Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, separate from Copenhagen Municipality, but both are a part of the City of Copenhagen, it occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015. Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two; some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, being one of the four municipalities that constitute the City of Copenhagen. However, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or "posh", area, and is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens, Søndermarken, Hostrups Have. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as several stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg.
The Copenhagen S-train system has several stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station and Flintholm station. Frederiksberg's original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the reciter of eldritch times; the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title. In Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as "the old thul". Thula translates like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda. By 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy, it was regarded as Copenhagen's border to the west. People lived here since the Bronze Age; the history of Frederiksberg goes back to 2 June 1651 when King Frederik III gave 20 Danish—Dutch peasants the rights to settle at Allégade, founded the town named "Ny Amager" or "Ny Hollænderby". Farming was not successful, in 1697 most of the town burned down; this meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, the land reverted to the crown by Frederik III's son Christian V. In 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke.
He named the palace Frederichs Berg, the rebuilt town at the foot of the hill changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the local houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land, but rather used the properties as country houses; the town changed from a farming community to a merchant town, with craftsmen and merchants. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the cramped city for the open land, to be near the royals; the town grew with population growing from 1,000 in 1770, to 1,200 in 1800, to 3,000 in 1850. In 1852 Parliament removed restrictions which prohibited permanent construction outside Copenhagen's city walls. Numerous residential areas were constructed, starting in the eastern part near Copenhagen, ending in the western part farthest away from Copenhagen in 1950; this led to rapid population growth. Today Frederiksberg consists entirely of 3- to 5-story residential houses, large single-family homes, large parks.
On aerial pictures Frederiksberg stands out from the surrounding city of Copenhagen as a green area with few large roads. It is considered to be one of Copenhagen's more prestigious areas to live in. Frederiksberg, which lies west of central Copenhagen, is surrounded by boroughs forming part of the city of Copenhagen – the result of an expansion of the Copenhagen Municipality's boundary in 1901, which did not include Frederiksberg in the list of municipalities to be incorporated in the enlarged area. Frederiksberg is thus a municipal island within the country's capital – a unique phenomenon in present-day Europe. Other than administratively, however, it is indistinguishable in character from the districts of Copenhagen city which surround it. Frederiksberg has several stations on the Copenhagen Metro system, is home to the tallest residential structure in Denmark and the second tallest residential building in Scandinavia: the 102-metre high Domus Vista; the Danmark Rundt cycling race traditionally finishes on Frederiksberg Alle in a sprint finish.
Frederiksberg houses the University of Copenhagen's Frederiksberg Campus, Copenhagen Business School, 9 public schools, 3 private schools, 1 technical college, more. The Lycée Français Prins Henrik, a French international school, is in Frederiksberg; the 3 streets Gammel Kongevej, Godthåbsvej, Falkoner Alle are the busiest shopping streets. The town houses the Frederiksberg Centret shopping mall. Frederiksberg Campus Frederiksberg Gardens Frederiksberg Hospital Frederiksberg Palace Frederiksberg Town Hall Copenhagen Business School Copenhagen Zoo Royal Danish Military Academy Population of Frederiksberg
Flintholm Station is a key S-train and Metro interchange junction station in Copenhagen, Denmark. Opened on 24 January 2004, it is located in the west of Copenhagen where the Frederikssund S-train Line crosses the S-train Ring Line, it is located in fare zone 2. The station has two levels. On the lower level the Ring Line runs north-south with side platforms. On the upper level, tracks on Frederikssund Line and the Metro run on bridge constructions with a center platform for each above the ring line tracks; the bridges continue west of the station, above a bus terminal and the street Grøndals Parkvej towards Vanløse station. A large monumental glass roof covers the bus terminal; the design of the station has earned it various awards, among others the European Steel Design Awards. Flintholm Metro station on www.m.dk Flintholm Metro station on www.m.dk Flintholm Railway station on www.dsb.dk
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
The Copenhagen S-train is the S-train of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is a hybrid urban-suburban rail serving the Copenhagen urban area, with the notable exception of Amager; the average distance between stations is 2.0 km, shorter in the city core and inner boroughs, longer at the end of lines that serve suburbs. Of the 85 stations, 32 are located within the central ticket fare zones, 1 and 2; the S-tog is analogous to S-Bahn systems in Germany, is a separate system from the Copenhagen Metro, which operates in the city centre and Amager. On weekdays all stations are served at least every 10 minutes until the evening. There are one peak hour support line. Since all lines, with exception of one, use the same path through the city core, train departures occur every second minute there, at the general limit of metro lines. On most suburban lines, trains depart every five minutes. On Sundays these time intervals are doubled; the first line was opened in 1934, Klampenborg-Copenhagen H-Vanløse-Frederiksberg, with more lines soon after.
Most were converted from steam operated railways to metro-like operation and stations. Today the network forms the heart of public transport in the city, serving more than 357,000 passengers a day; the S-train is owned and run by DSB S-tog A/S. Similar to the S-Bahn systems of Berlin and Hamburg, the S-train network covers the entire greater urban area; the system is complemented by the Copenhagen Metro, regional trains, local diesel-powered trains within Metropolitan Copenhagen, an extensive bus network and two lines of shuttle boats called "harbour buses". The different networks use a common system for fare tickets. Copenhagen's two different city rail systems, the S-train and the Metro, serve more than half a million people a day, the city's bus terminals are adjacent to an S-train or Metro station; as of January 2009 there are 170 km of double track and 84 S-train stations, of which eight are in neighbouring towns outside greater Copenhagen. At most of the termini other types of train are available for travel to the more remote towns in the metropolitan area or to the rest of Zealand and the other islands between the Great Belt and Øresund.
Trains across Øresund to Scania and its main city, Malmö, connect with the S-train network in the city centre. In the city centre, the trains run underground in two tunnel sections served by regional trains. Elsewhere they are in the open above or below street level. There is only one underground station, Nørreport. Flintholm, Ny Ellebjerg and Danshøj stations have tracks crossing each other at different levels with platforms on each level, while at Ryparken they are on the same level; the "ring line" or F line has an elevated section including Nørrebro Station, which offers a view of some of the most populous areas of the city, Nørrebro and Nordvest. The junctions of the Farumbane with the other lines at Ryparken and Svanemøllen include a short elevated section and a short northbound tunnel, respectively. Within the city core the stations are either elevated or lower than the street level; the S-train system has been one-man operated since 1978. Since 2009 free Wi-Fi Internet access has been available throughout the entire S-train system The network consists of a central section that splits into three radial lines at each end, reaching the outer suburbs and neighbouring towns.
The northern radials are: Farumbanen to Farum. Nordbanen to Holte and Hillerød. Klampenborgbanen to Klampenborg; the southern radials are: Køge Bugt-banen to Solrød Strand and Køge. Vestbanen to Høje Taastrup. Frederikssundbanen to Ballerup and Frederikssund; the six radials are additionally connected by Ringbanen going between Hellerup in the north and Ny Ellebjerg in the south. See articles about each of the seven components for station lists and service patterns; the December 2014 timetable has each with a letter designation. Most run from about 0500 to about 0100 each day, with a train every 10 minutes in daylight hours and one every 20 minutes in the early morning and evening/night; the 10-minute interval begins and ends earlier on weekends. Exceptions are service F. E, H and Bx skip certain stops to provide faster travel time, but no trains skip stops inside the ring line; the network is different on weekdays and nights. As of January 2019, the line layout was changed on the northern branches as follows: Line A serves Nordbanen to Hillerød, with limited stops.
Line B serves Hareskovbanen to Farum Line Bx serves Hareskovbanen to Farum, with limited stops and only in the rush hours Line E serves Nordbanen, to Holte Before 2007, each line would run on a strict 20-minute schedule. In periods where more than three trains an hour were needed, the extra trains had separate service designations. Earlier timetables had express services that skipped stops inside the ring line. In the weekends, only lines A, B, C and F run, operating six times an hour b
K. B. Hallen is a multi-purpose venue located at Peter Bangs Vej in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark, it was built in 1938 by Kjøbenhavns Boldklub, Copenhagen's oldest ball-playing club who still owns the site, but was damaged by fire on 28 September 2011. It was used for badminton, tennis and volleyball, but hosted other events, including dance tournaments and flea markets; as a concert hall, it held a capacity of 3,000 people and was the scene of rock and pop concerts, in 1964 The Beatles played their first and only concert on Danish grounds in K. B. Hallen. Kjøbenhavns Boldklub acquired the large site on the south side of Peter Bangs Vej in 1924. K. B. Hallen was inaugurated in the presence of king Christian X on 22 April 1938; the architect was the chief engineer Christen Ostenfeld. Poul Henningsen designed special lighting and an adjacent ballroom called "Pejsesalen", where a large mural was painted. Following Operation Safari and the scuttling of the Danish navy in 1943, most navy personnel were interned at KB Hallen.
In the summer of 1944, K. B. Hallen was subject to so-called schalburgtage when members of the Schalburg Corps placed a bomb in the hall, destroying most of the furniture and glasswork, but the building itself was left intact, rendering the hall closed for only half a year afterwards; the building was used for a number of concerts. Artists to have performed at the hall include Beniamino Gigli, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Josephine Baker, Count Basie, Mary Lou Williams, Leo Mathisen, Stan Laurel & Oliver Hardy, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Janis Joplin, Fleetwood Mac Love + Procol Harum, Jimi Hendrix, The Band, Pink Floyd, Steve Miller Band, Led Zeppelin, Jimi Hendrix, Deep Purple, Black Sabbath, The Who, Stephen Stills Manassas, Frank Zappa, Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce, Aerosmith, Iron Maiden, Skid Row+L. A. Guns, Keith Richards, Smashing Pumpkins, Kraftwerk, Papa Roach, The Prodigy, Dio, Uriah Heep, Slipknot og Busta Rhymes, My Chemical Romance, Slipknot, Mötley Crüe, Coheed and Joe Bonamassa/Black Country Communion in 2011.
Others to have performed there over the years include Alice Cooper, Great White, Chuck Berry, System of A Down, G3, Bob Dylan, Lou Reed, Alice In Chains, Ozzy Osbourne, Gary Moore, Uriah Heep, Motörhead, Def Leppard, Nightwish, Marilyn Manson, Machine Head, Foo Fighters, Oasis, B. B. King, The Moody Blues, Dream Theater, The Cult, Scorpions, Slayer, Sheryl Crow, Stone Temple Pilots, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Queensrÿche, Paul McCartney & Wings, Green Day, The Black Crowes and Jethro Tull; the Danish band Dizzy Mizz Lizzy announced 1 concert in here in 2010. It sold out in 15 seconds. Afterwards they announced 3 extra concert. After these sold out as well, 10.000 people were in queue for a ticket. At the rear of the hall was a small museum, with pictures and documents on the club and hall's history. On 28 September 2011, K. B. Hallen was destroyed in a major fire. Initial suspicions linked the fire to a food kiosk in the lobby of the building, or to an electrical lighting fault. Photo Gallery: After the fire, it was decided to construct a new K.
B. Hallen to a design inspired by the old building, with architectural firm Christensen & Co leading the project. Demolition started on 20 February 2015, with expected completion of the new building in 2018, reopening to the public in January 2019; the opening event will be on 24 January 2019. Keddelhallen Official website
Ålholm station is a commuter rail railway station serving the northwestern part of the district of Valby in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located on the Ring Line of Copenhagen's S-train network; the station opened on 8 January 2005 where Roskildevej crosses the railway line
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun