Birmingham is the second-most populous city in the United Kingdom, after London, the most populous city in the English Midlands. It is the most populous metropolitan district in the United Kingdom, with an estimated 1,137,123 inhabitants, is considered the social, cultural and commercial centre of the Midlands, it is the main local government of the West Midlands conurbation, the third most populated urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,897,303 in 2017. The wider Birmingham metropolitan area is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a population of over 4.3 million. It is referred to as the United Kingdom's "second city". A market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew in the 18th-century Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw advances in science and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society. By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world".
Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided an economic base for prosperity, to last into the final quarter of the 20th century. The Watt steam engine was invented in Birmingham; the resulting high level of social mobility fostered a culture of political radicalism which, under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain, was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, a pivotal role in the development of British democracy. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz; the damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive urban regeneration in subsequent decades. Birmingham's economy is now dominated by the service sector.
The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121.1bn, its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham's major cultural institutions – the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations, the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music and culinary scenes. Birmingham is the fourth-most. People from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the city's nickname of "Brum", which originates from the city's old name, which in turn is thought to have derived from "Bromwich-ham"; the Brummie accent and dialect are distinctive. Birmingham's early history is that of a marginal area; the main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. There is evidence of early human activity in the Birmingham area dating back to around 8000 BC, with stone age artefacts suggesting seasonal settlements, overnight hunting parties and woodland activities such as tree felling; the many burnt mounds that can still be seen around the city indicate that modern humans first intensively settled and cultivated the area during the bronze age, when a substantial but short-lived influx of population occurred between 1700 BC and 1000 BC caused by conflict or immigration in the surrounding area. During the 1st-century Roman conquest of Britain, the forested country of the Birmingham Plateau formed a barrier to the advancing Roman legions, who built the large Metchley Fort in the area of modern-day Edgbaston in AD 48, made it the focus of a network of Roman roads. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era.
The city's name comes from the Old English Beormingahām, meaning the home or settlement of the Beormingas – indicating that Birmingham was established in the 6th or early 7th century as the primary settlement of an Anglian tribal grouping and regio of that name. Despite this early importance, by the time of the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor of Birmingham was one of the poorest and least populated in Warwickshire, valued at only 20 shillings, with the area of the modern city divided between the counties of Warwickshire and Worcestershire; the development of Birmingham into a significant urban and commercial centre began in 1166, when the Lord of the Manor Peter de Bermingham obtained a charter to hold a market at his castle, followed this with the creation of a planned market town and seigneurial borough within his demesne or manorial estate, around the site that became the Bull Ring. This established Birmingham as the primary commercial centre for the Birmingham Plateau at a time when the area's economy was expanding with population growth nationally leading to the clearance and settlement of marginal land.
Within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years; the principal governing institutions of medieval Birmingham – including the Guild of the Ho
Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals
The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals is a professional body for librarians, information specialists and knowledge managers in the United Kingdom. Since 2017, it has been branded CILIP: The information association. CILIP in Scotland is an independent organisation which operates in Scotland on behalf of CILIP. CILIP's 2020 goal is to "put information and library skills and professional values at the heart of a democratic and prosperous society". CILIP was formed in 2002 by the merger of the Library Association – founded in 1877 as a result of the first International Conference of Librarians and awarded a Royal Charter in 1898 – and the Institute of Information Scientists, founded in 1958. Membership on unification was estimated at around 23,000. Sheila Corrall was the first President of CILIP, succeeded in 2003 by Margaret Watson. CILIP has its headquarters at London. CILIP is a registered charity CILIP launched a monthly journal, Information Professional in 2017, providing news and analysis.
This publication succeeded Library & Information Update, published from 2002 to 2017 and the Library Association Record published from 1899 to 2002. CILIP publications include Lisjobnet, Facet Publishing. CILIP hosts an annual conference for non-members. Past keynote speakers include Professor Luciano Floridi and Sir Nigel Shadbolt. CILIP works to raise the profile of the work of librarians and information professionals through campaigns, public affairs activity, awards and medals, as well as promoting best practice. Campaigns have included My Library By Right, Facts Matter, the annual Libraries Week campaign and Libraries Change Lives Award. CILIP awards the Kate Greenaway Medals for children's books. CILIP works in partnership to award the Amnesty CILIP Honour, a special commendation, part of the Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Medals. Special interest groups make their own awards, such as the Jason Farradane Award and Tony Kent Strix Award of UKeiG. There are over 20 special interest groups for members working with, for instance, rare books and prison libraries and a similar number of'organisations in liaison' with CILIP, such as Information for Social Change, the National Acquisitions Group, the Society of Indexers.
CILIP, in its previous incarnation as the Library Association, was a founder member of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions in 1927. CILIP accredits degree courses in library and information science at universities in the UK, as well as a number of overseas programmes in China, Hong Kong, Kuwait and Qatar. There are three levels of professional registration with corresponding postnominal letters: Certified Affiliate, suitable for paraprofessionals without an accredited qualification Chartered Member Chartered Fellow Honorary Fellowship, akin to an honorary degree, is granted to a small number of people who have rendered distinguished service to the profession. CILIP provides opportunities for continuing professional development and a self-assessment tool, the Professional Knowledge and Skills Base. Registered members may revalidate their registration annually. Membership of CILIP is not compulsory for practice; the following information on CILIP Membership numbers is taken from CILIP Council reports, with the exceptions of the estimates for 2002, 2003 and 2005.
Membership numbers for 2004 and 2006 are not available. The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals in Scotland is a charitable incorporated organisation affiliated to CILIP. All CILIP members working or living in Scotland are automatically members of CILIPS. Policy, operational matters and advocacy are devolved to CILIPS Council and staff. CILIPS works with the Scottish Library and Information Council, the advisory body for the Scottish Government on library and information matters. CILIP in Scotland was established as the Scottish Library Association in 1908 and affiliated with the Library Association in 1931; when CILIP was established in 2002, the Scottish Library Association voted to change its name to CILIPS. CILIPS published a professional journal, Information Scotland, between 2003 and 2009, which subsequently became a newsletter, IS News. CILIPS was involved in consultations with the Scottish Parliament for the development of the National Library of Scotland Bill 2011.
Munford, W. A. A History of The Library Association, 1877-1977 CILIP website Facet Publishing website Lisjobnet - Library and information jobs CILIP in Scotland website
Adventure fiction is fiction that presents danger, or gives the reader a sense of excitement. In the Introduction to the Encyclopedia of Adventure Fiction, Critic Don D'Ammassa defines the genre as follows:.. An adventure is an event or series of events that happens outside the course of the protagonist's ordinary life accompanied by danger by physical action. Adventure stories always move and the pace of the plot is at least as important as characterization and other elements of a creative work. D'Ammassa argues. Indeed, the standard plot of Medieval romances was a series of adventures. Following a plot framework as old as Heliodorus, so durable as to be still alive in Hollywood movies, a hero would undergo a first set of adventures before he met his lady. A separation would follow, with a second set of adventures leading to a final reunion. Variations kept the genre alive. From the mid-19th century onwards, when mass literacy grew, adventure became a popular subgenre of fiction. Although not exploited to its fullest, adventure has seen many changes over the years – from being constrained to stories of knights in armor to stories of high-tech espionages.
Examples of that period include Sir Walter Scott, Alexandre Dumas, père, Jules Verne, Brontë Sisters, H. Rider Haggard, Victor Hugo, Emilio Salgari, Louis Henri Boussenard, Thomas Mayne Reid, Sax Rohmer, Edgar Wallace, Robert Louis Stevenson. Adventure novels and short stories were popular subjects for American pulp magazines, which dominated American popular fiction between the Progressive Era and the 1950s. Several pulp magazines such as Adventure, Blue Book, Top-Notch, Short Stories specialized in this genre. Notable pulp adventure writers included Edgar Rice Burroughs, Talbot Mundy, Theodore Roscoe, Johnston McCulley, Arthur O. Friel, Harold Lamb, Carl Jacobi, George F. Worts, Georges Surdez, H. Bedford-Jones, J. Allan Dunn. Adventure fiction overlaps with other genres, notably war novels, crime novels, sea stories, spy stories, science fiction and Westerns. Not all books within these genres are adventures. Adventure fiction takes the setting and premise of these other genres, but the fast-paced plot of an adventure focuses on the actions of the hero within the setting.
With a few notable exceptions adventure fiction as a genre has been dominated by male writers, though female writers are now becoming common. Adventure stories written for children began in the 19th century. Early examples include Johann David Wyss' The Swiss Family Robinson, Frederick Marryat's The Children of the New Forest, Harriet Martineau's The Peasant and the Prince; the Victorian era saw the development of the genre, with W. H. G. Kingston, R. M. Ballantyne, G. A. Henty specializing in the production of adventure fiction for boys; this inspired writers who catered to adult audiences to essay such works, such as Robert Louis Stevenson writing Treasure Island for a child readership. In the years after the First World War, writers such as Arthur Ransome developed the adventure genre by setting the adventure in Britain rather than distant countries, while Geoffrey Trease, Rosemary Sutcliff and Esther Forbes brought a new sophistication to the historical adventure novel. Modern writers such as Mildred D. Taylor and Philip Pullman have continued the tradition of the historical adventure.
The modern children's adventure novel sometimes deals with controversial issues like terrorism and warfare in the Third World. Lost world Men's adventure Nautical fiction Picaresque novel Robinsonade Thriller War novel
Flambards (TV series)
Flambards was a television series of 13 episodes, broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1979 and in the United States in 1980. The series was based on the three Flambards novels of English author K. M. Peyton; the series is set from 1909 to 1918 and tells how the teenage heroine, the orphaned heiress Christina Parsons, comes to live at Flambards, the impoverished Essex estate owned by her crippled and tyrannical uncle, William Russell, his two sons and Will Russell. Other cast members included Sebastian Abineri as Dick Wright, Anton Diffring as Mr Dermott, Rosalie Williams as Mary and Frank Mills as Fowler. Four episodes were directed by Lawrence Gordon Clark, four others by Michael Ferguson. In 1980 Flambards was broadcast on American television by PBS who cut the series from 13 episodes to 12 by combining the first two episodes into one. PBS added narration to the end and beginnings of episodes informing viewers of the events, affected by the cuts. In the late 1980s Flambards was shown on the A&E cable network in its full 13 episodes, but commercial-edited.
The story revolves around Christina Parsons, coming of age in a tumultuous era, of old and new, of horses and aeroplanes, of foxhunts, suffragettes, war, love and rebuilding new lives out of the ashes of old ones. The story begins with Christina, an orphan, shunted from one relative to the next since the age of 5, coming to live with her cousins and uncle at an estate in Essex called Flambards in 1909 at the age of 16, her crippled uncle William Russell is never referred to by his first name. Her Aunt Grace speculates that Russell plans for Christina to marry his son Mark in order to restore Flambards to its former glory using the money that she will inherit on her twenty-first birthday. Mark is as brutish as his father, with a great love for hunting, whereas the younger son William is terrified of horses after a hunting accident and aspires to be an early-era aviator. Christina soon finds friendship with the injured William, who challenges her ideas on class boundaries, as well as a love for horses and hunting.
William and Christina fall in love and run away to London from the hunt ball. The series's memorable score was composed by David Fanshawe, most famous for his 1972 composition African Sanctus. Of his score for Flambards Fanshawe wrote, "On April 5th, 1977, I was on my way to give a talk about my travels in Africa to the Oxfam Annual Staff Conference in Abingdon when, quite by accident, I whistled something, whistled it again, drew five lines and wrote it down. On arrival, I played the chord of ` A' seventh and whistled again. Just before going on stage, I completed the first phrase by writing it out backwards and indeed whistled it backwards: and, the beginning of the music for Flambards. A week earlier, producer Leonard Lewis had phoned me, asking if I would like to compose a score for a 13-part series he was producing for Yorkshire Television, he sent me the books of Flambards by K. M. Peyton, together with the first part adapted for television by Alan Plater. On meeting the star of Flambards, Christine McKenna, who plays Christina in the series, I was convinced that the whistle was right for the signature tune.
Keith Morgan Head of Music at Yorkshire Television, got the message and whistled it back. So, how I came to compose five hours of music based on a 3½ bar whistle!" For the aerial scenes radio controlled model period aircraft were used, the shots framed so that the small size of the aircraft was concealed. Flambards on IMDb Flambards at TV.com
Roman Britain was the area of the island of Great Britain, governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD. It comprised the whole of England and Wales and, for a short period, southern Scotland. Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars. According to Caesar, the Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesar's enemies, he received tribute, installed a friendly king over the Trinovantes, returned to Gaul. Planned invasions under Augustus were called off in 34, 27, 25 BC. In 40 AD, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel on the continent, only to have them gather seashells according to Suetonius as a symbolic gesture to proclaim Caligula's victory over the sea. Three years Claudius directed four legions to invade Britain and restore an exiled king over the Atrebates; the Romans defeated the Catuvellauni, organized their conquests as the Province of Britain. By the year 47, the Romans held the lands southeast of the Fosse Way.
Control over Wales was delayed by reverses and the effects of Boudica's uprising, but the Romans expanded northward. The conquest of Britain continued under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who expanded the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia. In the summer of 84, Agricola faced the armies of the Caledonians, led by Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Battle casualties were estimated by Tacitus to be around the 10,000's on the Caledonian side and about 360 on the Roman side; the bloodbath at Mons Graupius concluded the forty-year conquest of Britain, a period that saw between 100,000 and 250,000 Britons killed. In the context of pre-industrial warfare and of a total population of Britain of c.2 million, these are high figures. Under the 2nd-century emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, two walls were built to defend the Roman province from the Caledonians, whose realms in the Scottish Highlands were never controlled. Around 197, the Severan Reforms divided Britain into two provinces: Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior.
During the Diocletian Reforms, at the end of the 3rd century, Britannia was divided into four provinces under the direction of a vicarius, who administered the Diocese of the Britains. A fifth province, Valentia, is attested in the 4th century. For much of the period of the Roman occupation, Britannia was subject to barbarian invasions and came under the control of imperial usurpers and imperial pretenders; the final Roman withdrawal from Britain occurred around 410. Following the conquest of the Britons, a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged as the Romans introduced improved agriculture, urban planning, industrial production, architecture; the Roman goddess Britannia became the female personification of Britain. After the initial invasions, Roman historians only mention Britain in passing. Thus, most present knowledge derives from archaeological investigations and occasional epigraphic evidence lauding the Britannic achievements of an emperor. Roman citizens settled in Britain from many parts of the Empire.
Britain was known to the Classical world. The Greeks referred to the Cassiterides, or "tin islands", placed them near the west coast of Europe; the Carthaginian sailor Himilco is said to have visited the island in the 5th century BC and the Greek explorer Pytheas in the 4th. It was regarded with some writers refusing to believe it existed at all; the first direct Roman contact was when Julius Caesar undertook two expeditions in 55 and 54 BC, as part of his conquest of Gaul, believing the Britons were helping the Gallic resistance. The first expedition was more a reconnaissance than a full invasion and gained a foothold on the coast of Kent but was unable to advance further because of storm damage to the ships and a lack of cavalry. Despite the military failure it was a political success, with the Roman Senate declaring a 20-day public holiday in Rome to honour the unprecedented achievement of obtaining hostages from Britain and defeating Belgian tribes on returning to the continent; the second invasion involved a larger force and Caesar coerced or invited many of the native Celtic tribes to pay tribute and give hostages in return for peace.
A friendly local king, was installed, his rival, was brought to terms. Hostages were taken, but historians disagree over whether any tribute was paid after Caesar returned to Gaul. Caesar conquered no territory and left no troops behind but he established clients and brought Britain into Rome's sphere of influence. Augustus planned invasions in 34, 27 and 25 BC, but circumstances were never favourable, the relationship between Britain and Rome settled into one of diplomacy and trade. Strabo, writing late in Augustus's reign, claimed that taxes on trade brought in more annual revenue than any conquest could. Archaeology shows. Strabo mentions British kings who sent embassies to Augustus and Augustus's own Res Gestae refers to two British kings he received as refugees; when some of Tiberius's ships were carried to Britain in a storm during his campaigns in Germany in 16 AD, they came back with tales of monsters. Rome appears to have encouraged a balance of power in southern Britain, supporting two powerful kingdoms: the Catuvellauni, ruled by the descendants of Tasciovanus, the Atrebates, ruled by the descendants of Commius.
This policy was followed until 39 or 40
Victor Ambrus is a British illustrator of history, folk tale, animal story books. He became known from his appearances on the Channel 4 television archaeology series Time Team, on which he visualised how sites under excavation may have once looked. Ambrus is an Associate of the Royal College of Art and a Fellow of both the Royal Society of Arts and the Royal Society of Painters and Engravers, he was a patron of the Association of Archaeological Illustrators and Surveyors up until its merger with the Institute for Archaeologists in 2011. Ambrus was born on 19 August 1935 in Hungary, he continued to live in the capital, but spent many childhood holidays in the country, where he learnt to draw horses. As he grew older he became an admirer of the illustrators Mihály Zichy, E. H. Shepard, Joyce Lankester Brisley, the large historical paintings which he saw in public galleries, he received his secondary education at the St Imre Cistercian College, before going on to study at the Hungarian Academy of Fine Arts for three years, where he was given a thorough grounding in drawing and print-making.
His four-year course was interrupted by the unsuccessful 1956 Hungarian Revolution against the Soviet-backed government, during which a building that he and his fellow students held came under fire from the Soviets. In December 1956 he and many other students fled, first to Austria to Britain, where he hoped to study in the tradition of illustrators such as E. H. Shepard, John Tenniel and Arthur Rackham. From Blackbushe Airport and Crookham army camp, speaking no English, Ambrus presented himself at Farnham Art School, was taken on, not to follow any particular course but to work at his drawing. Ambrus had concentrated on engraving and lithography which, as he says, was an excellent training for line illustration. After two terms his tutor and the Principal of Farnham School, recognising that Victor was ready for a higher level of study, commended him to the Royal College of Art in London. Ambrus won a Gulbenkian scholarship to study illustration there for three years. At the Royal College Ambrus met his fellow student, Glenys Chapman, whom he married in his final year.
His wife had a career as an illustrator of children's books. Ambrus had had one book published in 1955. While at college he took some samples of his work to Mabel George of the Oxford University Press. In his last year of the course, he was commissioned to illustrate a book, reviewed in the Times Literary Supplement, his first real job on leaving college was to work for an advertising agency. As his freelance work increased after two years he went back to Farnham and started teaching at the Art School while doing illustration part-time, he lectured from 1963 to 1985 at Farnham and Epsom Colleges of Art. He has had a long career working for the Oxford University Press. Like many illustrators, Ambrus started by doing line illustrations for novels; the children's editor at OUP, Mabel George, gave him first Hester Burton's and K M Peyton's novels to illustrate. Both used his talent with both he built up a happy working relationship, he has contributed to 300 books. Among his credits are illustrating several fairy tale compilations by Ruth Manning-Sanders, including The Glass Man and the Golden Bird: Hungarian Folk and Fairy Tales and Jonnikin and the Flying Basket: French Folk and Fairy Tales.
He worked as the artist on the television series about Time Team. The director and producer of the series, finding'The Story of Britain' in Reader’s Digest, had decided that Ambrus could illustrate all the subjects they were to present, invited him to take part in a pilot episode of what became Time Team on Channel 4, he has designed six sets of one for the Royal Mail. He was one of seven leading British illustrators whose work was shown in the exhibition,'The World of English Picture Books', which toured Japan in 1998. Education St. Imre Cistercian College, Budapest 1945–53 Hungarian Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest 1953–56 Royal College of Art/Royal Scholar 1957/1957–60. All three books were both published by Oxford, he was a commended runner up for three Medals: 1963 for both The Royal Navy by Peter Dawlish and A Time of Trial by Hester Burton. 1993, Daler Rowney Prize 1993, World Wildlife Fund Prize, Society of Wildlife Artists 1996, Royal Academy of Arts, Arts Club Drawing Prize Books Illustrated by Glenys and Victor Ambrus Books Illustrated by Victor Amb
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew