Time Warner Cable
Time Warner Cable was an American cable television company. Before it was purchased by Charter Communications on May 18, 2016, it was ranked the second largest cable company in the United States by revenue behind only Comcast, operating in 29 states, its corporate headquarters were located in the Time Warner Center in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, with other corporate offices in Stamford, Connecticut. From 1971 to 1981, Time Warner Cable, as Warner Cable, owned Dimension Pictures, it was controlled by Warner Communications by Time Warner. That company spun off the cable operations in March 2009 as part of a larger restructuring. From 2009 to 2016, Time Warner Cable was an independent company, continuing to use the Time Warner name under license from its former parent. In 2014, the company was the subject of a proposed purchase by Comcast Corporation, valued at $45.2 billion. S. government to try to block the merger, Comcast called off the deal in April 2015. On May 26, 2015, Charter Communications announced that it would acquire Time Warner Cable for $78.7 billion, along with Bright House Networks in a separate $10.1 billion deal, pending regulatory approval.
The purchase was completed on May 18, 2016. Time Warner Cable was formed in 1992 by the merger of Time Inc.'s cable television company, American Television and Communications Corp. and Warner Cable, a division of Warner Communications, as a result of a merger to form Time Warner. It includes the remnants of the defunct QUBE interactive TV service. In 1995, the company launched the Southern Tier On-Line Community, a cable modem service known as Road Runner High Speed Online; that year, talks began that would result in Warner's acquisition of Paragon Cable. Glenn Britt was the CEO from 2001 until December 2013. Time Warner retained Time Warner Cable as a subsidiary until March 2009, when it was spun out as an independent company. Prior to the spin-out, Time Warner had held an 84% stake in Time Warner Cable. Non-Time Warner shareholders received 0.083670 shares for each share owned. This move made Time Warner Cable the largest cable operator in the United States owned by a single class of shareholders.
Time Warner Cable launched DVR service in the Houston area in 2004. When first launched, it used Scientific-Atlanta set-top boxes with DVR. In June 2009, Time Warner Cable unveiled a concept known as "TV Everywhere"—a means of allowing multi-platform access to live and on-demand content from television channels, tied to a user's television subscription, it was first reported in October 2013 that Time Warner Cable was exploring a sale of the company to Charter Communications. However, on November 22, 2013, reports surfaced that Comcast expressed interest in acquiring Time Warner Cable. Both companies were said to be placing bids for the company. Charter reiterated its interest in purchasing Time Warner Cable and increased its bid on January 14, 2014. On February 12, 2014, it was reported that Comcast had reached a deal to acquire TWC in an overall deal valued at $45.2 billion, pending regulatory approval. The proposed merger was met with prominent opposition from various groups, showing concerns that the sheer size of the combined company would reduce competition and would give Comcast an unprecedented level of control over the United States' internet and television industries, increased leverage in the distribution of NBCUniversal content, hamper over-the-top services, lead to higher prices for its services.
In April 2015, it was reported that the U. S. Department of Justice was preparing to file an antitrust lawsuit against the companies in a bid to halt the merger because the merged company would have controlled 57 percent of the nation's broadband capacity. On April 24, 2015, Comcast announced that it had called off the merger. On May 25, 2015, Bloomberg News reported that Charter was "near" a deal to acquire TWC for $195 a share. Charter had been involved in the Comcast/TWC merger, as the companies planned to divest around 4 million subscribers to Charter in order to reduce the combined company's market share to an acceptable level; the next day, Charter announced its intent to acquire Time Warner Cable in a deal valued at $78.7 billion, confirmed that it would continue with its proposed, $10.1 billion acquisition of Bright House Networks. The deal was subject to regulatory approval, although due to the smaller size of the companies and their media holdings, the deal was expected to face less resistance than the Comcast/TWC merger.
The acquisition was completed on May 18, 2016. The Time Warner Cable brand was phased out in favor of Spectrum, the brand used by Charter since 2014 to market its s
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se
Mainstream Top 40
The Mainstream Top 40 is a 40-song music chart published weekly by Billboard Magazine which ranks the most popular songs being played on a panel of Top 40 radio stations in the United States. The rankings are based on radio airplay detections as measured by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems, a subsidiary of the U. S.' Leading marketing research company. Consumer researchers, Nielsen Audio, refers to the format as contemporary hit radio; the chart debuted in Billboard Magazine in its issued date October 3, 1992, with the introduction of two Top 40 airplay charts and Rhythm-Crossover. Both Top 40 charts measured "actual monitored airplay" from data compiled by Broadcast Data Systems; the Top 40/Mainstream chart was compiled from airplay on radio stations playing a wide variety of music, while the Top 40/Rhythm-Crossover chart was made up from airplay on stations playing more dance and R&B music. Both charts were "born of then-new BDS electronic monitoring technology" as a more objective and precise way of measuring airplay on radio stations.
This data was used as the airplay component for Hot 100 tabulations. Top 40/Mainstream was published in the print edition of Billboard from its debut in October 1992 through May 1995, when both Top 40 charts were moved to Airplay Monitor, a secondary chart publication by Billboard, they returned to the print edition in the August 2003, issue. Songs on the chart are ranked by the total number of spins detected per week. Songs which gain plays or remain flat from the previous week will receive a bullet. A song will receive a bullet if its percentage loss in plays does not exceed the percentage of monitored station downtime for the format. If two songs are tied in total plays, the song with the larger increase in plays is placed first. There are forty positions on this chart and it is based on radio airplay. A number of Top 40 Mainstream radio stations are electronically monitored 24 hours a day, seven days a week by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems. Songs are ranked by a calculation of the total number of spins per week with its "audience impression", based upon exact times of airplay and each station's Arbitron listener data.
Songs receiving the greatest growth will receive a "bullet", although there are tracks that will get bullets if the loss in detections doesn't exceed the percentage of downtime from a monitored station. "Airpower" awards are issued to songs that appear on the top 20 of both the airplay and audience chart for the first time, while the "greatest gainer" award is given to song with the largest increase in detections. A song with six or more spins in its first week is awarded an "airplay add". If a song is tied for the most spins in the same week, the one with the biggest increase that previous week will rank higher, but if both songs show the same amount of spins regardless of detection the song, being played at more stations is ranked higher. Since the introduction of the chart until 2005, songs below No. 20 were moved to recurrent after 26 weeks on the chart. In the chart week of December 3, 2005, songs below No. 20 were moved to recurrent after 20 weeks on the chart. Since the issue dated December 4, 2010, songs older than 20 weeks on the chart are moved to recurrent after they drop below No. 15.
Whereas the Top 40 Mainstream and Pop 100 Airplay charts both measured the airplay of songs played on Mainstream stations playing pop-oriented music, the Pop 100 Airplay measured airplay based on statistical impressions, while the Top 40 Mainstream chart used the number of total detections. On October 19, 2017, the Mainstream Top 40 co-hosts, Gary Trust and Trevor Anderson, gave hints as to what the number 1 all-time Mainstream Top 40 song was going to be on the charts; that day, the top 100 all-time songs and the top 50-all time artists were released, with the number 1 all-time song being revealed as "Another Night" by Real McCoy. Shown below are the top 10 artists from each chart. Source: Source: Source: The year indicates. Katy Perry Mariah Carey Maroon 5 P!nk, Rihanna Ace of Base, Taylor Swift Bruno Mars Justin Timberlake Christina Aguilera Boyz II Men, Beyoncé Source: Rihanna Nicki Minaj Britney Spears Chris Brown Pitbull Mariah Carey Lil Wayne Source: Mariah Carey: December 9, 1995"One Sweet Day" "Fantasy"OutKast: January 31 - February 7, 2004"Hey Ya!"
"The Way You Move" Pharrell Williams: July 27 - August 3, 2013"Blurred Lines" "Get Lucky" Iggy Azalea: June 28 - July 12, 2014"Fancy" "Problem" Halsey: February 23 - March 9, 2019"Without Me" "Eastside" Source: Mariah Carey — "Fantasy" → "One Sweet Day" OutKast — "Hey Ya!" → "The Way You Move" Iggy Azalea — "Fancy" → "Problem" † Halsey — "Without Me" → "Eastside" † Iggy Azalea is the only act in Mainstream Top 40 history to replace herself at number one with her first two chart entries. Source: Lady Gaga is the only artist to have her first six singles reach No. 1. Britney Spears holds the record for the longest span between No. 1s at 12 years, seven months and four days between her first No.1 and her latest. JoJo at age 13, became the youngest solo artist to have a numbe
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
The Gap Band
The Gap Band was an American R&B and funk band that rose to fame during the 1970s and 1980s. The band consisted of three brothers Charlie and Robert Wilson; the group shortened its name to The Gap Band in 1973. After 43 years together, they retired in 2010; the band received its first big break by being the back up band for fellow Oklahoman Leon Russell's Stop All That Jazz album released in 1974. Early on, the group took on a funk sound reminiscent of the early 1970s; this style failed to catch on, their first two LP's, 1974's Magician's Holiday, recorded at Leon Russell's historic The Church Studio and 1977's The Gap Band, failed to chart or produce any charting singles. Afterwards, they were introduced to LA producer Lonnie Simmons, who signed them to his production company Total Experience Productions, managed to get them a record deal with Mercury Records. On their first album with Simmons, The Gap Band, they found chart success with songs such as "I'm in Love" and "Shake"; that year, the group released "I Don't Believe You Want to Get Up and Dance" on their album The Gap Band II.
Although it did not hit the Hot 100, it soared to #4 R&B, the album went gold. The song, the band's musical output as a whole, became more P-Funk-esque, with expanded use of the synthesizers and spoken monologues within songs; the song "Steppin'" reached the top 10 R&B. Charlie Wilson provided background vocals on Stevie Wonder's 1980 hit "I Ain't Gonna Stand For It" from Wonder's album Hotter Than July; the band reached a whole new level of fame in 1980 with the release of the #1 R&B and #16 Billboard 200 hit, The Gap Band III. That album had soul ballads such as the #5 R&B song "Yearning for Your Love", funk songs such as the R&B chart-topper "Burn Rubber on Me" and "Humpin'", they repeated this formula on the #1 R&B album Gap Band IV in 1982, which resulted in three hit singles: "Early in the Morning", "You Dropped a Bomb on Me", "Outstanding". It was during this time, their 1983 album, Gap Band V: Jammin', went gold, but was not quite as successful as the previous works, peaking at #2 R&B and #28 on the Billboard 200.
The single "Party Train" peaked at #3 R&B, the song "Jam the Motha'" peaked at #16 R&B, but neither made it onto the Hot 100. The album's closer "Someday" featured Stevie Wonder as a guest vocalist, their next work, Gap Band VI brought them back to #1 R&B in 1985, but the album sold fewer copies and did not go gold. "Beep a Freak" hit #2 R&B, "I Found My Baby" peaked at #8 on the R&B charts, "Disrespect" peaked at #18. That year, lead singer Charlie Wilson and singer Shirley Murdock provided backing vocals on Zapp & Roger's #2 R&B "Computer Love". While their 1986 cover of "Going in Circles" went to #2 on the R&B charts, the album it was released on, Gap Band VII, hit #6 R&B, the album became their first in years to miss the Billboard 200, peaking at a mere #159. While they were beginning to struggle stateside, the group found their greatest success in the UK when their 1986 single "Big Fun" from Gap Band 8 reached #4 in the UK Singles Chart. 1988's Straight from the Heart was their last studio album with Total Experience.
The Gap Band caught a small break in 1988 with the Keenen Ivory Wayans film I'm Gonna Git You Sucka. They contributed the # 14 R&B title track to the film, their first song on their new label, Capitol Records, 1989's "All of My Love", is, to date, their last #1 R&B hit. The album produced the #8 R&B "Addicted to Your Love" and the #18 R&B ""We Can Make it Alright." They went on a five-year hiatus from producing new material. During the 1990s, the band released two live albums. In 1992, Charlie has had several moderate R&B hits on his own. Wilson's vocals were credited in part for inspiring the vocal style of new jack swing artists Guy, Aaron Hall, Keith Sweat, R. Kelly; the band reunited in 1996, issued The Gap Band: Live and Well, a live greatest hits album. On August 26, 2005, The Gap Band was honored as a BMI Icon at the 57th annual BMI Urban Awards; the honor is given to a creator, "a unique and indelible influence on generations of music makers". "Outstanding" alone remains one of the most sampled songs in history and has, been used by over 150 artists.
Robert Wilson died of a heart attack at his home in Palmdale, California on August 15, 2010, at the age of 53. Since the 1990s, many of The Gap Band's hits have been sampled and or covered by R&B and hip hop artists such as II D Extreme, Brand Nubian, the Creator, 69 Boyz, Big Mello, Mary J. Blige, Da Brat, Ice Cube, Jermaine Dupri, Mia X, Rob Base, Shaquille O'Neal, Snoop Dogg, Soul For Real, Vesta. Other musicians inspired by The Gap Band include Guy, Aaron Hall, Jagged Edge, Bill Heausler, Mint Condition, R. Kelly, Ruff Endz, Keith Sweat, Joe Miller, GRiTT, The Delta Troubadours, D'Extra Wiley. Producer Heavy D sampled "Outstanding" for "Every Little Thing" a 1995 hit single by his boy
Kauaʻi, anglicized as Kauai, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of 562.3 square miles, it is the fourth-largest of these islands and the 21st largest island in the United States. Known as the "Garden Isle", Kauaʻi lies 105 miles across the Kauaʻi Channel, northwest of Oʻahu; this island is the site of Waimea Canyon State Park. The United States Census Bureau defines Kauaʻi as census tracts 401 through 409 of Kauai County, Hawaiʻi, which comprises all of the county except for the islands of Kaʻula, Lehua and Niʻihau; the 2010 United States Census population of the island was 67,091. The most populous town was Kapaʻa. In 1778, Captain James Cook arrived at Waimea Bay, the first European known to have reached the Hawaiʻian islands, he named the archipelago after his patron the 6th Earl of George Montagu. During the reign of King Kamehameha, the islands of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau were the last Hawaiʻian Islands to join his Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, their ruler, Kaumualiʻi, resisted Kamehameha for years.
King Kamehameha twice prepared a huge armada of ships and canoes to take the islands by force, twice failed. In the face of the threat of a further invasion, Kaumualiʻi decided to join the kingdom without bloodshed, became Kamehameha's vassal in 1810, he ceded the island to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi upon his death in 1824. In 1815, a ship from the Russian-American Company was wrecked on the island. In 1816, an agreement was signed by Kaumualiʻi to allow the Russians to build Fort Elizabeth, it was an attempt by Kaumuali’i to gain support from the Russians against Kamehameha I. Construction was begun in 1817, but in July of that year under mounting resistance of Native Hawaiians and American traders the Russians were expelled; the settlement on Kauai has been considered an abrupt instance of a Pacific outpost of the Russian Empire per se. Valdemar Emil Knudsen was a Norwegian plantation pioneer who arrived on Kauai in 1857. Knudsen, or "Kanuka" arrived in Koloa where he managed Grove Farm, but sought a warmer land and purchased the leases to Mana and Kekaha, where he became a successful sugarcane plantation owner.
Knudsen settled in Waiawa, between Mana and Kekaha across the channel from Niʻihau Island. His son, Eric Alfred Knudsen, was born in Waiawa. Knudsen was appointed land administrator by King Kamehameha for an area covering 400 km2, was given the title konohiki as well as a position as a nobility under the king. Knudsen, who spoke fluent Hawaiian became an elected representative and an influential politician on the island. Knudsen lends his name to the Knudsen Gap, a narrow pass between the Kahili Ridge, its primary function was as a sugar farm planted by the Knudsen family. In 1835, Old Koloa Town opened a sugar mill. From 1906 to 1934 the office of County Clerk was held by John Mahiʻai Kāneakua, active in attempts to restore Queen Liliuokalani to the throne after the United States takeover of Hawaiʻi in 1893. Hawaiian narrative locates the name's origin in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the Polynesian navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiʻian Islands; the story relates. Another possible translation is "food season".
Kauaʻi was known for its distinct dialect of the Hawaiian language. While the standard language today adopts the dialect of Hawaiʻi island, which has the sound, the Kauaʻi dialect was known for pronouncing this as. In effect, Kauaʻi dialect retained the old pan-Polynesian /t/, while "standard" Hawaiʻi dialect has changed it to the. Therefore, the native name for Kauaʻi was said as Tauaʻi, the major settlement of Kapaʻa would have been pronounced as Tapaʻa. Kauaʻi's origins are volcanic, the island having been formed by the passage of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaii hotspot. At five million years old, it is the oldest of the main islands; the highest peak on this mountainous island is Kawaikini at 5,243 feet. The second highest peak is Mount Waiʻaleʻale near the center of the island, 5,148 ft above sea level. One of the wettest spots on earth, with an annual average rainfall of 460 inches, is located on the east side of Mount Waiʻaleʻale; the high annual rainfall has eroded deep valleys in the central mountains, carving out canyons with many scenic waterfalls.
On the west side of the island, Waimea town is located at the mouth of the Waimea River, whose flow formed Waimea Canyon, one of the world's most scenic canyons, part of Waimea Canyon State Park. At three thousand feet deep, Waimea Canyon is referred to as "The Grand Canyon of the Pacific". Kokeo Point lies on the south side of the island; the Na Pali Coast is a center for recreation in a wild setting, including kayaking past the beaches, or hiking on the trail along the coastal cliffs. The headland, Kuahonu Point, is on the south-east of the island. Kauaʻi’s climate is tropical, with humid and stable conditions year round, although weather phenomena and infrequent storms have caused instances of extreme weather. At the lower elevations the annual precipitation varies from an average of about 50 inches on the windward shore, to less than 20 inches on the leeward side of the island. Average temperature in Lihu'e, the county seat, ranges from 78 °F in February to 85 °F in August and September. Kauaʻi’s mountainous regions offer cooler temperatures and provide a pleasant contrast to the warm coastal areas.
At the Kōkeʻe state park, 3,200–4,200 ft (980–1