Santa Cruz, California
Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California. As of 2013 the U. S. Census Bureau estimated Santa Cruz's population at 62,864. Situated on the northern edge of Monterey Bay, about 32 mi south of San Jose and 75 mi south of San Francisco, the city is part of the 12-county San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area. Santa Cruz is known for its moderate climate, natural environment, redwood forests, alternative community lifestyles, liberal leanings, it is home to the University of California, Santa Cruz, a premier research institution and educational hub, as well as the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, an oceanfront amusement park operating continuously since 1907. The present-day site of Santa Cruz was the location of Spanish settlement beginning in 1791, including Mission Santa Cruz and the pueblo of Branciforte; the City of Santa Cruz was incorporated in 1866 and chartered in April 1876. Important early industries included lumber, gunpowder and agriculture.
Late in the 19th century, Santa Cruz established itself as a beach resort community. Prior to the arrival of Spanish soldiers and colonists in the late 18th century, Santa Cruz County was home to the Awaswas Natives; the misnomer Ohlone, while used to describe the native people of the Santa Cruz area, is a generalized name for the many diverse groups that lived in the region stretching from San Francisco to the Monterey Bay. The diverse and numerous tribes of this region were earlier referred to by the Spanish as Coastanoan; the term "Ohlone" has been used in place of "Costanoan" since the 1970s by some descendant groups and by most ethnographers and writers of popular literature. Awaswa was one of the eight Costanoan languages and made up a tribe of Native Americas living in Western Santa Cruz County, stretching north of Davenport to Rio Del Mar; the Awaswas tribe was made up of no more than one thousand people and their language is now extinct. The only remnants of their spoken language are three local place names: Aptos and Zayante.
The majority of Ohlone or Coastanoan tribes had no written language, lived in small villages scattered around the Monterey Bay and San Francisco Bay regions. Within fifty years of the Spaniards' arrival, the Ohlone or Coastanoan culture and way of life had disappeared in the Bay area. Today, two of the Coastanoan tribes, the Awaswa people'missionized' in Santa Cruz and the Mutsun people'missionized' at San Juan Bautista, have joined together as the Amah Mutsan Tribal Band in an effort to protect and maintain the authentic and distinct cultural history and practices; the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà, passed through the area on its way north, still searching for the "port of Monterey" described by Sebastian Vizcaino in 1602. The party forded the river and camped nearby on October 17, 1769. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, traveling with the expedition, noted in his diary that, "This river was named San Lorenzo.".
Next morning, the expedition set out again, Crespi noted that, "Five hundred steps after we started we crossed a good arroyo of running water which descends from some high hills where it rises. It was named "El Arroyo de la Santisima Cruz, which translates as "The Stream of the Most Holy Cross"). In 1791, Father Fermín Lasuén continued the use of Crespi's name when he declared the establishment of La Misión de la Exaltación de la Santa Cruz for the conversion of the Awaswas of Chatu-Mu and surrounding Ohlone villages. Santa Cruz was the twelfth mission to be founded in California; the creek, however lost the name, is known today as Laurel Creek because it parallels Laurel Street. It is the main feeder of Neary Lagoon. In 1797, Governor Diego de Borica, by order of the Viceroy of New Spain, Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca y Branciforte, marqués de Branciforte, established the Villa de Branciforte, a town named in honor of the Viceroy. One of only three civilian towns established in California during the Spanish colonial period, the Villa was located across the San Lorenzo River, less than a mile from the Mission.
Its original main street is now North Branciforte Avenue. Villa de Branciforte lost its civic status, in 1905 the area was annexed into the City of Santa Cruz. In the 1820s, newly independent Mexico assumed control of the area. Following the secularization of the Mission in 1834, the government attempted to rename the community that had grown up around the Mission, to Pueblo de Figueroa; the pueblo designation was never made official, however. The new name didn't catch on and Santa Cruz remained Santa Cruz. Mission farming and grazing lands, which once extended from the San Lorenzo River north along the coast to today's Santa Cruz County border, were taken away and broken up into large land grants called ranchos; the grants were made by several different governors between 1834 and 1845. Only two ranchos were within the boundaries of today's city of Santa Cruz. Rancho Potrero Y Rincon de San Pedro Regalado consisted of flat, river-bottom pasture land north of Mission Hill. Rancho Tres Ojos de Agua was on the west side.
Three other rancho boundaries became part of the modern city limits: Rancho Refugio on the west. Rancho Carbonera on the north, Rancho Arroyo del Rodeo on the east. After secularization put most California land into private hands, immigran
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
KSBW, virtual and VHF digital channel 8, is a dual NBC/ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Salinas, United States and serving the Monterey Bay area. The station is owned by the Hearst Television subsidiary of Hearst Communications. KSBW's studios are located on John Street in downtown Salinas, its transmitter is located on Fremont Peak in the Gabilan Mountains; the call letters KSBW stand for "Salad Bowl of the World,", the nickname of the city of Salinas. KSBW began broadcasting on September 11, 1953, it shared the channel 8 frequency with KMBY-TV of Monterey until the two stations merged in 1955 under KSBW's license and call letters. It was affiliated with all four major networks—NBC, ABC, CBS and DuMont. ABC disappeared from KSBW's programming schedule when San Jose's then-independent KNTV decided to concentrate on the Monterey-Salinas market in 1960. For the next nine years, KSBW was forced to shoehorn CBS into its schedule; this was unusual for a two-station market. When KMST-TV signed on as a full-time CBS affiliate in 1969, KSBW became an exclusive NBC affiliate.
In 1957, KSBW's original owners bought KVEC-TV in San Luis Obispo and changed the calls to KSBY. For the next 22 years, KSBY simulcasted KSBW, except for producing its own local newscasts and covering CBS programming. In San Luis Obispo, KCOY provided CBS programming from adjacent Santa Maria, requiring KSBY to drop the feed from Salinas when KSBW was carrying a CBS network program; the simulcasting ended when Blair Broadcasting bought the two stations in 1979 and KSBY became an NBC affiliate on its own. On November 12, 1986, Blair Broadcasting sold most of its English-language stations to Gillett Communications. In 1987, KSBW built a 1,500-foot tall tower atop Mount Madonna in the Santa Cruz mountains in anticipation of viewers from afar San Jose and the South Bay region. However, KSBW was not successful in reaching this audience. San Jose viewers gravitated to Bay Area stations broadcasting from San Francisco and Oakland, in addition to San Jose-based stations. In 2000, KSBW abandoned the tower in favor of their original broadcasting point at Fremont Peak.
In any case, the following year, when San Jose's KNTV acquired the Bay Area NBC affiliation, NBC would have enforced market exclusivity with KNTV. KSBW broadcasts atop a 400-foot tower on Fremont Peak; the tall Mount Madonna tower still is visible from many locations in the South Bay. This tower is leased to Etheric Networks by its current owner, the Mount Madonna Tower Association, is used today for long-range wireless Internet. Gillett Holdings, a subsidiary of Vail Associates at that time, owned just the two stations, along with nearby station KSBY, two ski resorts, a packing company. Gillett filed for bankruptcy on August 17, 1992, after the ski area and its media company was due to emerge from bankruptcy. Gillett put KSBW and KSBY on the market. However, a buyer for both stations was not found until after SCI sold most of its stations to New World Communications in 1993; the following year, KSBW and KSBY were sold to EP Communications, a company co-owned by Elisabeth Murdoch, daughter of News Corporation chairman and CEO Rupert Murdoch.
In 1995, Smith Broadcasting and SJL Communications teamed up to purchase the EP stations, with KSBW going to Smith Broadcasting and KSBY going to SJL because Smith Broadcasting owned KEYT. At the time, the Federal Communications Commission did not allow common ownership of two stations in the same market. What was called Hearst-Argyle Television bought KSBW, along with WPTZ in Plattsburgh, New York, its semi-satellite WNNE in White River Junction, from Sunrise Television in 1998, swapping WDTN in Dayton and the license for WNAC-TV in Providence, Rhode Island. In early 2005, KSBW debuted its localized version of NBC Weather Plus, branded as KSBW Weather Plus on its second digital subchannel. NBC's national Weather Plus operations were shut down on December 1, 2008, after the network's parent company NBCUniversal purchased The Weather Channel. However, KSBW continued to use the L-bar graphics while changing the local forecast frequency to eight times per hour. KSBW Prime Plus programming block debuted on August 2, 2010, although it is broadcast Monday through Friday nights during prime time.
Prime+ consisted of repeat of the 6:: p.m. newscast, Access Hollywood, Dr. Phil, Oprah and a 10:00 p.m. newscast. KSBW Weather Plus continued to air on the subchannel during the time that Prime Plus was not on the air. KSBW shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 8, on June 12, 2009, the official date on which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate; the station's digital signal relocated from its pre-transition VHF channel 10 to channel 8. KSBW-DT2 and its ABC affiliation launched on April 18, 2011, branding as "Central Coast ABC." This marks a return of the ABC affiliation to the immediate Monterey Bay market in 51 years after KSBW dropped the secondary affiliation. Before KSBW-DT2's launch, ABC served the area by San Jose-based KNTV for four decades before it was replaced by a cable-only signal of San Francisco-based KGO-TV in 2000. On April 25, 2016, the station's third subchannel launched, carrying the Spanish-language network Estrella TV.
The station's digital sign
Founded on June 3, 1770, Monterey was the capital of Alta California under both Spain and Mexico until 1850. Monterey hosted California's first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, newspaper. Monterey was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846, the U. S. flag was raised over the Customs House, California became part of the United States after the Mexican–American War. The city is located in Monterey County in the U. S. state of California, on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on California's Central Coast. The city hall is at 26 feet above sea level, the city occupies a land area of 8.466 sq mi. The 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810; the city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century and many celebrated painters and writers have lived there. Until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Monterey's notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman's Wharf and the annual Monterey Jazz Festival.
Long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula. Researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlone's primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone. A number of midden sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans' Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastian Vizcaino recorded the name "Bahía de Monterrey", which has evolved into Monterey Bay. Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino noted and named the "Point of Pines". All other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcaino's name for the bay.
Variants of the city's name are recorded as Monte Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolá expedition, traveled north from San Diego, seeking Vizcaino's "Port of Monterey" from 167 years earlier. For some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1, 1769; the party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back. On the return journey, they camped near one of Monterey's lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, "We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a small lagoon which has rather muddy water, but abounds in pasture and firewood."Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcaino's Port of Monterey after all. The land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3, 1770, Serra founded the Cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo inside the presidio enclosure.
Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the second governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. San Diego is the only city in California older than Monterey. Serra's missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, he moved the mission to Carmel the following year to gain greater independence from Fages; the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio. Monterey became the capital of the "Province of Both Californias" in 1777, the chapel was renamed the Royal Presidio Chapel; the original church was replaced by the present sandstone structure. It was completed in 1794 by Indian labor. In 1840, the chapel was rededicated to the patronage of Saint Charles Borromeo; the cathedral is the oldest continuously operating parish and the oldest stone building in California. It is the oldest serving cathedral along with St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans, Louisiana.
It is the only existing presidio chapel in California and the only surviving building from the original Monterey Presidio. The city was the only port of entry for all taxable goods in California. All shipments into California by sea were required to go through the Custom House, the oldest governmental building in the state and California's Historic Landmark Number One. Built in three phases, the Spanish began construction of the Custom House in 1814, the Mexican government completed the center section in 1827, the United States government finished the lower end in 1846. On 24 November 1818 Argentine corsair Hippolyte Bouchard landed 7 km away from the Presidio of Monterey in a hidden creek; the fort resisted ineffectively, after an hour of combat the Argentine flag flew over it. The Argentines took the city for six days, during which time they stole the cattle and burned the fort, the artillery headquarters, the governor's residence and the Spanish houses; the town's residents were unharmed. Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, but the civil and religious institutions of Alta California remained much the same until the 1830s, when the secularization of the missions converted most of the mission pasture lands into private land grant ranchos.
Monterey was the site of the Battle of Monterey on July 1846, during the Mexican -- American War. It was on
HD Radio is a trademarked term for Xperi's in-band on-channel digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD or as a standard broadcast. The HD format provides the means for a single radio station to broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel, it was developed by iBiquity. In September 2015 iBiquity was acquired by DTS bringing the HD Radio technology under the same banner as DTS' eponymous theater surround sound systems.. It was acquired by Xperi in 2016, it was selected by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States, is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States, it is known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-D.
Other digital radio systems include FMeXtra, Digital Audio Broadcasting, Digital Radio Mondiale, Compatible AM-Digital. While HD Radio does allow for an all-digital mode, this system is used by some AM and FM radio stations to simulcast both digital and analog audio within the same channel as well as to add new FM channels and text information. Although HD Radio broadcasting's content is free-to-air, listeners must purchase new receivers in order to receive the digital portion of the signal. By May 2018, HD Radio technology was claimed to be used by more than 3500 individual services in the United States; this compares with more than 2200 services operating with the DAB system. HD Radio increases the bandwidth required in the FM band to 400 kHz for the analog/digital hybrid version; this makes adoption outside the United States problematic. In the United States the FM broadcast band channels have a spacing of 200 kHz, as opposed to the 100 kHz, normal elsewhere; the 200 kHz spacing means that in practice, stations having concurrent or adjacent coverage areas will not be spaced at less than 400 kHz in order to respect protection ratios which would not be met with 200 kHz spacing.
This leaves space for the digital sidebands. Outside the US, spacing can be 300 kHz; the FCC has not indicated any intent to force off analog radio broadcasts as it has with analog television broadcasts, as it would not result in the recovery of any radio spectrum rights which could be sold. Thus, there is no deadline. In addition, there are many more analog AM/FM radio receivers than there were analog televisions, many of these are car stereos or portable units that cannot be upgraded. Digital information is transmitted using OFDM with an audio compression algorithm called HDC.. HD Radio equipped stations pay a one-time licensing fee for converting their primary audio channel to iBiquity's HD Radio technology, 3% of incremental net revenues for any additional digital subchannels; the cost of converting a radio station can run between $100,000 and $200,000. Receiver manufacturers pay a royalty. If the primary digital signal is lost the HD Radio receiver will revert to the analog signal, thereby providing seamless operation between the newer and older transmission methods.
The extra HD-2 and HD-3 streams are not simulcast on analog, causing the sound to drop-out or "skip" when digital reception degrades. Alternatively the HD Radio signal can revert to a more-robust 20 kilobit per second stream, though the sound is reduced to AM-like quality. Datacasting is possible, with metadata providing song titles or artist information. IBiquity Digital claims that the system approaches CD quality audio and offers reduction of both interference and static. Sending pure digital data through the 20 kilohertz AM channel is equivalent to sending data through two 33 kbit/s analog telephone lines, thus limiting the maximum throughput possible. By using spectral band replication the HDC+SBR codec is able to simulate the recreation of sounds up to 15,000 Hz, thus achieving moderate quality on the bandwidth-tight AM band; the HD Radio AM hybrid mode offers two options which can carry 40 or 60 kbit/s of data, but most AM digital stations default to the more-robust 40 kbit/s mode which features redundancy.
HD Radio provides a pure digital mode, which lacks an analog signal for fallback and instead reverts to a 20 kbit/s signal during times of poor reception. The pure digital mode transmissions will stay within the AM station's channel instead of spilling into the channels next to the station transmitting "HD radio" as the hybrid stations do; the AM version of HD Radio technology uses the 20 kHz channel, overlaps 5 kHz into the opposite sideband of the adjacent channel on both sides. When operating in pure digital mode, the AM HD Radio signal fits inside a standard 20 kHz channel or an extended 30 kHz channel, at the discretion of the station manager; as AM radio stations are spaced at 9 kHz or 10 kHz intervals, much of the digital information overlaps adjacent channels when in hybrid mode. Some nigh
Santa Nella, California
Santa Nella is a census-designated place in Merced County, California. It is located 11 miles east-northeast of Pacheco Pass, at an elevation of 154 feet, At the 2010 census, Santa Nella had a population of 1,380 people; the name does not refer to a saint, as there is no "Saint Nella". It appears to have been formed from the Spanish centinela, referring to the earlier Centinela Adobe, located in the vicinity. Santa Nella began as the site of Rancho de Centinela first established by pioneering stockmen from San Juan Bautista and Monterey as place to raise horses in 1810; the former Centinela Adobe, a one-story adobe built as living quarters for the ranch was located on the El Camino Viejo a Los Ángeles about 3 miles downstream from the site of the San Luis Adobe, at the east end of the Pacheco Pass road, situated on the south bank of Arroyo de San Luis Gonzaga. The escape of many of the horses into the valley and subsequent Indian hostilities made the enterprise a failure; the land and adobe of this old Spanish ranch was included in the Rancho San Luis Gonzaga in 1843.
From the time of the California Gold Rush the stage road from Hill's Ferry crossed the San Luis Creek at Centinella on the way to connect with the Pacheco Pass road at Rancho San Luis. The old Centinela ranch became a stopping place for travelers on El Camino Viejo. A two-story adobe house was constructed near the old adobe by Basque sheepmen in the 1860s and a wooden barn in the 1870s; the two story adobe was subsequently torn down in the 1890s and replaced by a frame house built by Miller and Lux. This house and barn were for a long time local landmarks; however by 1966, the wooden house and barn had been removed and a roadside stop built on the site along State Route 33. The name of the place had been corrupted into Santa Nella; the community was entered into the Geographic Names Information System in 1981 as Santa Nella Village. In 2010, it became a census-designated place under the Santa Nella name. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 4.6 square miles, all of it land.
Interstate 5 intersects with State Route 33 in Santa Nella. State Route 152, a major east-west highway connecting nearby Los Banos with the Santa Clara Valley, runs south of town. Services that cater to travelers in Santa Nella include Hotel Mission de Oro's: The Kitchen at the Mission, Pea Soup Andersen's Restaurant, as well as several fast food outlets, including In N Out and gas stations; the San Joaquin Valley National Cemetery, including the California Korean War Veterans Memorial, is located just outside Santa Nella, on McCabe Road. In addtition, the San Luis Reservoir and Forebay Golf Course are nearby. Santa Nella is served by Merced County's "The Bus"; the bus stops at the Joe's Village Market at 8:45 a.m. 12:45 p.m. and 3:45 p.m. and continues on to Los Banos. The 2010 United States Census reported that Santa Nella had a population of 1,380; the population density was 302.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Santa Nella was 832 White, 22 African American, 25 Native American, 31 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 433 from other races, 37 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 968 persons. The Census reported that 1,380 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 409 households, out of which 209 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 233 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 52 had a female householder with no husband present, 34 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 20 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 70 households were made up of individuals and 17 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.37. There were 319 families; the population was spread out with 468 people under the age of 18, 136 people aged 18 to 24, 380 people aged 25 to 44, 303 people aged 45 to 64, 93 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 120.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.7 males.
There were 493 housing units at an average density of 108.1 per square mile, of which 226 were owner-occupied, 183 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 14.4%. 686 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 694 people lived in rental housing units. In the California State Legislature, Santa Nella is in the 12th Senate District, represented by Democrat Anna Caballero, in the 21st Assembly District, represented by Democrat Adam Gray. In the United States House of Representatives, Santa Nella is in California's 16th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jim Costa. Santa Nella Chamber of Commerce Pea Soup Andersen's website Information on Rancho Centinella by the historian Frank Forrest Latta
Salinas is the county seat and largest municipality of Monterey County, California. Salinas is an urban area located just outside the southern portion of the Greater Bay Area and 10 miles east-southeast of the mouth of the Salinas River; the population was 157,218 as of 2016. The city is located at the mouth of the Salinas Valley eight miles from the Pacific Ocean and has a climate more influenced by the ocean than the hot-summer interior; the majority of residents live in single-unit detached homes, built between 1950 and 2000, while one third of the housing stock has three or more units per structure. Salinas serves as the main business and industrial center of the region; the marine climate is ideal for the floral industry, grape vineyards, vegetable growers. Salinas is known for its vibrant and large agriculture industry and being "The Salad Bowl of the World" as the hometown of writer and Nobel Prize in Literature laureate John Steinbeck, who based several of his novels there; the land occupied by the city of Salinas is thought to have been settled by Native Americans known as the Esselen prior to 200 AD.
Between 200 and 500 AD, they were displaced by the Rumsen group of Ohlone speaking people. The Rumsen-Ohlone remained as the inhabitants of the area for another 1,200 years, in the 1700s, were the group of native inhabitants contacted and recorded by the first Spanish explorers of the Salinas area. Upon the arrival of the Spanish, large Spanish land grants were issued for the Catholic Missions and as bonuses to soldiers. On after Mexican independence, smaller land grants continued to be issued for ranchos where cattle were grazed. One of the many land grants was the Rancho Las Salinas land grant, part of which included the area of modern-day Salinas; as a result of the many new cattle ranches, a thriving trade developed in cattle hide shipments, shipping out of the Port of Monterey. In 1848 California became a part of the United States of America; this transition followed several years of battles in the Salinas area with John Fremont flying the American flag on the highest peak of the Gabilan Mountains and claiming California for the United States.
Before the transition to American administration, Monterey had been the capital of California. For a short while after the transition, California was ruled by martial law. On September 9, 1850, California was admitted to the Union and became a State, celebrated as California Admission Day. In the 1850s a junction of two main stage coach routes was located 18 miles east of Monterey and along the big bend of what is locally referred to as the Alisal Slough. In 1854, six years after becoming a part of the United States, a group of American settlers living in the vicinity of this route-junction opened a post office at the junction, naming their town "Salinas," a reference to the original "Rancho Las Salinas" name for the area, which in turn was named in Spanish for the salt marshes of the area around the central Salinas slough, drained. Soon thereafter, in 1856, a traveler's inn called the Halfway House was opened at that junction in Salinas.. The streets of Salinas were laid out in 1867, the town was incorporated in 1874.
The conversion of grazing land to crops and the coming of the rail road in 1868 to transport goods and people was a major turning point in the history and economic advancement of Salinas. Dry farming of wheat and other grains as well as potatoes and mustard seed was common in the 1800s. Chinese labor drained thousands of acres of swampland to become productive farmland, as much early farm labor was done by Chinese immigrants, Salinas boasted the second largest Chinatown in the state smaller than San Francisco. Irrigation changed farming in Salinas to row crops of root vegetables and sugar beets. Many major vegetable producers placed their headquarters in Salinas; the historic prevalence of row crops is documented by aerial photographic interpretation of Earth Metrics, Driven by the profitable agricultural industry, Salinas had the highest per capita income of any city in the United States in 1924. During World War II, the Salinas Rodeo Grounds was one of the locations used as a temporary detention camp for citizens and immigrant residents of Japanese ancestry, before they were relocated to more permanent and remote facilities.
One of seventeen such sites overseen by the Wartime Civilian Control Administration, the Salinas Assembly Center was built after President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal and confinement of Japanese Americans living on the West Coast. The camp opened on April 27, 1942 and held a total of 3,608 people before closing two months on July 4. Following World War II major urban and suburban development converted much farmland to city; the city experienced two strong growth spurts in the 1950s and 1960s, again in the 1990s and early 2000s. Aerial photographic interpretation indicate such major conversion of cropland to urban uses over the time period 1956 to 1968, while the city annexed the adjacent communities of Alisal and Santa Rita during this time; the Harden Ranch and Williams Ranch neighborhoods constituting much of the city's North-East were built exclusively between 1990 and 2004. Salinas was the birthplace of writer and Nobel Prize laureate John Steinbeck; the historic downtown, known as Oldtown Salinas, features much fine Victorian architecture, is home to the National Steinbeck Center, the Steinbeck House and the John Steinbeck Libr