Sport of athletics
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, walking race; the results of racing events are decided by finishing position, while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most competed sports in the world. Athletics is an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country. Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC; the rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, were spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations and its member federations.
The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, which incorporates track and field, marathon running and race walking. Other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the World Para Athletics Championships; the word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής from ἆθλον or ἆθλος. The term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i.e. sporting competition based on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term athletics acquired a more narrow definition in Europe and came to describe sports involving competitive running, walking and throwing; this definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom and most of the areas of the former British Empire. Furthermore, foreign words in many Germanic and Romance languages which are related to the term athletics have a similar meaning.
In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, maintaining a more historical usage of the term. The word "athletics" is used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking and marathon running. Athletic contests in running, walking and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival and high jumping appearing in tombs from as early as of 2250 BC; the Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded circa 1800 BC, the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events. The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BC was a stadium-length running event known as the stadion; this expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon.
Athletics competitions took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded around 500 BC. The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a sports festival which emerged in 17th century England, featured athletics in the form of sledgehammer throwing contests. Annually, from 1796 to 1798, L'Olympiade de la République was held in revolutionary France, is an early forerunner to the Modern Summer Olympic Games; the premier event of this competition was a running event, but various ancient Greek disciplines were on display. The 1796 Olympiade marked the introduction of the metric system into the sport. Athletics competitions were held about 1812 at the Royal Military College, in 1840 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire at the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt; the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich held an organised competition in 1849, a regular series of closed meetings open only to undergraduates, was held by Exeter College, Oxford from 1850. The annual Wenlock Olympian Games, first held in 1850 in Wenlock, incorporated athletics events into its sports programme.
The first modern-style indoor athletics meetings were recorded shortly after in the 1860s, including a meet at Ashburnham Hall in London which featured four running events and a triple jump competition. The Amateur Athletic Association was established in England on 1880 as the first national body for the sport of athletics and began holding its own annual athletics competition – the AAA Championships; the United States began holding an annual national competition – the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships – first held in 1876 by the New York Athletic Club. Athletics became codified and standardized via the English AAA and other general sports organisations in the late 19th century, such as the Amateur Athletic Union and the Union des sociétés françaises de sports athlétiques. An athletics competition was included in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and it has been as one of the foremost competitions at the quadrennial multi-sport event since. For men only, the 1928 Olympics saw the introduction of women's events in the athletics programme.
Athletics is part of the Paralympic Games since the inaugural Games in 1960. Athletics has a high-profile during major championships the Olympics, but otherwise is less popular. An internation
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop and jump or the hop and jump, is a track and field event, similar to the long jump. As a group, the two events are referred to as the "horizontal jumps"; the competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a bound and a jump into the sand pit. The triple jump was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games' inception in 1896. According to IAAF rules, "the hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which he has taken off. Both records were set during 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg. Historical sources on the ancient Olympic Games mention jumps of 15 meters or more; this led sports historians to conclude that these must have been a series of jumps, thus providing the basis for the triple jump. However, there is no evidence for the triple jump being included in the ancient Olympic Games, it is possible that the recorded extraordinary distances are due to artistic license of the authors of victory poems, rather than attempts to report accurate results.
The triple jump was a part of the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens, although at the time it consisted of two hops on the same foot and a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is performed in competition today; the women's triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996. In Irish mythology the geal-ruith, was an event contested in the ancient Irish Tailteann Games as early as 1829 BC; the athlete sprints down a runway to a takeoff mark. The takeoff mark is a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the far edge of the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board; these boards are placed at different places on the run way depending on how far the athlete can jump.
The boards are set. These are the most common boards you see at the high school and collegiate levels, but boards can be placed anywhere on the runway. There are three phases of the triple jump: the "hop" phase, the "bound" or "step" phase, the "jump" phase; these three phases are executed in one continuous sequence. The hop begins with the athlete jumping from the take off board on one leg, which for descriptive purposes will be the right leg; the objective of the first phase is to hop out. The hop landing phase is active, involving a powerful backward "pawing" action of the right leg, with the right take-off foot landing heel first on the runway; the hop landing marks the beginning of the step phase, where the athlete utilizes the backward momentum of the right leg to execute a powerful jump forwards and upwards, the left leg assisting the take-off with a powerful hip flexion thrust. This leads to the familiar step-phase mid-air position, with the right take off leg trailing flexed at the knee, the left leg now leading flexed at the hip and knee.
The jumper holds this position for as long as possible, before extending the knee of the leading left leg and immediately beginning a powerful backward motion of the whole left leg, again landing on the runway with a powerful pawing action. The takeoff leg should be extended with the drive leg thigh just below parallel to the ground; the takeoff leg stays extended behind the body with the heel held high. The drive leg extends with a flexed ankleand snaps downward for a quick transition into the jump phase; the step landing forms the beginning of the take-off of the final phase, where the athlete utilizes the backward force from the left leg to take off again. The jump phase is similar to the long jump although most athletes have lost too much speed by this time to manage a full hitch kick, used is a hang or sail technique; when landing in the sand-filled pit, the jumper should aim to avoid sitting back on landing, or placing either hand behind the feet. The sand pit begins 13m from the take off board for male international competition, or 11m from the board for international female and club-level male competition.
Each phase of the triple jump should get progressively higher, there should be a regular rhythm to the 3 landings. A "foul" known as a "scratch," or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit does not use the correct foot sequence throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time; when a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper, "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump. It shall not be considered a foul if an athlete, while jumping, should touch or scrape the ground with his/her "sleeping leg". Called a "scrape foul", "sleeping leg" touch violations were ruled as fouls prior to the mid-1980s; the IAAF changed the rules following outrage at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, when Russian field officials in the Men's Triple Jump ruled as foul 8 of the 12 jumps made by two leading competitors thus helping two Russian jumpers win the G
The 1500 metres or 1,500-metre run is the foremost middle distance track event in athletics. The distance has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 and the World Championships in Athletics since 1983, it is equivalent to 1.5 kilometers or 15⁄16 miles. The demands of the race are similar to that of the 800 metres, but with a higher emphasis on aerobic endurance and a lower sprint speed requirement; the 1500 metre race is predominantly aerobic, but anaerobic conditioning is required. Each lap run during the world-record race run by Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco in 1998 in Rome, Italy averaged just under 55 seconds. 1,500 metres is three-quarter laps around a 400-metre track. During the 1970s and 1980s this race was dominated by British runners, along with an occasional Finn, American, or New Zealander, but through the 1990s a large number of African runners began to take over in being the masters of this race, with runners from Kenya and Algeria winning the Olympic gold medals. In the Modern Olympic Games, the men's 1,500-metre race has been contested from the beginning, at every Olympic Games since.
The first winner, in 1896, was Edwin Flack of Australia, who won the first gold medal in the 800-metre race. The women's 1,500-metre race was first added to the Summer Olympics in 1972, the winner of the first gold medal was Lyudmila Bragina of the Soviet Union. During the Olympic Games of 1972 through 2008, the women's 1,500-metre race has been won by three Soviets plus one Russian, one Italian, one Romanian, one Briton, one Kenyan, two Algerians; the 2012 Olympic results are still undecided as a result of multiple doping cases. The best women's times for the race were controversially set by Chinese runners, all set in the same race on just two dates 4 years apart at the Chinese National Games. At least one of those top Chinese athletes has admitted to being part of a doping program; the women's record was surpassed by Genzebe Dibaba of Ethiopia in 2015. In American high schools, the mile run and the 1,600-metre run colloquially referred to as "metric mile", are more run than the 1,500-metre run, since US customary units are better-known in America.
Which distance is used depends on which state the high school is in, for convenience, national rankings are standardized by converting all 1,600-metre run times to their mile run equivalents. Many 1500 metres events at the championship level, turn into slow, strategic races, with the pace quickening and competitors jockeying for position in the final lap to settle the race in a final sprint; such is the difficulty of maintaining the pace throughout the duration of the event, most records are set in planned races led by pacemakers who sacrifice their opportunity to win by leading the early laps at a fast pace before dropping out. "The person who wins the race is behind watching" Correct as of September 2018. Below is a list of other times superior to 3:28.00: Hicham El Guerrouj ran 3:26.12, 3:26.89, 3:27.21, 3:27.64, 3:27.65. Bernard Lagat ran 3:27.40, 3:27.91. Asbel Kiprop ran 3:27.72. Correct as of September 2018. Below is a list of other times superior to 3:55.50: Genzebe Dibaba ran 3:54.11, 3:55.17i.
Tatyana Kazankina ran 3:55.0. Lixin Lan ran 3:55.01. Yunxia Qu ran 3:55.38. Zhang Ling ran 3:55.47. The following athlete had their performance annulled due to a doping violation: Mariem Selsouli 3:56.15 A Known as the World Indoor Games "i" indicates performance on 200m indoor track 1,500 metres is an event in swimming and speed skating. The world records for the distance in swimming for men are 14:31.02 by Sun Yang, 14:08.06 by Gregorio Paltrinieri. The world records for the distance in speed skating are 1:41.04 by Shani Davis and 1:50.85 by Heather Richardson-Bergsma. IAAF list of 1500-metres records in XML Statistics
The steeplechase is an obstacle race in athletics, which derives its name from the steeplechase in horse racing. The foremost version of the event is the 3000 metres steeplechase; the 2000 metres steeplechase is the next most common distance. The 1900 Olympics featured a 2500 metres steeplechase and a 4000 metres steeplechase, a 2590 metres steeplechase was held at the 1904 Olympics. A 1000 metres steeplechase is used in youth athletics; the event originated in Ireland. Horses and riders raced from one town's steeple to the next; the steeples were used as markers due to their visibility over long distances. Along the way runners had to jump streams and low stone walls separating estates; the modern athletics event originates from a two-mile cross country steeplechase that formed part of the University of Oxford sports in 1860. It was replaced in 1865 by an event over barriers on a flat field, which became the modern steeplechase, it has been an Olympic event since the inception of the modern Olympics, though with varying lengths.
Since the 1968 Summer Olympics, steeplechase in the Olympics has been dominated by Kenyan athletes, including the current gold medal streak since 1984 and a clean sweep of the medals at the 1992 and 2004 Games. The steeplechase for women is 3,000 metres long, but with lower barriers than for the men. A distance of 2,000 metres, with a shorter water jump, was experimented with before the current race format was established, it made its first major championship appearance at the 2005 World Championships in Helsinki. In 2008, women's 3,000 metres steeplechase appeared for the first time on the Olympic tracks in Beijing. Other divisions including masters athletics and youth athletics run 2,000 metres distances; the format for a 2,000 metre steeplechase removes the first two barriers of the first lap. The steeplechase at the 1932 Olympics was run over 3460 metres due to a lap scoring error. A 3,000 metres steeplechase is defined in the rulebook as having seven water jumps. A 2,000 meters steeplechase has five water jumps.
Since the water jump is never on the track oval, a steeplechase "course" is never a perfect 400 metres lap. Instead the water jump is placed inside the turn, shortening the lap, or outside the turn, lengthening the lap; the start line moves from conventional starting areas in order to compensate for the different length of lap. When the water jump is inside, the 3,000 metre start line is on the backstretch; when the water jump is outside, the 3,000 metre start line is on the home stretch. The 2,000 metre start line uses 5/7 the amount of compensation. IAAF list of steeplechase records in XML Women's Steeplechase
David Lekuta Rudisha, MBS is a Kenyan middle-distance runner. He is the 2012 and 2016 Olympic champion, 2-time World Champion, world record holder in the 800 metres. Rudisha is the first and only person to run under 1:41 for the event, he holds the three fastest, six of the eight fastest, half of the twenty fastest times run in this event, he holds the world's best time in the 500m, with a time of 57.69, the African record for the 600m, with a time of 1:13.10. Rudisha has won a record 3 consecutive Track & Field Athlete of the Year awards, won the IAAF World Athlete of the Year award in 2010. Born on 17 December 1988 in Kilgoris, Narok County, Rudisha went to Kimuron Secondary School in Iten, Keiyo District, known for nurturing several top runners including Wilson Kipketer, the previous 800 m world record holder, who had held the record for several years before Rudisha joined the school. In April 2005 Japheth Kimutai recommended Rudisha to James Templeton, Rudisha joined the group of runners managed by Templeton, which has at various time included Kimutai, Bernard Lagat and Augustine Choge.
He was a 400 metres runner, but his coach, Irishman Colm O'Connell, prompted him to try 800 m. In 2006 he became the world junior champion over that distance. Rudisha competed at the 2009 World Athletics Championships. In September 2009, Rudisha won the IAAF Grand Prix meeting in Rieti, posting a new African record of 1:42.01, beating the 25-year-old record of 1:42.28 set by compatriot Sammy Koskei. That effort put him in fourth place on the all-time list. In the 2010 IAAF Diamond League, he took on Abubaker Kaki at the Bislett Games in June, he defeated Sebastian Coe's 31-year-old meet record with a run of 1:42.04, giving him another place in the top-ten fastest 800 m and leaving Kaki the consolation of the fastest non-winning time. On 10 July 2010, Rudisha ran the 800 m in 1:41.51 at the KBC Night of Athletics in Belgium. On 22 August 2010 Rudisha broke Wilson Kipketer's 800 m World Record two days before the anniversary of that record with a time of 1:41.09 while racing in the ISATF meeting in Berlin.
Just a week he broke the record again at the Rieti Diamond League Meeting, lowering it to 1:41.01 In November 2010, at the age of 21, he became the youngest athlete to win the IAAF World Athlete of the Year award. He won the Kenyan Sportsman of the Year award. With a time of 1:41.74, Rudisha set the United States all comers 800 m record at the 2012 adidas Grand Prix at Icahn Stadium in New York City. He guaranteed his selection for the Kenyan Olympic team for the first time with a win at the Kenyan trials, running a time of 1:42.12 minutes—the fastest recorded at altitude. Rudisha holds the world record of 1:40.91 for the 800 m, set at the London 2012 Olympics on 9 August 2012. He has six of the top eight fastest times in the 800m. On 9 August 2012 at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, Rudisha led from start to finish to win gold in what was acclaimed "The Greatest 800 Meter Race Ever". In so doing, he became the first and, so far, only runner to break the 1:41 barrier for 800 m. From the start of the race, Rudisha led and pulled away from the rest of the field after 200 metres, completing the first lap in 49.28 seconds.
By 600 metres his lead had grown to several metres. He continued to pull away until the final straight, where second place Nigel Amos was able to gain some ground as Rudisha strained, but the gap was much too great to close, Rudisha crossed the line in a world-record time of 1:40.91. Rudisha's competitors all ran exceptional times. Sports Illustrated's David Epstein reported that the race "is best told in 16 letters: WR, NR, PB, PB, PB, NR, SB, PB." The silver medallist, had to be carried from the track on a stretcher after setting the world junior record and make him only the fifth man in history to run under 1:42, something Rudisha has now done seven times. "With Rudisha breaking 1:41, two men under 1:42, five under 1:43 and all eight under 1:44," noted the IAAF, "it was the greatest depth 800m race in history." Every competitor ran the fastest time in history for their placing. It was the first time in international 800m history where every competitor ran either a personal or season's best.
The time set by the eighth-placed Andrew Osagie, a personal best of 1:43.77, would have won gold at the three preceding Olympic games in Beijing and Sydney. As well as being the first man to go below 1:41, he broke his own world record, set in 2010. "The splits triggered amazement: 23.4 secs for the first 200 m, 25.88 secs for the second, a critical 25.02 for the third and 26.61 to bring it all home." Rudisha's record was considered notable for the absence of pacemakers, which are not permitted at the Olympics or other major championships. The previous person to win an Olympic 800 m final with a world record was Alberto Juantorena, back in 1976. Rudisha became the first reigning 800 m world champion to win Olympic gold at that distance. Sebastian Coe, of the London Olympics organising committee who himself held the 800m world record for 17 years, said: "It was the performance of the Games, not just of track and field but of the Games", he added: "Bolt was good, Rudisha was magnificent. That is quite a big call but it was the most extraordinary piece of running I have ever seen."
Rudisha had been in good shape coming into the race, having "clocked a staggering 1:42.12 minutes at high altitude in Nairobi during the Kenyan trials. After that he had said'the race was nice and easy'