Pegasus Airlines Flight 8622
Pegasus Airlines Flight 8622 is a domestic flight from Ankara to Trabzon, Turkey. On 13 January 2018, while landing on runway 11 at Trabzon Airport, the aircraft operating the flight ran off the left side of the runway and slid down a cliff. None of the 168 passengers and crew were injured; the aircraft involved was a Boeing 737-82R, msn 40879, with serial number 4267, registration TC-CPF and named Zeynep, operated by the Turkish low-cost carrier Pegasus Airlines. The aircraft took its first flight on 15 November 2012, it had flown 9 flights on January 13 with no reports by pilots or ground crew of any damage or issues of any kind. Flight 8622 is a scheduled domestic flight from Esenboğa International Airport, Ankara, to Trabzon Airport. There were 6 crew on board; the aircraft landed at 23:26 local time. After landing, the aircraft veered left, departed the runway, slid down a cliff; the aircraft came to rest in a precarious position along the side of the cliff but did not slip into the sea due to the ground being wet and the landing wheels stuck in the muddy ground.
An emergency evacuation was ordered by the cabin crew. The aircraft sustained considerable damage, with the right engine detaching and falling into the Black Sea. At the time, it was raining with visibility of 4 kilometres. Following the accident, Trabzon Airport was closed until 08:00 local time on 14 January; the aircraft was removed from the cliff face on 18 January. During the recovery operation, Trabzon Airport was closed, with aircraft being diverted to Ordu–Giresun Airport, Gülyalı; the aircraft was declared a write-off. The governor of Trabzon Province said; the Directorate General of Civil Aviation is responsible for investigating aviation accidents in Turkey. One of the pilots claimed that an engine had a power surge, which caused the excursion via asymmetrical thrust. After the investigation, it was found out that the right engine did not stop properly
2018 Horizon Air Q400 incident
On August 10, 2018, a Horizon Air Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 was stolen from Seattle–Tacoma International Airport in SeaTac, Washington. The perpetrator, 29-year-old Richard Russell, was a Horizon Air ground service agent with no piloting experience, he performed an unauthorized takeoff and two McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle fighters were subsequently scrambled to intercept the aircraft. Sea–Tac air traffic control made radio contact with Russell, the sole occupant, who described himself as a "broken guy, got a few screws loose I guess." One hour and 15 minutes after takeoff, Russell committed suicide by intentionally crashing the aircraft on the lightly-populated Ketron Island in Puget Sound. The incident aircraft was a Bombardier Dash 8 Q400, owned by Horizon Air with the registration N449QX and serial number 4410, it was delivered new to Horizon Air in the same year. The same aircraft landed at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport at 13:35 local time the afternoon of the incident, after an in-service flight from Victoria, British Columbia.
It was not scheduled to fly again that day. The aircraft was stolen from Plane Cargo 1 at the north end of Sea–Tac airport and maneuvered to runway 16C via taxiways. Seattle Tower tried several times to get the aircraft to identify itself on frequency. A nearby Alaska Airlines jet on the ground reported that the aircraft had begun a takeoff roll with its wheels smoking, an unauthorized take-off was made at 19:32 local time. In response, two McDonnell Douglas F-15C Eagles of the Oregon Air National Guard's 142nd Fighter Wing under the command of NORAD were scrambled at around 20:15 local time from Portland Air National Guard Base to intercept it, both armed with AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles and going supersonic, generating sonic booms on the way to the Puget Sound area. A KC-135R Stratotanker refueling tanker was scrambled from Fairchild Air Force Base to support the F-15 flight. Flights in and out of the airport were temporarily suspended. Seattle–Tacoma air traffic control maintained radio contact with the occupant.
The transmissions were on an open frequency and were posted on social media websites. He said he was a "broken guy, got a few screws loose I guess. Never knew it until now." When ATC suggested that the plane be landed at Joint Base Lewis–McChord, the occupant refused: "Those guys will rough me up if I try and land there. I think I might mess something up too. I wouldn't want to do that." He asked ATC if he could get a job as a pilot with Alaska Airlines if he landed the aircraft. ATC said that "they would give you a job doing anything if you could pull this off," to which he replied "Yeah right! Nah, I'm a white guy." He spoke of wanting to do "a couple maneuvers to see what can do," and requested the coordinates of an orca, brought to national attention, saying, "I want to go see that guy." He stated that he did not want to hurt anyone, in the final minutes of the communication apologized to his friends and family. Near the end of the flight, the aircraft was filmed doing aerobatic maneuvers over Puget Sound, footage of which appeared on social media.
A veteran pilot said the maneuvers "seemed pretty well executed, without either stalling or pulling the wings off." When an air traffic controller requested he land the plane after these maneuvers, he said "I don't know. I don't want to. I was kind of hoping, gonna be it, you know?" He added that he "wasn't planning on landing it."The two F-15s attempted to direct the aircraft toward the Pacific Ocean, did not fire on it. The Q400 crashed at 20:43 local time on Ketron Island in Puget Sound, Pierce County, killing the occupant and destroying the aircraft. A tow boat crew was the first to respond. Firefighters from West Pierce Fire and Rescue and other nearby departments arrived on the island 1.5 hours after the crash, due to waits for the Steilacoom–Anderson Island ferry, contending with thick brush when crews arrived on scene. The two-acre fire the crash caused was suppressed by a lack of wind and dry brush, was extinguished by the following morning; the Pierce County Sheriff's Office both thanked the public for its accurate information, acknowledged on August 11 that federal agencies would be leading the investigation the Seattle office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
It described the perpetrator, identified as 29-year-old Richard Russell, as suicidal and said his actions did not constitute a "terrorist incident". Alaska Air Group CEO Brad Tilden announced on the same day that the airline was coordinating with the Federal Aviation Administration, the FBI, the National Transportation Safety Board, was "working to find out everything we can about what happened". On August 12, the FBI said that it had recovered the flight data recorder along with components of the cockpit voice recorder; the equipment was sent to the National Transportation Safety Board for processing. On November 9, the FBI stated. Terrorism was ruled out and it was found that Russell had acted alone; the final descent at Ketron Island was determined to be intentional, suicide was listed as the manner of death. The FBI stated, "Interviews with work colleagues and family—and review of text messages exchanged with Russell during the incident—did not identify any information that would suggest the theft of the aircraft was related to wider criminal activity or terrorist ideology.
Although investigators received information regarding Russell’s background, possible stressors, personal life, no element provided a clear motivation fo
Aeroméxico Connect Flight 2431
Aeroméxico Connect Flight 2431 was a Mexican domestic scheduled passenger flight bound for Mexico City that crashed on takeoff from Durango International Airport on 31 July 2018. Shortly after becoming airborne, the plane encountered sudden wind shear caused by a microburst; the plane lost speed and altitude and impacted the runway, detaching the engines and skidding to a halt about 1,000 feet beyond the runway. The plane was destroyed. All 103 people on board survived. 39 passengers and crew were injured. A final report on the crash was released on 23 February 2019. Investigators found that the primary cause of the accident was adverse weather conditions encountered by the flight, contributing factors included crew error, air traffic controller error, the lack of equipment that could detect wind shear conditions at airports. Investigators determined that an unauthorized student pilot in the cockpit, flying the plane during the takeoff caused the crew to be distracted, leading to a loss of situational awareness.
The crew failed to react to dangerous weather conditions that were developing, did not notice irregularities in the airspeed indicators that could have alerted them to potential hazards. The sole air traffic controller on duty at the airport at the time failed to notify the aircraft of deteriorating weather conditions; the accident and the subsequent investigation led to changes in Mexican aviation regulations to prevent non-assigned crew members from being present in the cockpit of an aircraft at any time during a flight. Investigators made several recommendations for changes in flight crew and air traffic controller training, to improve the capabilities of weather detection equipment in place at airports to improve overall aviation safety; the flight, number 2431, was operated by Aeroméxico Connect and was a scheduled flight from Durango International Airport to Mexico City International Airport. Scheduled to leave at 2:56 pm Central Time, the departure was delayed when the first officer observed a fuel leak from the number one engine and asked maintenance crews to investigate, who concluded that the rate of leakage was within safe limits.
The aircraft left the gate at 3:14 pm and proceeded to taxi to the end of runway 03. The pilot commented to the copilot; as the plane taxied, the intensity of the rain increased and there were strong gusts of wind. At 3:18 pm, the air traffic controller reported 20 knot winds from 90 degrees; the flight information service for the airport published an updated weather report at 3:18 indicating the presence of thunderstorms and rain, reduced visibility, the presence of cumulonimbus clouds. The air traffic controller did not see this update because he was working alone and was attending to Flight 2431; the rain became so heavy. Though the controller was in the best position to see the deteriorating weather conditions, he did not inform the aircraft about any of his observations; the flight was cleared for takeoff at 3:21pm. Severe wind gusts caused several trees to become uprooted at the airport, knocking down power and communication lines. A special weather update was sent out by the flight information service at 3:22 pm warning of thunderstorms and rain, 0 feet of visibility and a decrease in the ceiling to 0 feet, but this report was never received by the tower controller due to the power outage.
The aircraft proceeded down the runway. When it reached a speed of 147 knots, the pilot flying the plane rotated the controls to bring the aircraft airborne, raised the gear when the craft was 2 feet above the runway; the plane began its takeoff with a headwind, but the winds shifted to a right crosswind of 11 knots, increasing to 33 knots as the plane proceeded down the runway. The plane had reached its maximum altitude of about 30 feet and a maximum indicated airspeed of 151 knots when the wind direction shifted to a 24-knot tailwind; the plane lost airspeed and altitude, an audible alarm of "DON'T SINK" sounded in the cockpit. Five seconds the left wing struck the runway, both engines broke away from the wings; the plane came to rest about 1,000 feet beyond the end of the runway. All 103 people on board the plane were able to evacuate and survived the crash before a fire broke out that destroyed the aircraft; the aircraft was an Embraer 190, registration XA-GAL, msn 19000173. It was first delivered in 2008.
It was first delivered to US Airways as N960UW before being sold to Republic Airways Holdings in 2009. Under Republic Airways ownership, the aircraft was re-registered as N167HQ, operating for Midwest Airlines, a former subsidiary of Republic, for fellow Republic subsidiary Frontier Airlines, until late 2013. After Republic retired its Embraer 190 aircraft from its operations, Republic leased N167HQ to Aeroméxico Connect in 2014, who registered the aircraft as XA-GAL. At the time of its loss, the aircraft had flown a total of 27,257 hours, had 18,200 takeoff and landing cycles; when it was manufactured, the aircraft was equipped with a Honeywell WU-880 weather radar. This system can detect storms along the flight path of the aircraft and give pilots a visual indication of the intensity of the storm; the aircraft was equipped with a wind shear detection and escape guidance system that can detect wind shear conditions and alert the pilots using a combination of visual and audio alarms. The audio alarms are disabled in the event of a higher priority audio alarm, such as the ground proximity sensor alarm.
The pilot of the flight was 38-year-old Carlos Galván
2018 Russian Air Force Antonov An-26 crash
On 6 March 2018 an Antonov An-26 transport aircraft crashed on approach to Khmeimim air base in Syria, killing all 39 people on board. All of them were servicemen including Major-General Vladimir Yeremeyev; the accident aircraft was an Antonov An-26, registration RF-92955, msn 10107. It had first flown in 1980; this accident is the fifteenth An-26 fatal crash in this decade with a total of 159 deaths, none of these flights were scheduled passenger airline operations. At about 14:00 local time the Russian Antonov An-26 went down about 500 metres from the runway; the preliminary cause was attributed to technical malfunction. Based on reports from the location, the Russian Ministry of Defense ruled out the possibility that it was shot down; the Investigative Committee of Russia and the Russian Military Prosecutor's Office opened criminal cases concerning the crash. The Islamic militant group Jaysh al-Islam claimed the responsibility for the crash, it was suggested that the claim might be false, as the group has made opportunistic claims in the past, as have some other groups.
The aircraft was caught by windshear on final. It lost height and crashed some 500 metres before the runway threshold. 2012 Sudan Antonov An-26 crash 2015 Syrian Air Force An-26 crash
Aviation accidents and incidents
In aviation, an accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft, which takes place from the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until all such persons have disembarked, in which a) a person is fatally or injured, b) the aircraft sustains significant damage or structural failure, or c) the aircraft goes missing or becomes inaccessible. Annex 13 defines an incident as an occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or could affect the safety of operation. A hull loss occurs if an aircraft is destroyed, damaged beyond repair, lost, or becomes inaccessible; the first fatal aviation accident was the crash of a Rozière balloon near Wimereux, France, on June 15, 1785, killing the balloon's inventor, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, the other occupant, Pierre Romain. The first involving a powered aircraft was the crash of a Wright Model A aircraft at Fort Myer, Virginia, in the United States on September 17, 1908, injuring its co-inventor and pilot, Orville Wright, killing the passenger, Signal Corps Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge.
2,996: The deadliest aviation-related disaster of any kind, considering fatalities on both the aircraft and the ground, was the destruction of the World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001. On that morning, four commercial aircraft traveling on transcontinental flights from East Coast airports to California were hijacked after takeoff; the four hijacked aircraft were subsequently crashed in four separate suicide attacks against major American landmarks, by 19 Islamic terrorists affiliated with Al Qaeda. American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 were intentionally crashed into the North and South Towers of the World Trade Center, destroying both buildings in less than two hours; the World Trade Center crashes killed 2,753, the vast majority of fatalities being occupants of the World Trade Center towers or emergency personnel responding to the disaster. In addition, 184 were killed by American Airlines Flight 77. 40 passengers were killed when United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into a Somerset County Pennsylvania field after passengers fought back and prevented the hijackers from reaching their designated target.
This brought the total number of casualties of the September 11 attacks to 2,996. As deliberate terrorist acts, the 9/11 crashes were not classified as accidents, but as mass murder-suicide. 583: The Tenerife airport disaster, which occurred on March 27, 1977, remains the accident with the highest number of airliner passenger fatalities. 583 people died when a KLM Boeing 747 attempted to take off without flight clearance, collided with a taxiing Pan Am 747 at Los Rodeos Airport on the Canary Island of Tenerife, Spain. There were no survivors from the KLM aircraft and only 61 of the 396 passengers and crew on the Pan Am aircraft survived. Pilot error was the primary cause, as the KLM captain began his takeoff run without obtaining air traffic control clearance. A contributing factor was the dense fog; the KLM flight crew could not see the Pan Am aircraft on the runway until before the collision. The accident had a lasting influence on the industry in the area of communication. An increased emphasis was placed on using standardized phraseology in air traffic control communication by both controllers and pilots alike.
"Cockpit Resource Management" has been incorporated into flight crew training. The captain is no longer considered infallible, combined crew input is encouraged during aircraft operations. 520: The crash of Japan Airlines Flight 123 on August 12, 1985, is the single-aircraft disaster with the highest number of fatalities: 520 people died on board a Boeing 747. The aircraft suffered an explosive decompression from an incorrectly repaired aft pressure bulkhead, which failed in mid flight, destroying most of its vertical stabilizer and severing all of the hydraulic lines, making the 747 uncontrollable. Pilots were able to keep the plane flying for 32 minutes after the mechanical failure before crashing into a mountain. All 15 crew members and 505 of the 509 passengers on board died. Rescue operations were delayed until the following morning, which decreased the number of victims who would have survived the incident. Furthermore, Japanese personnel inaccurately assumed, during a helicopter flyover of the impact site, that there were no survivors.
Medical providers involved in rescue and analysis operations determined that several passengers survived the impact and would have survived the incident had rescue operations not been delayed. Four passengers survived the incident in its entirety. 349: On November 12, 1996, the world's deadliest mid-air collision was the Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision involving Saudia Flight 763 and Kazakhstan Airlines Flight 1907 over Charkhi Dadri, India. The collision was the result of the Kazakh pilot flying lower than the assigned clearance altitude. All 349 passengers and crew on board of both the aircraft died; the Ramesh Chandra Lahoti Commission, empowered to study the causes, recommended the creation of the "semi-circular rule", to prevent aircraft from flying in opposite directions at the same altitude. The Civil Aviation Authorities in India made it mandatory for all aircraft flying in and out of India to be equipped with a Traffic Collision Avoi
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
A satellite telephone, satellite phone or satphone is a type of mobile phone that connects to other phones or the telephone network by radio through orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites, as cellphones do. The advantage of a satphone is; the mobile equipment known as a terminal, varies widely. Early satellite phone handsets had a size and weight comparable to that of a late-1980s or early-1990s mobile phone, but with a large retractable antenna. More recent satellite phones are similar in size to a regular mobile phone while some prototype satellite phones have no distinguishable difference from an ordinary smartphone. Satphones are popular on expeditions into remote areas where terrestrial cellular service is unavailable. A fixed installation, such as one used aboard a ship, may include large, rack-mounted electronics, a steerable microwave antenna on the mast that automatically tracks the overhead satellites. Smaller installations using VoIP over a two-way satellite broadband service such as BGAN or VSAT bring the costs within the reach of leisure vessel owners.
Internet service satellite phones have notoriously poor reception indoors, though it may be possible to get a consistent signal near a window or in the top floor of a building if the roof is sufficiently thin. The phones have connectors for external antennas that can be installed in buildings; the systems allow for the use of repeaters, much like terrestrial mobile phone systems. Some satellite phones use satellites in geostationary orbit, which appear at a fixed position in the sky; these systems can maintain near-continuous global coverage with only three or four satellites, reducing the launch costs. The satellites used for these systems are heavy and expensive to build and launch; the satellites sit at an altitude of 35,786 kilometres. The amount of bandwidth available on these systems is higher than that of the low Earth orbit systems. Geostationary satellite phones can only be used at lower latitudes between 70 degrees north of the equator and 70 degrees south of the equator. At higher latitudes the satellite appears at such a low angle in the sky that radio frequency interference from terrestrial sources in the same frequency bands can interfere with the signal.
Another disadvantage of geostationary satellite systems is that in many areas—even where a large amount of open sky is present—the line-of-sight between the phone and the satellite is broken by obstacles such as steep hills and forest. The user will need to find an area with line-of-sight before using the phone; this is not the case with LEO services: if the signal is blocked by an obstacle, one can wait a few minutes until another satellite passes overhead, but a moving LEO satellite may drop a call when line of sight is lost. ACeS: This former Indonesia-based small regional operator provided voice and data services in East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia using a single satellite, it ceased operations in 2014. Inmarsat: The oldest satellite phone operator, a British company founded in 1979, it provided large fixed installations for ships, but has entered the market of hand-held phones in a joint venture with ACeS. The company operates eleven satellites. Coverage is available on most of the Earth, except polar regions.
Thuraya: Established in 1997, United Arab Emirates-based Thuraya's satellites provide coverage across Europe, the Middle East and Australia. MSAT / SkyTerra: An American satellite-phone company that uses equipment similar to Inmarsat, but plans to launch a service using hand-held devices in the Americas similar to Thuraya's. Terrestar: Satellite-phone system for North America. ICO Global Communications: An American satellite-phone company which has launched a single geosynchronous satellite, not yet active. LEO satphones utilize satellites in low Earth orbit; the advantages include providing worldwide wireless coverage with no gaps. LEO satellites orbit the Earth in high-speed, low-altitude orbits with an orbital time of 70–100 minutes, an altitude of 640 to 1120 kilometers, provide coverage cells of about 2800 km in radius. Since the satellites are not geostationary, they move with respect to the ground. At least one satellite must have line-of-sight to every coverage area at all times to guarantee coverage.
Depending on the positions of both the satellite and terminal, a usable pass of an individual LEO satellite will last 4–15 minutes on average. Two such systems, both based in the United States, started in the late 1990s, but soon went into bankruptcy after failing to gain enough subscribers to fund launch costs, they are now operated by new owners who bought the assets for a fraction of their original cost and are now both planning to launch replacement constellations supporting higher bandwidth. Data speeds for current networks are between 9600 bit/s using a satellite handset. Globalstar: A network covering most of the world's landmass using 44 active satellites. However, many areas are left without coverage, since a satellite must be in range of an Earth station. Satellites fly in an inclined orbit of 52 degrees, so polar regions cannot be covered; the network went int