A combination bus called a truck bus or shift bus is a purpose-built truck with a "passenger container" fulfilling the role of a bus. Such vehicles used to be common in developing countries. Alternative combination buses can be a passenger/cargo module/container mounted on a truck chassis, or a bus with a large open or closed in cargo area known as a bruck. Truck buses were used by the military, the police anti-riot units, public utilities, as school buses, by state owned companies on short routes for employees. Combination buses are built by installing a complete box body equipped for transporting people onto a truck chassis; the body is separate from the driver. There is no passage between the cab and box body but there is an intercom system; the body is equipped with windows, a separate internal lighting and heating and/or air conditioning systems. Related bodies are different types of specialized military superstructure. Passenger comfort is minimal; some companies such as Ha'argaz manufacture combination buses by installing a partial bus body on an all-wheel-drive truck chassis.
Due to the minimum of comfort provided by the combination bus, they are suitable for transport over short distances only. The distribution of workers in large workplaces under the open sky such as a large construction site, agricultural labor, quarries or surface mines; these vehicles built on off-road vehicle chassis. These vehicles are used as police intervention units and anti-terrorism units. List of buses Patria Manhauler builds a similar concept
Ural Automotive Plant
For the defunct "Ural Automobiles and Motors" see Amur The Urals Automotive Plant, an Open Stock Company, is a major Russian manufacturer of off-road trucks under the Ural brand and is part of the GAZ Group. Located in the city of Miass, Chelyabinsk Oblast in the Ural Mountains; the plant was established in 1941. In the autumn of 1941, Soviet leaders decided to build a plant for the manufacturing of military trucks, was named after Stalin: ZIS in Miass, Chelyabinsk Oblast in the Urals. Since April 1942, the factory has produced engines and gearboxes. On July 8, 1944 the first truck ZIS-5V was built under the brand UralZIS; the new factory became the Ural branch of ZIS UralZIS. At the end of the war, the ZIS-5 was considered simple and robust, thus remained in production for many years, it was not until 1947. In 1946, the production version of the gas-21A UralZIS 2.5t began fabrication. The truck was produced under the brand UralZIS-352. In 1949, the 5th version of UralZIS was equipped with hydraulic brakes.
A new model, the UralZIS-355, was released in 1956. However, in 1958, the new version of the ZIS-5 was made available for deliveries to Kazakhstan and remained in production until October 16, 1963 as an AMO-3 bypass Fiat; the Scientific Institute of Automotive Standardization of Moscow had been working on a new SUV. Production of this type of truck had been assigned to the Ural factory – UralAZ – who got the brand new Ural; the factory had been rebuilt since 1961 and production of the Ural-375 5 t for the army was intensified. For this truck, a new engine was developed; the 1960s were a period of great success for the brand UralAZ which won, for its quality products in large quantities, the Order of the Red Banner of Labour. UralAZ celebrated the total production of 1.3 mln engines. In 1972 and 1975 the two vehicles appeared the Ural; the manufacture of 6x4 versions continued until 1983. In 1977, a new 5-tonne truck Ural-4320 was created. KamAZ petrol engine replaced the Ural-375-740 V8 diesel KamAZ.
In 1981, based on a 4320 model truck 8 t the Ural-5920 was presented with a Caterpillar engine. In 1987, UralAZ celebrated its millionth truck. Governmental industry reorganization and economic reforms forced UralAZ to become a private limited company and turn to the production of civilian vehicles; the models 43204 and 55571 emerged due to this. Since June 1992 production of 6 t truck Ural-4322 started with a new more contemporary cabin, it was equipped with the Ural-744 air cooled V8 engine with an output of 234 HP, diesel Kustanay, a manufacturer of Deutz engines under license. A fire occurred in the spring of 1993 at the KamAZ engine plant that disrupted production; as a result, the company had to look for engine suppliers. UralAZ was traditionally oriented only to Russian companies, but began a collaboration with the Italian manufacturer Iveco in 1992; the first result of this joint venture model was presented in May of that year, the UralAZ-330-18t Iveco 30ANW with a 306 HP, air-cooled diesel engine.
Its Iveco chassis is imported. The creation of the JV-UralAZ IVECO in 1994 allowed the small series production of the range of imported heavy trucks; the production of advanced IVECO cabins began in 1997. UralAZ, like all Russian manufacturers, traditionally maintains a wide range for military off-road drive permanent. Besides the military versions of 43,206 trucks and 4320-31, UralAZ continuous production of 9 t trucks Ural-5323. Since 1997, military vehicles provide the basis for civilian versions – universal frame of 15-t 53236 for the installation of special equipment; the truck 5323-22 has advanced IVECO IVECO engine with two berths. That same year the 6301 chassis with the same cabin was presented with a payload of 10 t; as desired by the buyer, it is possible to install a V6 diesel engine Deutz liquid cooled with a capacity of 272,240 HP, the KamAZ-740.et gearboxes UralAZ, Eaton and Fuller. The future of UralAZ is related to the creation of new models. UralAZ has a production capacity of 30,000 trucks.
Dependent of the evolution of the Russian market, production was reduced to 7,000 to 5,400. In 1998, UralAZ sold the factory filed for bankruptcy. Collaboration between UralAZ and IVECO began in 1992. In May the first result of joint activity was represented: the Iveco UralAZ 330-30ANW with a gross weight of 33.5 ton. It has a diesel air-cooled 306 hp V8 engine Deutz; the vehicle was designed for arctic climate that could reach up to -55 °C. The contribution of the Russian partner has been limited; the new vehicle replaces the Magirus-Deutz-2900-26K, developed in the 70s under the brand IVECO-Magirus and whose production was stopped in Europe many years ago. This became the basis of the production range of the new joint venture. Iveco-UralAZ formed in late 1994 with a production capacity of 3600 vehicles per year. All production features badge IVECO-UralAZ on the front grille. However, in the technical press Russian vehicles are called Ural-Iveco; the first truck is the cab-IVECO-UralAZ 5531 derived from the Iveco 330.
Its composition allows for a road train of 60 t, as well as the tractor-trailer and truck 55311 6x4 or 6x6.. In 1997, a new cab appeared called the 6329, it had several standard sizes EuroTrakker, it replaced the old cab Fiat VI. The cabin is further forward on the chassis; the short version of the car is used on trucks and semitrailer truck for local transport. The 63
Kurgan, Kurgan Oblast
The city of Kurgan functions as the administrative center of Kurgan Oblast in the south of the Urals Federal District of Russia. Population: 333,606 ; until 1782 Kurgan bore the name Tsaryovo Gorodishche. An urban settlement was established here between 1659 and 1662 as Tsaryovo Gorodishche by Timofey Nevezhin, a farmer from Tyumen. In the ensuing years it was developed as a fortress town, it served as a frontier post and its fortified position enabled it to defend other Russian settlements from nomad attacks. It was itself not always able to withstand such attacks, was sometimes plundered and burnt down; the city was granted city privileges by the Empress Catherine the Great in 1782, when it acquired its present name and became the seat of an uyezd. The present name is taken from a large kurgan close to the original settlement, its coat of arms was granted on 17 March 1785, it became the administrative center of Kurgan Oblast in 1943. Kurgan was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labour in 1982.
Kurgan is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Kurgan City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, Kurgan City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Kurgan Urban Okrug. Kurgan stands between Yekaterinburg and Omsk, it is served by two railway stations and the Kurgan Airport, it was home to the Kurgan West air base during the Cold War. It is home to Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center for Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics, KAvZ autobus plant, the machine building company Kurganmashzavod which produces the known BMP-1, BMP-2 and BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicles. Kurgan has a humid continental climate. Agricultural academy Kurgan State University Kurgan International University Military Academy Railroad Academy Various theaters Academy of Labor and Social Relations Oleg Bogomolov, governor of Kurgan Oblast Dmitri Bushmanov, association football player Maxim Fadeev, singer-songwriter and producer Gavriil Ilizarov, physician Vyacheslav Kamoltsev, association football player Larisa Korobeynikova, fencer Evgeni Krasilnikov, volleyball player Leonid Krasin and diplomat Ivan Kurpishev, powerlifter Dmitri Loskov, association football player Aleksey Markovsky, swimmer Yana Romanova, biathlete Sergei Rublevsky, chess grandmaster Yulia Savicheva, singer Alexander Solonik, hitman Elena Temnikova, singer Sergei Teryayev, professional ice hockey defenceman Alexander Vinogradov and writer Sergey Vinogradov, journalist and writer Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov was a Soviet physician, known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones and for the method of surgery named after him, the Ilizarov surgery.
Kurgan is twinned with: Appleton, United States Rufina, Italy Курганская областная Дума. Закон №316 от 27 декабря 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Курганской области», в ред. Закона №60 от 2 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Курганской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Курганской области"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Новый мир", Документы, выпуск №1, 11 января 2008 г.. Курганская областная Дума. Закон №419 от 6 июля 2004 г. «О наделении муниципальных образований статусом городского округа, муниципального района, сельского поселения, городского поселения, о месте нахождения представительных органов муниципальных районов, сельских поселений, об установлении наименований представительных органов муниципальных образований, глав муниципальных образований, местных администраций », в ред. Закона №70 от 2 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Законы Курганской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Новый мир", №142, 31 июля 2004 г.. Official website of Kurgan Kurgan news portal Cultural heritage of Kurgan
GAZ Group is a Russian automotive conglomerate headquartered in Nizhny Novgorod. It comprises 18 manufacturing facilities in eight regions of Russia, as well as sales and service organizations. GAZ Group is the leading manufacturer of commercial vehicles in Russia. GAZ Group produces light commercial and medium-duty vehicles, heavy-duty trucks, buses PAZ, KAvZ, LiAZ, cars and automotive components; the market shares of the company: about 50% in the light commercial vehicles segment, 58% in the segment of medium-duty trucks, 42% in the all-wheel drive heavy-duty trucks segment and about 65% in the bus segment. The main entity "GAZ Group" - OJSC "GAZ", refers to the Office "Management Company" GAZ Group; the "GAZ Group" is a holding company, consolidated around OAO GAZ, bringing together a number of industrial machinery sector, which are subsidiaries of OJSC GAZ. Management Company GAZ Group was created on September 28, 2006 and is 100% owned by OJSC "GAZ". GAZ Group was founded in 2005 as a result of the restructuring of the production assets of Ruspromavto, which existed from 2001.
In August 2006, Gaz Group's military technology enterprises JSC Arzamas Machine-Building Plant, in Viksa, JSC Barnaultransmash became the independent Military Industrial Company to ensure the separation of automotive business of Russian Machines into public and non-public assets. In the summer of 2006 "GAZ Group" acquired UK based manufacturer of light trucks LDV Holdings for $40,670,000. In the spring of 2009 in connection with the marketing of the crisis caused by, including the global economic crisis, LDV Holdings came under bankruptcy and in early May 2009, GAZ Group agreed to sell the company Malaysian carmaker Weststar. In 2008, "GAZ Group" has agreed to buy localization of its engines. Closing of the transaction was to take place after the approval of the antitrust authorities. GAZ Group has entered into an agreement with General Motors who controlled 50% of VM Motori on the basis of co-ownership of the Italian company. In mid-2009, the deal was canceled in the aftermath of the economic crisis.
The joint stock company is managed by the Board of Directors whose Chairman, Mr. Wolf, is the sole executive body is the Management Company GAZ Group. Shareholders of OJSC "GAZ" are: JSC Russian Machines - 61.05% of the ordinary shares. GAZ Group is divided into five divisions, the structure of each of which are production plants and sales organizations. GAZ Group Auto Components Dies And Molds Plant Kanashsky Auto-Aggregate Plant, bus chassis producers. GAZ Group Commercial Vehicles Gorky Automobile Plant - the main company of the Group, accounting for more than half of the turnover of the entire GAZ Group. Production in 2015: 68,857 vehicles. Saransk Dump Truck Plant Ulyanovsk Motor Plant Nizhny Novgorod MotorsGAZ Group Powertrain Division Yaroslavl Motor Plant Yaroslavl Fuel Equipment Plant Yaroslavl Diesel Equipment PlantGAZ Group Bus Division Pavlovo Bus Factory - production in 2015: 5,872 vehicles. KAvZ - production in 2015: 318 vehicles. Likinsky Bus Plant - production in 2015: 890 vehicles.
Golitsyn Bus PlantGAZ Group Trucks Division Ural Automotive Plant - production in 2015: 7,471 vehicles. Russian Machines Automotive industry Automotive industry in Russia Automobile model numbering system in the Soviet Union and Russia International product website GAZ Corporate website GAZ Group
Lada is a brand of cars manufactured by AvtoVAZ, a company owned by the French Groupe Renault. The first cars manufactured by AvtoVAZ, with technical assistance from Fiat, were marketed under the Zhiguli brand chosen after it was suggested by the designer, A. M. Cherny; when the cars began to be exported on foreign markets, the Zhiguli brand was found to be inappropriate, as it was hard to pronounce for non-Russian speakers, it was said to resemble too the word gigolo. The Lada brand appeared in 1973, it has since become the main brand for AvtoVAZ vehicles; the name Lada derived from a type of Viking longship, symbolized by the car's logo. The brand has a long history in Russia, it is well known in post-Soviet countries; the keys to its success were: competitive price, simple DIY-friendly mechanics and unpretentious functionality. The car was built under licence in several other countries. Competitive pricing and ease of service made Ladas common as police cars, taxis and a range of public service and civil defence vehicles in many parts of Europe and the Caribbean.
The automaker AvtoVAZ was formed from a collaboration between Fiat and the Soviet Vneshtorg, based in the city of Tolyatti on the Volga river. Both sides discussed the proposal in Moscow, where Gianni Agnelli, the owner and nephew of the founder of Fiat, Vittorio Valletta, the president of the company, had arrived from Italy; the first preliminary agreement was signed on 1 July 1965. On 4 May 1966, the Soviet minister of automotive industry Alexander Tarasov and Vittorio Valletta put their signatures on a protocol on the scientific and technical cooperation between Fiat and the Soviet ministry. A general agreement between the two sides was signed in Moscow on 15 August 1966; the company began producing the VAZ-2101 in 1970, a more rugged version of the Fiat 124 sedan. The car was given heavier steel body panels and strengthened components, which improved reliability on the bumpy roads and in the harsh winters of the Soviet Union, In Fiat's documents the prototype of the car was named Fiat-124R, where'R' stood for Russia.
Since the original Fiat engine did not have any space for modernisation, considered as unacceptable by AvtoVAZ, it was replaced with a newer overhead camshaft motor. The car was equipped with rugged drum brakes, as the latter proved to be more reliable on poor roads, more reliable and up-to-date frontal and rear suspensions, along with increased ground clearance, modernised transmission, recessed door handles; the work on the new car was conducted by joint groups of NAMI and Fiat engineers, who worked together in Turin and Tolyatti. By the spring of 1970, AvtoVAZ had formed its own team of experienced designers and engineers and worked independently; the VAZ-2101 was sold under the brand "Zhiguli" in the Soviet Union, branded as "Lada" for export. The name "Lada" was derived from a type of Viking longship, symbolized by the logo badge. Due to the scarcity of auto repair shops in the Soviet Union, Ladas were designed to be maintained by owners; the rugged Lada was popular in Europe and South America for customers looking for more affordable alternatives to local brands, sales of the new cars were successful, reaching as far as New Zealand.
In the West, their construction was described as cheap and that inspired jokes at the car's expense. Today the reputation of the brand is low, though it has been improving in recent years. Granta Kalina Vesta XRAY Largus 4x4 Automobile model numbering system in USSR and Russia List of AvtoVAZ vehicles AvtoVAZ vehicles in international markets Lada corporate website
Economy of Russia
Russia has an upper-middle income mixed and transition economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy. Market reforms in the 1990s privatized much of Russian industry and agriculture, with notable exceptions to this privatization occurring in the energy and defense-related sectors. Russia's vast geography is an important determinant of its economic activity, with some sources estimating that Russia contains over 30 percent of the world's natural resources; the World Bank estimates the total value of Russia's natural resources at $75 trillion US dollars. Russia relies on energy revenues to drive most of its growth. Russia has an abundance of oil, natural gas and precious metals, which make up a major share of Russia's exports; as of 2012 the oil-and-gas sector accounted for 16% of GDP, 52% of federal budget revenues and over 70% of total exports. As of 2019 export of natural resources accounted for 60% of country's GDP. Russia is considered an "energy superpower", it is the largest exporter of natural gas.
It is the second-largest exporter of petroleum. Russia has a large and sophisticated arms industry, capable of designing and manufacturing high-tech military equipment, including a fifth-generation fighter jet, nuclear powered submarines and short range/long range ballistic missiles; the value of Russian arms exports totalled $15.7 billion in 2013—second only to the US. Top military exports from Russia include combat aircraft, air defence systems and submarines; the economic development of the country has been uneven geographically with the Moscow region contributing a large share of the country's GDP. There has been a substantial rise in wealth inequality in Russia since 1990. Credit Suisse has described Russian wealth inequality as so extreme compared to other countries that it "deserves to be placed in a separate category." One study estimates that "the wealth held offshore by rich Russians is about three times larger than official net foreign reserves, is comparable in magnitude to total household financial assets held in Russia."
Beginning in 1928, the course of the Soviet Union's economy was guided by a series of five-year plans. By the 1950s, during the preceding few decades the Soviet Union had evolved from a agrarian society into a major industrial power. By the 1970s the Soviet Union entered the Era of Stagnation; the complex demands of the modern economy and inflexible administration overwhelmed and constrained the central planners. The volume of decisions facing planners in Moscow became overwhelming; the cumbersome procedures for bureaucratic administration foreclosed the free communication and flexible response required at the enterprise level for dealing with worker alienation, innovation and suppliers. From 1975 to 1985, corruption and data fiddling became common practice among bureaucracy to report satisfied targets and quotas thus entrenching the crisis. Since 1986 Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to address economic problems by moving towards a market-oriented socialist economy. Gorbachev's policies had failed to rejuvenate the Soviet economy, though.
Instead, Perestroika set off a process of political and economic disintegration, culminating in the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia had undergone a radical transformation, moving from a centrally planned economy to a globally integrated market economy. Corrupt and haphazard privatization processes turned over major state-owned firms to politically connected "oligarchs", which has left equity ownership concentrated. Yeltsin's program of radical, market-oriented reform came to be known as a "shock therapy", it was based on the policies associated with the Washington Consensus, recommendations of the IMF and a group of top American economists, including Larry Summers. The result was disastrous, with real GDP falling by more than 40% by 1999, hyperinflation which wiped out personal savings and destitution spreading rapidly; this was accompanied by a drop in the standard of living, including surging economic inequality and poverty, along with increased excess mortality and a decline in life expectancy.
The majority of state enterprises were privatized amid great controversy and subsequently came to be owned by insiders for far less than they were worth. For example, the director of a factory during the Soviet regime would become the owner of the same enterprise. Under the government's cover, outrageous financial manipulations were performed that enriched a narrow group of individuals at key positions of business and government. Many of them promptly invested their newfound wealth abroad producing an enormous capital flight. Difficulties in collecting government revenues amid the collapsing economy and a dependence on short-term borrowing to finance budget deficits led to the 1998 Russian financial crisis. In the 1990s Russia was "the largest borrower" from the International Monetary Fund with loans totaling $20 billion; the IMF was the subject of criticism for lending so much as Russia introduced little of the reforms promised for the money and a large part of these funds could have been "diverted from their intended purpose and included in the flows of capital that left the country illegally".
Russia bounced back from the August 1998 financial crash with surprising speed. Much of the reason for the recovery was devaluation of the ruble, which made domestic producers more competitive nationally and internationally. Between 2000 and 2002, there was a significant amount of pro-growth economic reforms including a comprehensive tax reform, which introduced a flat income tax of 13%.
GAZ or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod is a Russian automotive manufacturer located in Nizhny Novgorod. It is the core subsidiary of GAZ Group Holding, itself part of the Basic Element business group. JSC Russian Machines Corporation is the controlling shareholder in OAO GAZ. In May 1929 the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the American Ford Motor Company. Under its terms, the Soviets agreed to purchase $13 million worth of automobiles and parts, while Ford agreed to give technical assistance until 1938 to construct an integrated automobile-manufacturing plant at Nizhny Novgorod. Production started on 1 January 1932, the factory and the first marque was titled Nizhegorodsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or NAZ, but displayed the "Ford" sign, its first vehicle was the medium-priced Ford Model A, sold as the NAZ-A, a light truck, the Ford Model AA. NAZ-A production commenced in 1932 and lasted until 1936, during which time over 100,000 examples were built. In 1933, the factory's name changed to Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or GAZ, when the city was renamed after Maxim Gorky.
From 1935 to 1956, the official name was augmented with imeni Molotova. The GAZ-A was succeeded by the more modern GAZ-M1, produced from 1936 to 1942; the M letter stands for Molotovets, it was the origin of M'ka. During the war, GAZ assembled Chevrolet G7107 and G7117 from parts shipped from the USA under Lend Lease. Experience with the A and the M1 allowed the GAZ engineers to develop their own car model independently of Ford. Called the GAZ-11, this more upscale model entered production in 1942 and remained in limited wartime production until 1946; the M2's bodyshell entered limited production in 1941, mounted on a four-wheel drive chassis and sold in small quantities as the GAZ-61. At that time, GAZ engineers worked to develop an all-new car model to enter production once hostilities ended. Called the GAZ-M20 Pobeda, this affordably-priced sedan with streamlined, fastback styling, entered production in 1946 and was produced by GAZ until 1958.. It was the first Soviet car with electric windshield wipers.
It had four-wheel hydraulic brakes. The GAZ-72, a four-wheel drive version, was produced in low volume. GAZ made GAZ-12 ZIM, GAZ-21 and GAZ-24 Volga and the luxury cars GAZ-13 and GAZ-14 Chaika; the ZIM was the first GAZ car to feature the leaping deer hood ornament. The GAZ-21 made its public debut in 1955, with a three cars on a demonstration drive from Moscow to the Crimea, two automatic models and a manual, it became a symbol of the whole Soviet epoch. The car offered front seats able to fold flat and came standard with cigarette lighter and a radio at a time when most American-built cars did not have a radio. A small number of Volgas with the 195 hp Chaika engine, automatic transmission, power steering were built for the KGB as the M23, 603 were built in 1962-1970; as the car's leading engineer Boris Dekhtyar recalled, the new version of the Volga had improved brake pads and reached a higher top speed of over 170 km/h. The new engine produced 195 h.p. at 4,400 rpm. The production of Chaika started in 1959.
Over the years several modifications of Volga and Chaika were produced. In the 1960s GAZ plant renewed its truck range by launching such models as GAZ-52, GAZ-53А and GAZ-66. In the 1960s and 1970s, the plant was updated. In 1994 the plant started production of GAZelle light commercial vehicles. GAZelle gained popularity in Russia. There are over 300 modifications of these vehicles for various applications. GAZelle gave a huge impetus to development of small and medium businesses in Russia. GAZ plant launched production of the related Valdai medium-duty truck and the Sobol light commercial vehicle; the plant became AvtoGAZ, with the integration of its various subcontractors, on 24 August 1971. GAZ produced its ten millionth vehicle in March 1981. In the late 1990s GAZ was deemed to be the best managed Russian automotive manufacturer. In November 2000 GAZ was acquired in a hostile takeover by SibAl. In March 2003 GAZ declared that the production of passenger cars was no longer a priority for the company, plans to release a new GAZ-3115 model had been abandoned.
In 2006, GAZ made a move on the LDV company based in Birmingham and acquired the van maker from the venture capital group Sun European Partners, LLP in July of that year. GAZ said that they planned to market the MAXUS into the rest of Asia. GAZ proposed to increase production in the LDV plant in England, while commencing production of the MAXUS in a new plant in Russia. However, due to the recession, the production at the LDV plant was halted and the plant was sold to a Chinese company called ECO Concept in 2009; as DaimlerChrysler modernized its Sterling Heights Assembly plant in 2006, the old Chrysler Sebring / Dodge Stratus assembly line and tooling was sold to GAZ and was shipped to Nizhny Novgorod in Russia. To produce the vehicle in Nizhny Novgorod, GAZ built a modern production facility with a high degree of automation. GAZ designed a similar vehicle as the Volga Siber from 2008 until the end of 2010 when it was phased out due to the glo