they will be examined before starting. Pupils' age may sometimes vary seeing that some pupils achieve higher than their predicted grade and may skip the year while some require to repeat the year if they had not achieved the grade required from them.
After finishing primary, students move to intermediate school. In Tunisia pre-school education is optional and provided in three settings: Kindergartens:socio-educational institutions that come under the supervision of Ministry of culture. Kouttabs:religious institutions cater for children between 3 and 5 years of age, their task is to initiate them into learning the Quran as well as reading and arithmetic. They are under the supervision of the Ministry of Religious Affairs Preparatory year: It is an integral part of basic education but it is not compulsory, it is supervised by the Ministry of Education and is provided in public and quasi-public primary schools 9 years of basic education are compulsory. Kindergarten: 5–6 years 1st grade: 6–7 years 2nd grade: 7–8 years 3rd grade: 8–9 years 4th grade: 9–10 years 5th grade: 10–11 years 6th grade: 11–12 years 7th grade: 12–13 years 8th grade: 13–14 years 9th grade: 14–15 years In Hong Kong, students attend primary schools for the first six years of compuls
Upper division college
An upper division college is a type of educational institution that traces its roots to educational ideas put forward in the late 19th and early 20th century. They were developed in the United States during the 1960s in response to the growing number of community college students seeking to continue their education, they differ from a regular college or university in that they do not provide the first two years of undergraduate instruction and require applicants to have completed two years of study at another institution. In the late 19th and early 20th century, educational leaders such as William R. Harper and David Starr Jordan sought to separate the preparatory portion of college studies from "real" university work undertaken in the third and fourth years of study. Jordan president of Stanford University, proposed splitting the institution into two parts in 1907 to reach this goal, however changes the California secondary school system halted this proposal. Upper division colleges were first established as mainstream institutions in the 1950s in the United States as a means to respond to the need for educated professionals to assist in the space race.
While earlier efforts had been undertaken at the University of Georgia in 1858, they failed due to the onset of the Civil War. The first upper division college was the College of the Pacific in Stockton, which operated as an upper-division college between 1935 and 1951, before becoming the University of the Pacific in 1961; this was done as part of a plan to reduce costs and increase enrollment by subletting college facilities to a high school which assumed public junior college status and funding. However, disagreements between the College of the Pacific and the affiliated junior college, as well as accreditation issues resulting from the arrangement, led to the abandonment of the experiment in 1951; the first college founded as an upper division college was University of Michigan–Flint, founded in 1956 as Flint College, however it converted to four year status in 1965 as a result of changes in the development of the region. Another notable early upper division college was Florida Atlantic University, which opened in 1964 and served third and fourth year undergraduate students, as well as graduate students.
In 1984, Florida Atlantic expanded to include first and second year undergraduates and ceased to be an upper division college. At the time they were created, upper division colleges were seen as a way to better manage community resources and provide opportunities for students, it was thought that separating the upper division from the lower division of coursework would improve the relationship between undergraduate and graduate programs. Additionally, some believed that by creating 2+2 programs between community colleges and upper division colleges, students could continue their education without the state needing to expand existing community colleges into full four year colleges; some commentators at the time saw the widespread development of upper division schools, in the same way community colleges had expanded in the prior decades. By the 1980s and 1990s, many states began to move away from the upper-division model. Despite concerns of crowding out of community colleges, it was felt that offering only the upper-level courses resulted in a poor public image and prevented the establishment of a full university setting.
Many of the students seeking to transfer from a community college desired a full college experience, including electives and extra-curricular activities. The inability to reach a large critical mass prevented the upper division colleges from competing with four year colleges; some upper-division colleges such as the City University of New York's Richmond College merged with community colleges, while others such as Florida Atlantic and SUNY Institute of Technology opened their doors to freshman and sophomore undergraduates. As of 2009 few upper-division colleges remain in the United States, with all merging with community colleges or converting to four year status
A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree with a high grade point average. A distinction is made between graduate schools and professional schools, which offer specialized advanced degrees in professional fields such as medicine, business, speech-language pathology, or law; the distinction between graduate schools and professional schools is not absolute, as various professional schools offer graduate degrees and vice versa. Many universities award graduate degrees. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and used elsewhere, "postgraduate education" is used in English-speaking countries to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree; those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students", or in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates and professional degrees.
Producing original research is a significant component of graduate studies in the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. This research leads to the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. In graduate programs that are oriented towards professional training, the degrees may consist of coursework, without an original research or thesis component; the term "graduate school" is North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not refer to medical school, only refers to law school or business school. Graduate students in the humanities and social sciences receive funding from the school and/or a teaching assistant position or other job. Although graduate school programs are distinct from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction is offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments who teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is less common for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level.
At the Ph. D. level, though, it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study, for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions denote other divisions. Graduate degrees in Brazil are called "postgraduate" degrees, can be taken only after an undergraduate education has been concluded". Lato sensu graduate degrees: degrees that represent a specialization in a certain area, take from 1 to 2 years to complete. Sometimes it can be used to describe a specialization level between a master's degree and a MBA. In that sense, the main difference is that the Lato Sensu courses tend to go deeper into the scientific aspects of the study field, while MBA programs tend to be more focused on the practical and professional aspects, being used more to Business and Administration areas. However, since there are no norms to regulate this, both names are used indiscriminately most of the time.
Stricto sensu graduate degrees: degrees for those who wish to pursue an academic career. Masters: 2 years for completion. Serves as additional qualification for those seeking a differential on the job market, or for those who want to pursue a PhD. Most doctoral programs in Brazil require a master's degree, meaning that a Lato Sensu Degree is insufficient to start a doctoral program. Doctors / PhD: 3–4 years for completion. Used as a stepping stone for academic life. In Canada, the Schools and Faculties of Graduate Studies are represented by the Canadian Association of Graduate Studies or Association canadienne pour les études supérieures; the Association brings together 58 Canadian universities with graduate programs, two national graduate student associations, the three federal research-granting agencies and organizations having an interest in graduate studies. Its mandate is to promote and foster excellence in graduate education and university research in Canada. In addition to an annual conference, the association prepares briefs on issues related to graduate studies including supervision and professional development.
Admission to a master's program requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades ranging from B+ and higher, recommendations from professors. Some schools require samples of the student's writing as well as a research proposal. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are requir