The cylinder is the power-producing element of the steam engine powering a steam locomotive. The cylinder is made pressure-tight with a piston. Cylinders were cast in cast iron and in steel; the cylinder casting includes other features such as mounting feet. The last big American locomotives incorporated the cylinders as part of huge one-piece steel castings that were the main frame of the locomotive. Renewable wearing surfaces were provided by cast-iron bushings; the way the valve controlled the steam entering and leaving the cylinder was known as steam distribution and shown by the shape of the indicator diagram. What happened to the steam inside the cylinder was assessed separately from what happened in the boiler and how much friction the moving machinery had to cope with; this assessment was known as "engine performance" or "cylinder performance". The cylinder performance, together with the boiler and machinery performance, established the efficiency of the complete locomotive; the pressure of the steam in the cylinder was measured as the piston moved and the power moving the piston was calculated and known as cylinder power.
The forces produced in the cylinder moved the train but were damaging to the structure which held the cylinders in place. Bolted joints came loose, cylinder castings and frames cracked and reduced the availability of the locomotive. Cylinders may be arranged in several different ways. On early locomotives, such as Puffing Billy, the cylinders were set vertically and the motion was transmitted through beams, as in a beam engine; the next stage, for example Stephenson's Rocket, was to drive the wheels directly from steeply inclined cylinders placed at the back of the locomotive. Direct drive became the standard arrangement, but the cylinders were moved to the front and placed either horizontal or nearly horizontal; the front-mounted cylinders could be placed either outside. Examples: Inside cylinders, Planet locomotive Outside cylinders, GNR Stirling 4-2-2In the 19th and early 20th centuries, inside cylinders were used in the UK, but outside cylinders were more common in Continental Europe and the United States.
The reason for this difference is unclear. From about 1920, outside cylinders became more common in the UK but many inside-cylinder engines continued to be built. Inside cylinders give a more stable ride with less yaw or "nosing" but access for maintenance is more difficult; some designers used inside cylinders for aesthetic reasons. The demand for more power led to the development of engines with four cylinders. Examples: Three cylinders, SR Class V, LNER Class A4, Merchant Navy class Four Cylinders, LMS Princess Royal Class, LMS Coronation Class, GWR Castle Class On a two-cylinder engine the cranks, whether inside or outside, are set at 90 degrees; as the cylinders are double-acting this gives four impulses per revolution and ensures that there are no dead centres. On a three-cylinder engine, two arrangements are possible: cranks set to give six spaced impulses per revolution – the usual arrangement. If the three cylinder axes are parallel, the cranks will be 120 degrees apart, but if the centre cylinder does not drive the leading driving axle, it will be inclined, the inside crank will be correspondingly shifted from 120 degrees.
For a given tractive effort and adhesion factor, a three-cylinder locomotive of this design will be less prone to wheelslip when starting than a 2-cylinder locomotive. Outside cranks set at 90 degrees, inside crank set at 135 degrees, giving six unequally spaced impulses per revolution; this arrangement was sometimes used on three-cylinder compound locomotives which used the outside cylinders for starting. This will give evenly spaced exhausts. Two arrangements are possible on a four-cylinder engine: all four cranks set at 90 degrees. With this arrangement the cylinders act in pairs, so there are four impulses per revolution, as with a two-cylinder engine. Most four-cylinder engines are of this type, it is cheaper and simpler to use only one set of valve gear on each side of the locomotive and to operate the second cylinder on that side by means of a rocking shaft from the first cylinder's valve spindle since the required valve events at the second cylinder are a mirror image of the first cylinder.
Pairs of cranks set at 90 degrees with the inside pair set at 45 degrees to the outside pair. This gives eight impulses per revolution, it increases weight and complexity, by requiring four sets of valve gear, but gives smoother torque and reduces the risk of slipping. This was unusual in British practice but was used on the SR Lord Nelson class; such locomotives are distinguished by their exhaust beats, which occur at twice the frequency of a normal 2- or 4-cylinder engine. The valve chests or steam chests which contain the slide valves or piston valves may be located in various positions. If the cylinders are small, the valve chests may be located between the cylinders. For larger cylinders the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in early locomotives, they were sometimes underneath the cylinders; the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in older locomotives, the valve chests were sometimes located alongside the cylinders and inserted through slots in the frames. This meant that, while the cylinders were outside, the valves were inside a
The Whyte notation for classifying steam locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte, came into use in the early twentieth century following a December 1900 editorial in American Engineer and Railroad Journal. The notation counts the number of leading wheels the number of driving wheels, the number of trailing wheels, numbers being separated by dashes. Other classification schemes, like UIC classification and the French and Swiss systems for steam locomotives, count axles rather than wheels. In the notation a locomotive with two leading axles in front three driving axles and one trailing axle is classified as 4-6-2, is known as a Pacific. Articulated locomotives such as Garratts, which are two locomotives joined by a common boiler, have a + between the arrangements of each engine, thus a "double Pacific" type Garratt is a 4-6-2+2-6-4. For Garratt locomotives the + sign is used when there are no intermediate unpowered wheels, e.g. the LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2. This is because the two engine units are more than just power bogies.
They are complete engines, carrying fuel and water tanks. The + sign represents the bridge that links the two engines. Simpler articulated types such as Mallets have a jointed frame under a common boiler where there are no unpowered wheels between the sets of powered wheels; the forward frame is free to swing, whereas the rear frame is rigid with the boiler. Thus a Union Pacific Big Boy is a 4-8-8-4; this numbering system is shared by duplex locomotives, which have powered wheel sets sharing a rigid frame. No suffix means a tender locomotive. T indicates a tank locomotive: in European practice, this is sometimes extended to indicate the type of tank locomotive: T means side tank, PT pannier tank, ST saddle tank, WT well tank. T+T means a tank locomotive that has a tender. In Europe, the suffix R can signify rack or reversible, the latter being Bi-cabine locomotives used in France; the suffix F indicates a fireless locomotive. This locomotive has no tender. Other suffixes have been used, including ng for narrow-gauge and CA or ca for compressed air.
In Britain, small diesel and petrol locomotives are classified in the same way as steam locomotives, e.g. 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-8-0. This may be followed by D for diesel or P for petrol, another letter describing the transmission: E for electric, H hydraulic, M mechanical. Thus, 0-6-0DE denotes a six-wheel diesel locomotive with electric transmission. Where the axles are coupled by chains or shafts or are individually driven, the terms 4w, 6w or 8w are used. Thus, 4wPE indicates a four-wheel petrol locomotive with electric transmission. For large diesel locomotives the UIC classification is used; the main limitation of Whyte Notation is that it does not cover non-standard types such as Shay locomotives, which use geared trucks rather than driving wheels. The most used system in Europe outside the United Kingdom is UIC classification, based on German practice, which can define the exact layout of a locomotive. In American practice, most wheel arrangements in common use were given names, sometimes from the name of the first such locomotive built.
For example, the 2-2-0 type arrangement is named Planet, after the 1830 locomotive on which it was first used. The most common wheel arrangements are listed below. In the diagrams, the front of the locomotive is to the left. AAR wheel arrangement Swiss locomotive and railcar classification UIC classification Wheel arrangement Boylan, Richard. "American Steam Locomotive Wheel Arrangements". SteamLocomotive.com. Retrieved 2008-02-08. Media related to Whyte notation at Wikimedia Commons
Robert Stephenson and Company
Robert Stephenson and Company was a locomotive manufacturing company founded in 1823. It was the first company set up to build railway engines; the company was set up in 1823 in Forth Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne in England by George Stephenson, his son Robert, with Edward Pease and Thomas Richardson. The manager of the works between 1824 and 1825 was James Kennedy; the company's first engine was Locomotion No 1, which opened the Stockton and Darlington, followed by three more: Hope, Black Diamond, Diligence. Their vertical cylinders meant these locomotives rocked excessively and at the Hetton colliery railway Stephenson had introduced "steam springs" which had proved unsatisfactory. In 1828 he introduced the "Experiment" with inclined cylinders, which improved stability, meant that it could be mounted on springs. Four wheeled, it was modified for six and another example, was built. Around this time, two locomotives were built for America; the first, a four coupled loco named America, was ordered by the Hudson Railroad.
The second, six-coupled and named Whistler, was built for the Boston and Providence Rail Road in 1833. In 1829, the company built a experimental locomotive to enter in the Rainhill Trials. Rocket had two notable improvements - a separate firebox. Rocket won the trials and convinced the directors of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway to use steam locomotives on their railway, to order these locomotives from Robert Stephenson & Co. Rocket's cylinder were angled at an angle of 45 degrees, but were moved to be horizontal; the Invicta was the twentieth Robert Stephenson & Co. locomotive, was built for the Canterbury and Whitstable Railway. Its cylinders moved to the front end. In 1830 came the Planet class with the cylinders inside the frames, followed by the Patentee which added a pair of trailing wheels for greater stability with a larger boiler; this 2-2-2 design became the pattern for most locomotives, by a variety of manufacturers, for many years. The locomotive "John Bull", built in 1831, was of the Planet type, but was modified.
It survives and is now in the Smithsonian, is claimed to be the oldest still functional self-propelled vehicle. The increased distance travelled by many trains highlighted problems with the fireboxes and chimneys. With the co-operation of the North Midland Railway at their Derby works, he measured the temperature of the exhaust gases, decided to lengthen the boilers on future engines; these "long-boiler" engines were 2-2-2 designs, but in 1844, Stephenson moved the trailing wheel to the front in 4-2-0 formation, so that the cylinders could be mounted between the supporting wheels. It was one of these, the "Great A" along with another from the North Midland Railway, compared with Brunel's "Ixion" in the gauge trials in 1846. In 1846 he added a pair of trailing wheels - the first with eight wheels. Another important innovation in 1842 was the Stephenson link motion. Robert Stephenson and Company built a number of Crampton type locomotives for the South Eastern Railway and the London and Dover Railway.
These were all of 4-2-0 wheel arrangement with indirect drive. The inside cylinders drove a crankshaft located in front of the firebox and the crankshaft was coupled to the driving wheels by outside rods, they were unsuccessful on the LCDR, the five Echo class locomotives were rebuilt as conventional 4-4-0 locomotives after only four years of service. The first railway proposal in Egypt came about when Pasha Muhammad Ali asked the British engineer T. H. Galloway to design a railway in 1834. Instructions to make it followed in 1836. Materials were delivered but little real construction followed. No Ottoman firwan was issued and the French objected. Progress was made when in 1849 Muhammad Ali died, in 1851 his grandson Abbas I of Egypt contracted Robert Stephenson to build Egypt's first standard gauge railway; the first section, between Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast and Kafr el-Zayyat on the Rosetta branch of the Nile was opened in 1854. This was the first railway in the Ottoman Empire as well as the Middle East.
In the same year Abbas died and was succeeded by Sa'id Pasha, in whose reign the section between Kafr el-Zayyat and Cairo was completed in 1856 followed by an extension from Cairo to Suez in 1858. This completed the first modern transport link between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, as Ferdinand de Lesseps did not complete the Suez Canal until 1869. At Kafr el-Zayyat the line between Cairo and Alexandria crossed the Nile with an 80 feet car float; this was the single largest project of the South Street Works. However, on 15 May 1858 a special train conveying Sa'id's heir presumptive Ahmad Rifaat Pasha fell off the float into the river and the prince was drowned. Stephenson therefore replaced; the Egyptian connections to Robert Stephenson were considerable and a wealth of consequential artefacts are in Cairo Railway Museum. This includes what could well be the single most extravagant piece built by the Robert Stephenson Works; this is works number 1295 of 1862. This 2-2-4T for the Egyptian Railways survives with all its fantastical marquetry in the Egyptian Railway Museum at Cairo.
It is called the Khedive's Train. Over the remainder of the century, the company prospered in the face of increasing competition, supplying railways at home and abroad. By 1899 around 3000 locomotives had been built and a new limited liability company was formed, Robert Stephenson and Company Limited and the works was moved to Darlington, the first locomotive leaving the shop
Under Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 2-2-0 represents the wheel arrangement of two leading wheels on one axle, two powered driving wheels on one axle, no trailing wheels. This configuration, which became popular during the 1830s, was called the Planet type after the first locomotive, Robert Stephenson's Planet of 1830. Other equivalent classifications are: UIC classification: 1A French classification: 110 Turkish classification: 12 Swiss classification: 1/2 After early experience with the 0-2-2 configuration on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Robert Stephenson decided to build a locomotive with cylinders inside the frames, for which a 2-2-0 was preferable; the first such locomotive was Planet, built in 1830 and the company went on to build a further eighteen examples for the railway. In 1835 five examples were supplied to the Greenwich Railway. After 1836 Edward Bury built sixty-nine bar frame 2-2-0 locomotives for the London and Birmingham Railway; the steam roller and traction engine company Aveling and Porter built a number of 2-2-0 locomotives, some of which were convertible traction engines.
Tom Thumb, the first American-built steam locomotive used on a common-carrier railroad, built by Peter Cooper in 1830 was a belt-driven 2-2-0, but the type was not perpetuated. The Dublin and Kingstown Railway used 2-2-0 in 1834 including Hibernia designed by Richard Roberts and built by Sharp and Company, Vauxhall built George Forrester and Company; the first Russian-built steam locomotive was a 2-2-0 built by the Cherepanovs in 1833-1834. By 1840 the 2-2-0 tender type had been superseded by the 2-2-2 configuration. However, there are a few examples of tank engines, thus William Bridges Adams of the Fairfield Locomotive Works in Bow supplied a 2-2-0 well tank to the Roman Railway in 1850. Dugald Drummond of the London and South Western Railway introduced his C14 class 2-2-0T in 1906, for Auto trains, but this design was not successful and several of the locomotives were rebuilt to 0-4-0
Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway
The Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway was the name of a former railway company during the time of the Austrian Empire. Its main line was intended to connect Vienna with the salt mines in Bochnia near Kraków; the term is still used today in referring to a number of railway lines operated by that company. The Nordbahn, financed by Salomon Mayer von Rothschild, was Austria's first steam railway company; the first stretch, between Floridsdorf and Deutsch Wagram, was opened in 1837. An extension to Vienna was built in 1838, the track through Břeclav to Brno in 1839; the first train from Vienna arrived in Břeclav railway station on 6 June 1839. By 1841 the railway had reached Olomouc and in 1842 Lipník nad Bečvou. An extension to Ostrava and Bohumín was completed in 1847; the Nordbahn never directly reached Bochnia. The first rail connection to Kraków via Bohumin and Mysłowice was provided by the Prussian Wilhelmsbahn and Oberschlesische Eisenbahn; the line from Mysłowice to Kraków was built by the Krakau-Oberschlesische Bahn.
An Austrian rail route from Vienna to Kraków did not exist until, in 1856, the k.k. Östliche Staatsbahn, a descendant of the Krákow and Upper Silesian, opened a branch form Trzebinia via Oświęcim to Czechowice-Dziedzice, where it met the Northern Railway. The Northern Railway company was nationalized in 1907, it owned many coal mines and other industry enterprises in the Ostrava region. After the nationalization of its railway network, the company continued to operate its coal and industry businesses; the original Nordbahnhof in the Austrian capital was destroyed in World War II. It was re-opened in 1962 as Wien Praterstern together with the bridge across the Danube. Today's express trains from Vienna to Brno now leave from Wien Meidling railway station, Praterstern is served by suburban and regional trains only. Floridsdorf – Deutsch Wagram. First steam-powered railway in Austria. Wien – Gänserndorf Gänserndorf – Lundenburg; the oldest steam-powered railway in Moravia. Lundenburg – Brünn Lundenburg – Göding – Altstadt – Prerau Prerau – Olmütz Prerau – Leipnik Leipnik – Weißkirchen – Ostrau – Oderberg Ostrau – Troppau Oderberg – Petrowitz bei Freistadt – Auschwitz.
This line was built by the Eastern National Railway in 1856, taken over by the Northern Railway. The Northern Railway was selected as the main motif of a high-value collectors' coin: the Austrian Emperor Ferdinand's North Railway commemorative coin, minted on 13 June 2007; the reverse side depicts a scene of the steam locomotive "Ajax" steam crossing the bridge over the Danube on the first public run from the North Railway Station in Vienna to Deutsch-Wagram on 6 January 1838. The journey, which caused quite a sensation, was witnessed and cheered by crowds of Viennese who had gathered along its route. History of rail transport in Austria History of rail transport in the Czech Republic History of rail transport in Poland Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways Documents and clippings about Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
The leading wheel or leading axle or pilot wheel of a steam locomotive is an unpowered wheel or axle located in front of the driving wheels. The axle or axles of the leading wheels are located on a leading truck. Leading wheels are used to help the locomotive negotiate curves and to support the front portion of the boiler; the leading bogie does not have simple rotational motion about a vertical pivot, as might first be thought. It must be free to slip sideways to a small extent, some kind of springing mechanism is included to control this movement and give a tendency to return to centre; the sliding bogie of this type was patented by William Adams in 1865. The first use of leading wheels is attributed to John B. Jervis who employed them in his 1832 design for a locomotive with four leading wheels and two driving wheels. In the Whyte system of describing locomotive wheel arrangements, his locomotive would be classified as a 4-2-0: That is to say, it had four leading wheels, two driving wheels, no trailing wheels.
In the UIC classification system, which counts axles rather than wheels and uses letters to denote powered axles, the Jervis would be classified 2A. Locomotives without leading trucks are regarded as unsuitable for high speed use; the British Railway Inspectorate condemned the practice in 1895, following an accident involving two 0-4-4s at Doublebois, Cornwall, on the Great Western Railway. Other designers, persisted with the practice and the famous 0-4-2 Gladstone class passenger expresses of the London and South Coast Railway remained in trouble-free service until 1933. A single leading axle increases stability somewhat, while a four-wheel leading truck is essential for high-speed operation; the highest number of leading wheels on a single locomotive is six, as seen on the 6-2-0 Crampton type and the Pennsylvania Railroad's 6-4-4-6 S1 duplex locomotive and 6-8-6 S2 steam turbine. Six-wheel leading trucks were not popular; the Cramptons were built in the 1840s, but it was not until 1939 that the PRR used one on the S1.
AAR wheel arrangement Adams axle Trailing wheel UIC classification of locomotive axle arrangements Whyte notation