Bikaner is a city in the northwest of the state of Rajasthan, India. It is located 330 kilometres northwest of Jaipur. Bikaner city is the administrative headquarters of Bikaner division; the capital of the princely state of Bikaner, the city was founded by Rao Bika in 1488 and from its small origins it has developed into the fourth largest city in Rajasthan. The Ganges Canal, completed in 1928, the Indira Gandhi Canal, completed in 1987, facilitated its development; the city celebrates its foundation day on Akshaya Tritiya by flying kites and eating special Rajasthani food that includes Bajre Ka Khichda and Imli ka Paani among other snacks. The celebration lasts for two days, known as Badi Akha Teej. People can be seen flying kites during these two days right from the early morning at 5-6am till late sunset. Prior to the mid 15th century, the region, now Bikaner was a barren wilderness called Jangladesh. Rao Bika established the city of Bikaner in 1488, he was the first son of Maharaja Rao Jodha of the Rathore clan, the founder of Jodhpur and conquered the arid country in the north of Rajasthan.
As the first son of Jodha he wanted to have his own kingdom, not inheriting Jodhpur from his father or the title of Maharaja. He therefore decided to build his own kingdom in what is now the state of Bikaner in the area of Jangladesh. Though it was in the Thar Desert, Bikaner was considered an oasis on the trade route between Central Asia and the Gujarat coast as it had adequate spring water. Bika's name was attached to the state of Bikaner that he established. Bika built a fort in 1478, now in ruins, a hundred years a new fort was built about 1.5 km from the city centre, known as the Junagarh Fort. Around a century after Rao Bika founded Bikaner, the state's fortunes flourished under the sixth Raja, Rai Singhji, who ruled from 1571 to 1611. During the Mughal Empire's rule in the country, Raja Rai Singh accepted the suzerainty of the Mughals and held a high rank as an army general at the court of the Emperor Akbar and his son the Emperor Jahangir. Rai Singh's successful military exploits, which involved winning half of Mewar kingdom for the Empire, won him accolades and rewards from the Mughal emperors.
He was given the jagirs of Burhanpur. With the large revenue earned from these jagirs, he built the Chintamani durg on a plain which has an average elevation of 760 feet, he was an expert in arts and architecture, the knowledge he acquired during his visits abroad is amply reflected in the numerous monuments he built at the Junagarh fort. Maharaja Karan Singh, who ruled from 1631 to 1639, under the suzerainty of the Mughals, built the Karan Mahal palace. Rulers added more floors and decorations to this Mahal. Anup Singh ji, who ruled from 1669 to 1698, made substantial additions to the fort complex, with new palaces and the Zenana quarter, a royal dwelling for women and children, he called it the Anup Mahal. Maharaja Gaj Singh, who ruled from 1746 to 1787 refurbished the Chandra Mahal. During the 18th century, there was internecine war between the rulers of Bikaner and Jodhpur and amongst other thakurs, put down by British troops. Following Maharaja Gaj Singh, Maharaja Surat Singh ruled from 1787 to 1828 and lavishly decorated the audience hall with glass and lively paintwork.
Under a treaty of paramountcy signed in 1818, during Maharaja Surat Singh's reign, Bikaner came under the suzerainty of the British, after which the Maharajas of Bikaner invested in refurbishing Junagarh fort. Dungar Singh, who reigned from 1872 to 1887, built the Badal Mahal, the'weather palace', so named in view of a painting of clouds and falling rain, a rare event in arid Bikaner. General Maharaja Ganga Singh, who ruled from 1887 to 1943, was the best-known of the Rajasthan princes and was a favourite of the British Viceroys of India, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India, served as a member of the Imperial War Cabinet, represented India at the Imperial Conferences during the First World War and the British Empire at the Versailles Peace Conference. His contribution to the building activity in Junagarh involved separate halls for public and private audiences in the Ganga Mahal and a durbar hall for formal functions, he built the Ganga Niwas Palace, which has towers at the entrance patio.
This palace was designed by the third of the new palaces built in Bikaner. He named the building Lalgarh Palace in honour of his father and moved his main residence there from Junagarh Fort in 1902; the hall where he held his Golden Jubilee as Bikaner's ruler is now a museum. Ganga Singh's son, Lieutenant-General Sir Sadul Singh, the Yuvaraja of Bikaner, succeeded his father as Maharaja in 1943, but acceded his state to the Union of India in 1949. Maharaja Sadul Singh died in 1950, being succeeded in the title by Karni Singh; the Royal Family still lives in a suite in Lalgarh Palace, which they have converted into a heritage hotel. Bikaner is situated in the middle of the Thar desert and has a hot semi-arid climate with little rainfall and extreme temperatures. In summer temperatures can exceed 48°C, during the winter they may dip below freezing; the climate in Bikaner is characterised by significant variations in temperature. In the summer season it is hot when the temperatures lie in the range of 28–53.5 °C.
In the winter, it is cold with temperatures lying in the range of −4–23.2 °C (24.8–73
Kottayam is a city in the Indian state of Kerala. It is the administrative capital of Kottayam district, located in south-west Kerala, it had a population of 136,812 in the city's administrative limits according to the 2011 census. Kottayam is 146 km north of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala's capital city, it was known as ‘Cotym’ and ‘Cottayam’ during the British Raj. It hence called Akshara Nagari or Land of Letters. Many of the first Malayalam dailies like Deepika, Malayala Manorama, Mangalam were started and are headquartered in Kottayam. Headquarters of The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church is situated at Devalokam, Kottayam. During the British period, various missionaries, the Christian churches and St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara himself established many schools and other educational institutions in and around the city. Kottayam city is known as Chuvarchithra Nagari. Kottayam is known as the city of'Letters and Latex'. Kottayam district gets its name from the town of Kottayam, which serves as the headquarters of the district.
The royal house of the Thekkumkoor ruler were protected by a fort called Thaliyilkotta. It is believed that the name Kottayam is derived from a combination of the Malayalam words kotta which means fort and akam which means inside combining it become kottaykkakam, it can be translated as "the interior of the fort". From the beginning of the ninth century AD, the history of Thekkumkoor and of Kottayam are indistinguishable. Kottayam was a part of Vempolinad, an area in the Kulashekara Empire. By about 1100 AD, the Kingdom of Vempolinad had split into the Kingdoms of Thekkumkur and Vadakkumkur. After their separation, Thekkumkur became an independent kingdom, while Vedakkumkur became a vassal of Cochin; the royal house situated in Vennimala in Kottayam. It was protected by a fort known as Thaliyilkotta and as a result the locality came to be known in the same name as the fort. On a stage, Thekkumkoor kings shifted their headquarters to Nattassery near Kumaranallore at the outskirts of Kottayam town.
It is believed that the Thekkumkoor family ruled Kottayam from Thazhathangadi. The Portuguese and the Dutch established trade relations with both these kingdoms, dealing in black pepper and other spices. After the subjugation of the Dutch by Travancore in 1742, military operations of Marthanda Varma progressed against the northern neighbouring kingdoms including Thekkumkoor. Though Thekkumkoor allied with Chempakassery and Vadakkumkoor to protect the kingdom, all of them were annexed to Travancore. Another source states that the ruler of Thekkumkur had sided first with the Kingdom of Kayamkulam and with the principality of Ambalapuzha against Travancore under Marthanda Varma. After the fall of Ambalapuzha, as the ruler of Thekkumkoorr refused to come to terms with Travancore, his capital city was taken on 11 September in 1750 by Ramayyan Dalawa, the general and prime minister of Marthanda Varma and the state was annexed to Travancore in 1753. During British rule in India, Kottayam remained a part of the Princely State of Travancore.
There existed no institution in the princely state of Travancore before the 1800s. The Church Missionary Society of England established the CMS College the first college in India. Rev. Benjamin Bailey was the first principal of the CMS College, as it was known, the government of India welcomed the college as "a place of general education hence any demands of the state for officers to fill all departments of public service would be met" Kottayam has played its role in all the political agitations of modern times. The'Malayali Memorial' agitation may be said to have had its origin in Kottayam; the Malayali Memorial sought to secure better representation for educated Travancoreans in the Travancore civil service against persons from outside. The Memorial, presented to the Maharaja Sri Moolam Thirunal was drafted at a public meeting held in the Kottayam Public Library; the event marked the beginning of the modern political movement in the State. The people of Kottayam played a major role during the Abstention Movement in the 1930s, which aimed at the representation of Hindus of the lower castes, in the Travancore Legislature.
The Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 against untouchability, led by Mahatma Gandhi, took place in Vaikom near Kottayam. Kottayam became a revenue division of Travancore. A fifth division, existed for a short period but was added to Kottayam. At the time of the integration of the State of Travancore and Cochin in 1949, these revenue divisions were renamed as districts and the Diwan Peshkars gave way to District Collectors; as a result, in July 1949, Kottayam came into being as a district. Kottayam has an average elevation of 3 metres above sea level, and is situated in the basin of the Meenachil River and in the basin of the Vembanad backwaters, which are formed from several streams in the Western Ghats in Idukki district. According to the division of places in Kerala based on altitudes, Kottayam is classified as being a midland area; the general soil type is alluvial soil. The vegetation is tropical evergreen and moist deciduous type; the climate in this district is pleasant. Kottayam's proximity to the equator results in little seasonal temperature variation, with moderate to high levels of humidity.
Annual temperatures range between 20 to 35 °C. From June through September, the south-west monsoon brings in heavy rains, as Kottayam lies on the windward side of the Western Ghats. From October to December, Kottayam receives light rain from the northwest monsoon; the average annual rainfall is 3,200 millimetres. Kottayam
Kathakali is one of the major forms of classical Indian dance. It is a "story play" genre of art, but one distinguished by the elaborately colorful make-up, costumes and facemasks that the traditionally male actor-dancers wear. Kathakali is a Hindu performance art in the Malayalam-speaking southwestern region of India. Kathakali's roots are unclear; the developed style of Kathakali originated around the 17th century, but its roots are in the temple and folk arts, which are traceable to at least the 1st millennium CE. A Kathakali performance, like all classical dance arts of India, synthesizes music, vocal performers and hand and facial gestures together to express ideas. However, Kathakali differs in that it incorporates movements from ancient Indian martial arts and athletic traditions of South India. Kathakali differs in that the structure and details of its art form developed in the courts and theatres of Hindu principalities, unlike other classical Indian dances which developed in Hindu temples and monastic schools.
The traditional themes of the Kathakali are folk mythologies, religious legends and spiritual ideas from the Hindu epics and the Puranas. The vocal performance has traditionally been performed in Sanskritised Malayalam. In modern compositions, Indian Kathakali troupes have included women artists, as well as adapted Western stories and plays such as those by Shakespeare; the term Kathakali is derived from Katha which means "story, or a conversation, or a traditional tale", Kali which means "performance and art". Elements and aspects of Kathakali can be found in ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Natya Shastra; the Natya Shastra is attributed to sage Bharata, its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE, but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE. The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters; the text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance, the theory of rasa, of bhāva, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances including Kathakali.
Dance and performance arts, states this ancient Hindu text, are a form of expression of spiritual ideas and the essence of scriptures. The roots of Kathakali are unclear. Jones and Ryan state. Kathakali emerged as a distinct genre of performance art during the 16th and 17th centuries in a coastal population of south India that spoke Malayalam; the roots of Kathakali, states Mahinder Singh, are some 1500 years old. According to Farley Richmond and other scholars, Kathakali shares many elements such as costumes with ancient Indian performance arts such as Kutiyattam and medieval era Krishnanattam though a detailed examination shows differences. Kutiyattam, adds Richmond, is "one of the oldest continuously performed theatre forms in India, it may well be the oldest surviving art form of the ancient world". Kutiyattam, was performed in theatres specially designed and attached to Hindu temples dedicated to the Shiva and to Krishna; the designs of these theatres matched the dimensions and architecture recommended as "ideal" in the ancient Natya Shastra, some of them could house 500 viewers.
Krishnanattam is the immediate precursor of Kathakali, states Zarrilli. Krishnanattam is dance-drama art form about the life and activities of Hindu god Krishna, that developed under the sponsorship of Sri Manavedan Raja, the ruler of Calicut; the traditional legend states that Kottarakkara Thampuran requested the services of a Krishnanattam troupe, but his request was denied. So Kottarakkara Thampuran created another art form based on Krishnanattam, called it Ramanattam because the early plays were based on the Hindu epic Ramayana, which over time diversified beyond Ramayana and became popular as'Kathakali'. Another related performance art is Ashtapadiyattom, a dance drama based on the Gita Govinda of the twelfth-century poet Jayadeva, told the story of Krishna embodied as a humble cowherd, his consort Radha, three cow girls. Kathakali incorporates several elements from other traditional and ritualistic art forms like Mudiyettu and Padayani besides folk arts such as Porattunatakam that shares ideas with the Tamil Terukkuthu tradition.
The south Indian martial art of Kalarippayattu has influenced Kathakali. Despite the links, Kathakali is different from temple-driven arts such as "Krishnanattam", Kutiyattam and others because unlike the older arts where the dancer-actor had to be the vocal artist, Kathakali separated these roles allowing the dancer-actor to excel in and focus on choreography while the vocal artists focused on delivering their lines. Kathakali expanded the performance repertoire and standardized the costume making it easier for the audience to understand the various performances and new plays. Kathakali is structured around plays called Attakatha, written in Sanskritized Malayalam; these plays are written in a particular format that helps identify the "action" and the "dialogue" parts of the performance. The Shloka part is the metrical verse, written in third person – entirely in Sanskrit - describing the action part of the choreography; the Pada part contains the dialogue part. These Attakatha texts grant considerable flexibility to the actors to improvise.
All these plays were derived from Hindu texts such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Bhagavata Purana. A Kathakali
United Nations General Assembly
The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, the main deliberative, policy-making, representative organ of the UN. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the UN, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General of the United Nations, receive reports from other parts of the UN, make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions, it has established numerous subsidiary organs. The General Assembly meets under its president or secretary-general in annual sessions at the headquarters of the United Nations in New York City, the main part of which lasts from September to December and part of January until all issues are addressed, it can reconvene for special and emergency special sessions. Its composition, powers and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter; the first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
Voting in the General Assembly on certain important questions, recommendations on peace and security, budgetary concerns, the election, suspension or expulsion of members is by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting. Other questions are decided by a straightforward majority; each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, including adoption of a scale of assessment, Assembly resolutions are not binding on the members; the Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security under Security Council consideration. The one state, one vote power structure allows states comprising just five percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote. During the 1980s, the Assembly became a forum for the "North-South dialogue:" the discussion of issues between industrialized nations and developing countries; these issues came to the fore because of the phenomenal growth and changing makeup of the UN membership.
In 1945, the UN had 51 members. It now has 193; because of their numbers, developing countries are able to determine the agenda of the Assembly, the character of its debates, the nature of its decisions. For many developing countries, the UN is the source of much of their diplomatic influence and the principal outlet for their foreign relations initiatives. Although the resolutions passed by the General Assembly do not have the binding forces over the member nations, pursuant to its Uniting for Peace resolution of November 1950, the Assembly may take action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of a permanent member, in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression; the Assembly can consider the matter with a view to making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain or restore international peace and security. The first session of the UN General Assembly was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
The next few annual sessions were held in different cities: the second session in New York City, the third in Paris. It moved to the permanent Headquarters of the United Nations in New York City at the start of its seventh regular annual session, on 14 October 1952. In December 1988, in order to hear Yasser Arafat, the General Assembly organized its 29th session in the Palace of Nations, in Geneva, Switzerland. All 193 members of the United Nations are members of the General Assembly, with the addition of Holy See and Palestine as observer states. Further, the United Nations General Assembly may grant observer status to an international organization or entity, which entitles the entity to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitations; the agenda for each session is planned up to seven months in advance and begins with the release of a preliminary list of items to be included in the provisional agenda. This is refined into a provisional agenda 60 days before the opening of the session.
After the session begins, the final agenda is adopted in a plenary meeting which allocates the work to the various Main Committees, who submit reports back to the Assembly for adoption by consensus or by vote. Items on the agenda are numbered. Regular plenary sessions of the General Assembly in recent years have been scheduled to be held over the course of just three months; the scheduled portions of the sessions commence on "the Tuesday of the third week in September, counting from the first week that contains at least one working day", per the UN Rules of Procedure. The last two of these Regular sessions were scheduled to recess three months afterwards in early December, but were resumed in January and extended until just before the beginning of the following sessions; the General Assembly votes on many resolutions brought forth by sponsoring states. These are statements symbolizing the sense of the international community about an array of world issues. Most General Assembly resolutions are not enforceable as a legal or practical matter, because the General Assembly lacks enforcement powers with respect to most issues.
The General Assembly has authority to make final decisions in some areas such
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Patiala State was a self-governing princely state of British Empire in India. Patiala was one of the Phulkian States; this state was Sidhu Jat State. When the British left India in 1947, they abandoned their subsidiary alliances with the princely states, the Maharajah of Patiala Yadvindra Singh acceded to the new Union of India. Patiala state was established in 1763 by Maharaja Ala Singh, a chieftain who laid the foundation of the Patiala fort known as Qila Mubarak, around'which the present city of Patiala is built. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated by the Afghans, the writ of the Afghans prevailed throughout Punjab, it is at this stage. The Patiala state saw more than forty years of ceaseless power struggle with the Afghan Durrani Empire, Maratha Empire and the Sikh Empire of Lahore. In 1808, the Maharaja of Patiala entered into a treaty with the British against Ranjit Singh of Lahore in 1808, thus becoming collaborator in the grand empire building process by the British in, the sub-continent of India.
Patiala became a 17-guns salute state during the British Raj. The rulers of Patiala such as Maharaja Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh and Yadvindra Singh were treated with respect and dignity by the British; the city of Patiala was designed and developed according to a plan akin to that of temple architecture, the first settlers of Patiala were the Hindus of Sirhind, who opened their business establishments outside the Darshani Gate. The royal house is now headed by Captain Amarinder Singh, the current Chief Minister of Punjab; the royals are considered political icons in east Punjab. Maharaja Karam Singh who ruled from 1813 to 1845 joined the British East India Company and helped the British during the First Anglo Sikh wars against the Sikh Empire of Maharajah Ranjit Singh of Punjab, larger and extended from Tibet Kashmir, plains of Punjab to Peshawar near the Afghan borders. Patiala gets name after the Sidhu Jat founder of Patiala state, it was earlier known as Pat-Ala.
This office became hereditary amongst his descendants until Phul, the Sikh ancestor of the dynasty, which came to rule over Patiala and Nabha. The history of Patiala state starts off with the ancestor of the Sikh Patiala Royal House, Mohan Singh being harassed by neighbouring Bhullars and Dhaliwals farmers, they would not allow Mohan to settle there. He was a follower of the Guru appealed on behalf of Mohan but to no avail; the result was an armed struggle and the Bhullars and Dhaliwals were defeated by the Guru's men, which allowed Mohan to establish the Village of Meharaj in 1627. Mohan Singh fought against the Mughals at the Battle of Mehraj 1631 on the side of Guru Hargobind Sahib. Mohan Singh and his eldest son Rup Chand were killed in a fight against the Bhatti's. Kala, Mohan's younger son succeeded the "chaudriyat", was guardian to Rup Chand's sons Phul and Sandali; when Kala Sidhu died, Phul formed his own village, five miles from Meharaj in 1663. Nabha and Jind trace their ancestry to the devout Sikh Phul.
It was one of the first Sikh Kingdoms of Punjab to be formed. The appellation of dynasty "Phulkian" is derived from their common founder. One of his sons, Chota Ram, was blessed by Guru Gobind Singh, his son Ala Singh assumed the leadership in 1714 when Banda Bahadur was engaged in the fierce battle against the Mughals. A man with vision and courage, Ala Singh's general, Gurbaksh Singh Kaleka, carved out an independent principality from a Zamindari of 30 villages. Under his successors, it expanded into a large state, touching the Shivaliks in north, Rajasthan in the south and upper courses of the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers while confronting the most trying and challenging circumstances. In the middle of the eighteenth century, Baba Ala Singh, unlike many of his contemporaries, displayed tremendous shrewdness in dealing with the Marathas and Afghans, established a state which he had started building up from its nucleus Barnala, he became traitor to the Sikhs, who made him a Sardar from a peasant and fought on the side of Ahmad Shah Abdali against the Sikhs.
In 1763 Baba Ala Singh laid the foundation of the Patiala fort known as Qila Mubarak, around which the present city of Patiala developed. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated, the writ of the Afghans prevailed throughout Punjab, it is at this stage. Ahmad Shah Abdali bestowed upon Ala Singh furm and banner, the title of Maharaja of Patiala. After his death, his grandson Amar Singh received the title of Raja-I-Rajaan, he was allowed to strike coins. After forty years of ceaseless struggle with the Marathas and Afghans, the borders of the Patiala state witnessed the blazing trails of Ranjit Singh in the north and of the British in the east. Bestowed with the grit and instinct of survival, making self-preservation a priority the Raja of Patiala entered into a treaty with the British against Ranjit Singh in 1808, thus becoming collaborators in the empire building process of the British in the sub-continent of India; the subsequent rulers of Patiala, such as Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh, Yadvindra Singh were parties to a subsidiary alliance and were influenced by the British, but retained the internal government of their state.