New Orleans Pelicans
The New Orleans Pelicans are an American professional basketball team based in New Orleans, Louisiana. The Pelicans compete in the National Basketball Association as a member club of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division; the team plays their home games in the Smoothie King Center. The Pelicans were established as the New Orleans Hornets in the 2002–03 season when then-owner of the Charlotte Hornets, George Shinn, relocated the franchise to New Orleans. Due to the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the franchise temporarily relocated to Oklahoma City, where they spent two seasons known as the New Orleans/Oklahoma City Hornets; the team returned to New Orleans full-time for the 2007–08 season. On January 24, 2013, the franchise announced it would rename itself the Pelicans, effective after the conclusion of the 2012–13 season; the Charlotte Hornets' name and records from 1988 to 2002 were returned to its original city to be used by the then–Charlotte Bobcats franchise, which subsequently became the Charlotte Hornets, starting May 20, 2014.
In 16 seasons of play since the original franchise relocated from North Carolina, the Louisiana franchise has achieved an overall regular season record of 610–686, has qualified for the playoffs seven times. Their achievements include one division title. While the Charlotte Hornets put a competitive team on the court throughout the 1990s, the team's attendance began falling dramatically. Many attributed this lapse in popularity to the team's owner, George Shinn, becoming despised by the people of the city. In 1997, a Charlotte woman claimed that Shinn had raped her, the resulting trial tarnished his reputation in the city; the consensus was that while Charlotte was as basketball-crazy as fans took out their anger at Shinn on the team. Shinn had become discontented with the Charlotte Coliseum, although considered state-of-the-art when it opened in 1988, had by been considered obsolete due to a limited number of luxury boxes. On March 26, 2001, both the Hornets and the Vancouver Grizzlies applied for relocation to Memphis, won by the Grizzlies.
Shinn issued an ultimatum: unless the city built a new arena at no cost to him, the Hornets would leave town. The city refused, leading Shinn to consider moving the team to either Norfolk, Louisville, or St. Louis. Of the cities in the running, only St. Louis had an NBA-ready arena in place and was a larger media market than Charlotte at the time. A new arena in Uptown, which would become the Charlotte Bobcats Arena, was included in a non-binding referendum for a larger arts-related package, Shinn withdrew his application to move the team. Polls showed the referendum on its way to passage. However, just days before the referendum, Mayor Pat McCrory vetoed a living wage ordinance; the veto prompted many of the city's black ministers to oppose the referendum. After the referendum failed, city leaders devised a plan to build a new arena in a way that did not require voter support, but made it known that they would not consider building it unless Shinn sold the team. While the NBA acknowledged that Shinn had alienated fans, league officials felt such a demand would anger other owners.
The city council refused to remove the statement, leading the Hornets to request a move to New Orleans – a move which would return the NBA to that city since the Jazz moved to Salt Lake City in 1979. Before the Hornets were eliminated from the playoffs, the NBA approved the move; as part of a deal, the NBA promised that Charlotte would get a new team, which took the court two years as the Charlotte Bobcats. In a 2008 interview with the Charlotte Observer, who has not returned to Charlotte since the Hornets moved, admitted that the "bad judgment I made in my life" played a role in the Hornets' departure, he said that if he had it to do all over again, he would not have withdrawn from the public after the sexual assault trial. Shinn emphasized how he was making amends by committing to New Orleans saying, "I've made enough mistakes in my life. I'm not going to make one here; this city needs us here. We're going to make this thing work." The Hornets opened their inaugural season in New Orleans on October 30, 2002, against New Orleans' original NBA franchise, the now-Utah Jazz.
In the first regular season NBA game played in New Orleans in over 17 years, the Hornets defeated the Jazz 100–75, posthumously retired #7 of "Pistol" Pete Maravich during halftime. The Hornets finished the season with a 47–35 record but were defeated by the Philadelphia 76ers in the First Round of the 2003 playoffs. Following the season, the team unexpectedly fired head coach Paul Silas and replaced him with Tim Floyd; the Hornets began the 2003–04 season strong with a 17–7 start but sputtered at the end and finished 41–41. They lost to the Miami Heat in the First Round of the 2004 playoffs. After the season, Floyd was fired and the team hired Byron Scott as its new head coach. During the first two seasons in New Orleans the Hornets competed in the NBA's Eastern Conference; the 2004–05 season saw the team move to the Western Conference's Southwest Division to the number of teams in each conference after the Charlotte Bobcats started play in their inaugural season of that same year. In a season marred by injury to the team's three all-stars, the team finished the year with a
Fox Sports Networks
Fox Sports Networks known as Fox Sports Net, is the collective name for a group of regional sports channels in the United States. Formed in 1996 by News Corporation, the group was acquired by The Walt Disney Company in March 2019 following its acquisition of 21st Century Fox. Under an agreement with the U. S. Department of Justice, Disney must sell the channels off to third parties by June 18, 2019, 90 days after the completion of its acquisition; each of the channels in the group carry regional broadcasts of sporting events from various professional and high school sports teams, along with regional and national sports discussion and analysis programs. Depending on their individual team rights, some Fox Sports Networks maintain overflow feeds available via digital cable and satellite providers in their home markets, which may provide alternate programming when not used to carry game broadcasts that the main feed cannot carry due to scheduling conflicts. Fox Sports Networks is headquartered in Houston, with master control facilities based in both Houston and Los Angeles.
At the dawn of the cable television era, many regional sports networks vied to compete with the largest national sports network, ESPN. The most notable were the SportsChannel network, which first began operating in 1976 with the launch of the original SportsChannel in the New York City area and branched out into channels serving Chicago and Florida. On October 31, 1995, News Corporation, which ten years earlier launched the Fox Broadcasting Company, a general entertainment broadcast network that formed its own sports division in 1994 with the acquisition of the television rights to the National Football Conference of the National Football League, entered into a joint venture with TCI's Liberty Media, acquiring a 50% ownership interest in the company's Prime Sports affiliates. On July 3, 1996, News Corporation and Liberty Media/TCI announced that the Prime Sports networks would be rebranded under the new "Fox Sports Net" brand; that same year, Fox rebranded that network as Fox Sports South.
On June 30, 1997, the Fox/Liberty joint venture purchased a 40% interest in Cablevision's sports properties including the SportsChannel America networks, Madison Square Garden, the New York Knicks and New York Rangers professional sports franchises, a deal worth $850 million. In early 1998, SportsChannel America was integrated into the Fox Sports Net family of networks. On July 11, 2000, Comcast purchased a majority interest in the Minneapolis-based Midwest Sports Channel and Baltimore-based Home Team Sports from Viacom. News Corporation, a minority owner in both networks, wanted to acquire them outright and integrate the two networks into Fox Sports Net; the company filed a lawsuit against Comcast ten days on July 21, in an attempt to block the sale. On September 7, 2000, as part of a settlement between the two companies, Comcast traded its equity interest in Midwest Sports Channel to News Corporation in exchange for exclusive ownership of Home Team Sports. In September 2004, Fox Sports Net became known as "FSN".
On February 22, 2005, Fox's then-parent company, News Corporation, acquired full ownership of FSN/Fox Sports Local, following an asset trade with Cablevision Systems Corporation, in which Fox sold its interest in Madison Square Garden and the arena's NBA and NHL team tenants in exchange for acquiring sole ownership of Fox Sports Ohio and Fox Sports Florida. Cablevision gained sole ownership of Fox Sports Chicago and Fox Sports New York, a 50% interest in Fox Sports New England. Fox Sports Chicago ceased operations in June 2006, after losing the regional cable television rights to local professional teams two years earlier to the newly launched Comcast SportsNet Chicago. On December 22, 2006, News Corporation sold its interest in four Fox Sports regional networks – FSN Utah, FSN Pittsburgh, FSN Northwest and FSN Rocky Mountain – as well as its 38.5% ownership stake in satellite provider DirecTV to Liberty Media for $550 million in cash and stock, in exchange for Liberty's 16.3% stake in News Corporation.
On May 4, 2009, DirecTV Group Inc. announced it would become a part of Liberty's entertainment unit, with plans to spin off certain properties into a separate company under the
Fox Sports (United States)
Fox Sports is the programming division of the Fox Broadcasting Company, owned by Fox Corporation, responsible for sports broadcasts on the network, its dedicated regional and national sports cable channels. The flagship entity of Fox Sports Media Group division, it was formed in 1994 with Fox's acquisition of broadcast rights to National Football League games. In subsequent years, it has televised the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, NASCAR, Bowl Championship Series, Major League Soccer, the USGA Championships and NHRA. On December 14, 2017, The Walt Disney Company announced plans to acquire 21st Century Fox for $52.4 billion. Under the terms of the proposed acquisition, the Fox broadcast network, Fox News Channel, the non-regional Fox Sports assets cable channels, the broadcast network division would be spun off into an independent company owned by 21st Century Fox's current shareholders; when the Fox Broadcasting Company launched in October 1986, the network's management, having seen how sports programming played a critical role in the growth of the British satellite service BSkyB, determined that sports would be the type of programming that would ascend Fox to a major network status the quickest.
In 1987, after ABC hedged on renewing its contract with the National Football League for the television rights to Monday Night Football, Fox made an offer for the package at the same price that ABC had been paying at the time – about $13 million per game. However due to the fact that Fox had yet to establish itself as a major network, the NFL decided to resume negotiations with ABC, with the two parties agreeing to a new contract, keeping what was the crown jewel of the league's television broadcasts on that network. Six years as the league's television contracts for both the National Football Conference and American Football Conference divisions, for the Sunday and Monday primetime football packages were up for renewal, Fox placed a bid for $1.58 billion to obtain the broadcast rights to the National Football Conference. On December 17, 1993, the NFL selected Fox's bid and signed a four-year contract with the network to award it the rights to televise regular season and playoff games from the NFC, beginning with the 1994 season.
S. television rights to broadcast Super Bowl XXXI in 1997. The deal stripped CBS of football telecasts for the first time since 1955. Fox lured commentators Pat Summerall, John Madden, Dick Stockton, Matt Millen, James Brown and Terry Bradshaw as well as many behind-the-scenes production personnel from CBS Sports to staff the network's NFL coverage. In order to bolster viewership for the NFL telecasts, Fox parent News Corporation decided to strike affiliation deals with broadcasting companies that owned stations affiliated with ABC, NBC and CBS in order to raise the profile of Fox's affiliate body, which at the time consisted of UHF stations that had little to no prior history as a major network affiliate, had weaker signals and did not carry as much value with advertisers as the Big Three's affiliates. During the late spring and summer of 1994, Fox reached separate agreements with New World Communications and SF Broadcasting to switch a total of sixteen stations to Fox between September 1994 and September 1996 as affiliation contracts with those stations' existing network partners expired.
The NFL television rights and affiliation deals established Fox as the nation's fourth major network. The network's relationship with the NFL would expand in 1997, when it began airing games from NFL Europe, an agreement which ended when the European league folded in 2005. With a sports division now established, Fox decided to seek broadcast rights agreements with other major sports leagues. On September 9, 1994, Fox was awarded the broadcast television rights to the National Hockey League in a $155 million bid. Again, Fox outbid CBS, which wanted to secure the rights as a result of losing the NFL to Fox, for the NHL package. Fox lost the NHL rights to ABC Sports and ESPN in 1999. On November 7, 1995, Fox was awarded partial broadcast rights to Major League Baseball games, in a shared deal with NBC. Through the deal, which Fox paid a fraction of the amount that CBS paid to obtain the rights effective wit
Joseph Francis Buck is an American sportscaster and the son of sportscaster Jack Buck. He has won numerous Sports Emmy Awards for his work with Fox Sports, including his roles as lead play-by-play announcer for the network's National Football League and Major League Baseball coverage, is a three-time recipient of the National Sportscaster of the Year award. Since 1996, he has served as the play-by-play announcer for the World Series, each year, with the exceptions of 1997 and 1999. Since 2015, he's hosted Undeniable with Joe Buck on Audience Network. Buck was born in St. Petersburg and raised in the St. Louis area, where he attended St. Louis Country Day School, he began his broadcasting career in 1989 while he was an undergraduate at Indiana University Bloomington. Buck called play-by-play for the then-Louisville Redbirds, a minor league affiliate of the Cardinals, was a reporter for ESPN's coverage of the Triple-A All-Star Game. In 1991, he did reporting for St Louis' CBS affiliate KMOV. In 1991 Buck began broadcasting for the Cardinals on local television and KMOX Radio, filling in while his father was working on CBS telecasts.
In the 1992–93 season, he was the play-by-play voice for University of Missouri basketball broadcasts. Buck continued to call Cardinals games after being hired by Fox Sports with his father on KMOX and on FSN Midwest television; as his network duties increased, his local workload shrank, prior to the 2008 season it was announced that he would no longer be calling Cardinals telecasts for FSN Midwest. This marked the first time since 1960 that a member of the Buck family was not part of the team's broadcasting crew. In 1994, Buck was hired by Fox, at the age of 25 became the youngest man to announce a regular slate of National Football League games on network television. In 1996, he was named Fox's lead play-by-play voice for Major League Baseball, teaming with Tim McCarver, who had worked with his father on CBS; that year, he became the youngest man to do a national broadcast for a World Series, surpassing Sean McDonough, who called the 1992 World Series for CBS at the age of 30. McDonough had replaced Jack Buck as CBS' lead baseball play-by-play man after he was fired in late 1991.
On September 8, 1998 Buck called Mark McGwire's 62nd home run that broke Roger Maris' single-season record. The game was nationally televised live in prime time on Fox, it was a rarity for a nationally televised regular season game to not be aired on cable since the end of the Monday/Thursday Night Baseball era on ABC in 1989. During Fox's broadcast of the 2002 World Series, Buck paid implicit tribute to his father, who had died a few months earlier by calling the final out of Game 6 with the phrase, "We'll see you tomorrow night." This was the same phrase with which Jack Buck had famously called Kirby Puckett's home run off Braves pitcher Charlie Leibrandt which ended Game 6 of the 1991 World Series. Since Joe has continued to use this phrase at appropriate times, including Game 4 of the 2004 ALCS, in which the Boston Red Sox famously rallied off New York Yankees closer Mariano Rivera in the 9th inning to avoid elimination; when David Ortiz's walk-off home run won it for the Red Sox in the 12th inning, Buck uttered, "We'll see you tonight," alluding to the fact that the game had extended into the early morning.
He used the phrase at the end of Game 6 of the 2011 World Series when the Cardinals' David Freese hit a walk-off home run in the 11th inning against the Rangers to send the series to a seventh game. The similarity of both the call and the game situation resulted in mentions on national news broadcasts. Another notable Red Sox game in the ALCS was in 2013, Game 2 against the Detroit Tigers at Fenway Park; the Red Sox were trailing 5–1 in the bottom of the eighth inning, with the bases loaded with David Ortiz at-bat. Ortiz hit a game-tying grand slam off Tigers' closer Joaquín Benoit, his call: "Hard hit into right, back at the wall," and he calls, "TIE GAME!" as the ball flies over Torii Hunter, who flipped over the outfield wall. Buck is paired with John Smoltz as his color analyst, Ken Rosenthal and Erin Andrews are the field reporters. Besides working with Tim McCarver for 18 seasons, Buck worked with former MLB player and current MLB Network/Fox Sports analyst Harold Reynolds and baseball writer/insider Tom Verducci for 2 seasons.
About a month or two after the 2015 World Series and Verducci were demoted to the #2 team and John Smoltz moved up from the #2 team in order to take Reynolds and Verducci's places. Through 2018, Buck has called 20 World Series and 19 All-Star Games, the most of any play-by-play announcer on network television. Soon after arriving at Fox, Buck became the play-by-play man on the network's #4 NFL broadcast team, with Tim Green as his color commentator. After three years, he stopped doing NFL games to concentrate on his baseball duties full-time. During the 2001 season, Buck filled in for Curt Menefee as the network's number-six play-by-play man. Buck became Fox's top play-by-play man in 2002, he is teamed with Troy Aikman as color commentator and Erin Andrews as the sideline reporter. (Buck worked with Cris Collinswor
The Blue Network was the on-air name of the now defunct American radio network, which ran from 1927 to 1945. Beginning as one of the two radio networks owned by the National Broadcasting Company, the independent Blue Network was born of a divestiture in 1942, arising from anti-trust litigation, is the direct predecessor of the American Broadcasting Company —organized 1943–1945 as a separate independent radio network and TV broadcaster; the Blue Network dates to 1923, when the Radio Corporation of America acquired WJZ Newark from Westinghouse and moved it to New York City in May of that year. When RCA commenced operations of WRC, Washington on August 1, 1923, the root of a network was born, though it did not operate under the name by which it would become known. Radio historian Elizabeth McLeod states that it would not be until 1924 that the "Radio Group" formally began network operations; the core stations of the "Radio Group" were RCA's stations WJZ and WRC. RCA's principal rival prior to 1926 was the radio broadcasting department of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company.
AT&T, starting in 1921, had been using this department as a test-bed for equipment being designed and manufactured by its Western Electric subsidiary. The RCA stations operated at a significant disadvantage to their rival chain; the WJZ network sought to compete toe-to-toe with the AT&T network, built around WEAF. For example, both stations sent announcer teams to cover the 1924 Democratic National Convention, held in Madison Square Garden in New York City. Promotional material produced in 1943 claimed certain "firsts" in broadcasting by WJZ, such as the first educational music program in April 1922, the first World Series broadcasts in 1922, the first complete opera broadcast, The Flying Dutchman, from the Manhattan Opera House. RCA were to receive a break in 1926, when AT&T made a corporate decision to exit the broadcasting business and focus on its telecommunications business; the first step by AT&T was to create the Broadcasting Company of America on May 15, 1926, to hold its broadcasting assets, which included WEAF and WCAP in Washington.
As reported in the press, this move was due to the growth in the radio broadcasting activities of AT&T and the special issues related thereto, though it would appear that subsequent activities in disposing of the assets of BCA may have played a role in the decision. AT&T did in fact subsequently sell WEAF to RCA for $1 million in July 1926, a price that newspaper reports indicated was a substantial premium over what other stations were commanding in the marketplace, represented a recognition of the status of WEAF in broadcasting, as well as its access to AT&T's lines. Indeed, the negotiations for the sale may have taken place shortly after the creation of BCA, as Folder 129 in the NBC History Files at the Library of Congress contains a contract of sale for WEAF dated July 1, 1926; the Oakland Tribune stated that 4/5ths of the purchase price of WEAF could be attributed to good-will and the line access. On July 28, 1926, the Washington Post reported in a front-page story that RCA had acquired WCAP.
The Oakland Tribune reported the same day that WCAP had departed the field, WRC would be operating on the frequency that they had shared, 640 AM. As part of the reorganization of the broadcasting assets in the wake of the acquisitions, on September 13, 1926, the formation of the National Broadcasting Company was announced via newspaper advertisements, on November 15, 1926 NBC's first broadcast was made; this first broadcast on November 15, 1926 marked NBC's de facto formation of the NBC Red Network from the WEAF network assets, using WEAF as the "key station". RCA merged its former radio operations into NBC, on January 1, 1927, WJZ became the "key station" of the Blue Network when its network switch operations began; the Decatur Review for Sunday, December 12, 1926 reported the following in an article describing a broadcast to be sponsored by the Victor Talking Machine Company and aired the following New Year's Day, January 1, 1927, a description of this first Blue Network broadcast—note that it makes it clear that January 1, 1927 marked the debut of the Blue Network: "TWO BIG NETWORKS: The network to be used for the first concert will consist of a combination of chains of stations affiliated with WEAF and WJZ, New York.
It is announced that this opening Victor program inaugurates a new chain system to be operated by the National Broadcasting Company, with WJZ as the "key" station. This new chain, which will be known as the "blue" network, will allow simultaneous broadcasting from WJZ through WBZ, Springfield and Boston, KDKA, KYW, Chicago. For broadcasting of the first program, the "blue" network will be joined with the "red" network, as the WEAF chain is designated, as well as other stations in various cities. Following the New Year's night program, the concerts will be given bi-monthly, through the "blue" network" Allegedly, the color design
WLS-TV, virtual channel 7, is an ABC owned-and-operated television station licensed to Chicago, United States. The station is owned by the ABC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. WLS-TV's studios are located on North State Street near the Chicago Theatre in the Chicago Loop, its transmitter is located atop the Willis Tower on South Wacker Drive; the station first signed on the air on September 17, 1948 as WENR-TV. It was the third television station to sign on in the Chicago market behind WGN-TV, which debuted six months earlier in April, WBKB, which changed from an experimental station to a commercial operation in September 1946; as one of the original ABC-owned stations on channel 7, it was the second station to begin operations after New York City, before Detroit, San Francisco and Los Angeles. The station's original call letters were taken from co-owned radio station WENR, which served as an affiliate of the ABC Radio Network. In February 1953, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, the former theater division of Paramount Pictures.
UPT subsidiary Balaban and Katz owned WBKB. The newly merged American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres, as the company was known could not keep both stations because of Federal Communications Commission regulations enforced that forbade the common ownership of two television stations licensed to the same market; as a result, WBKB's channel 4 license was sold to CBS, which subsequently changed that station's call letters to WBBM-TV. The old WBKB's on-air and behind-the-scenes staff stayed at the new WBBM-TV, while the WBKB call letters and management moved to channel 7. Sterling "Red" Quinlan served as the station's general manager from the early 1950s to the mid-1960s, became a giant in early Chicago television. Quinlan was instrumental in starting the careers of Frank Reynolds and Bob Newhart; the station courageously aired The Tom Duggan Show in the mid-1950s, which became the most popular show in the Chicago market, far outdrawing other network competition. Channel 7 had its call letters changed to WLS-TV on October 7, 1968, named after WLS Radio, which ABC had wholly owned since 1959 when the network bought the 50% interest it did not hold in the station from the Prairie Farmer magazine.
ABC merged WLS with WENR, its shared-time partner, in 1954. In 1963, Al Parker worked in that capacity for 26 years; until his departure, he served as an announcer for AM Chicago and The Oprah Winfrey Show. He died September 30, 2000 at the age of 74. WLS-TV had claimed to be "Chicago's first television station" in its sign-ons and sign-offs during for its first three decades, but admitted to its true roots with WENR with its 30th anniversary in 1978. On January 17, 1984, WLS-TV launched Tele1st, an ABC-owned overnight subscription television service that carried a mix of films and lifestyle programs for four hours per night six days a week after the station's sign-off at 2:00 a.m.. Tele1st was created with the concept of allowing users to record programming for viewing. Scrambling codes that were sent to the box and relayed to the VCR were changed on a monthly basis, requiring subscribers to record additional footage airing before and after that night's schedule to retrieve codes to play back the recorded programs properly.
Tele1st was deemed a failure, attributing only 4,000 subscribers at its peak, ceased operations on June 30, 1984. The station's digital channel is multiplexed: Prior to February 24, 2011, WLS-DT3 has been airing ABC 7 News NOW with weather programming from The Local AccuWeather Channel; the ABC O&Os have discontinued their Local AccuWeather channels on February 24, 2011, replacing its programming with a letterboxed standard-definition simulcast of their Live Well subchannels. WLS-DT3 served as a charter affiliate of Laff diginet from its launch in January 2015. To accommodate the WXFT channel share which took effect in December 2017, WLS-TV discontinued the third Laff subchannel, which shifted over to a subchannel of WXFT's sister station, WGBO-DT2, reduced the Live Well feed from a reduced-bitrate 720p broadcast to a 480i format. WLS-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 7, on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate.
The station's digital signal relocated from its pre-transition UHF channel 52, among the high band UHF channels that were removed from broadcast use as a result of the transition, to its analog-era VHF channel 7 for post-transition operations. WLS operated its digital signal at low power to protect the digital signal of WOOD-TV in Grand Rapids, Michigan (which broadcasts on channe
Chicago White Sox
The Chicago White Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The White Sox compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League Central division; the White Sox are owned by Jerry Reinsdorf, play their home games at Guaranteed Rate Field, located on the city's South Side. They are one of two major league clubs in Chicago. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the franchise was established as a major league baseball club in 1901; the club was called the Chicago White Stockings, but this was soon shortened to Chicago White Sox. The team played home games at South Side Park before moving to Comiskey Park in 1910, where they played until Guaranteed Rate Field opened in 1991; the White Sox won the 1906 World Series with a defense-oriented team dubbed "the Hitless Wonders", the 1917 World Series led by Eddie Cicotte, Eddie Collins, Shoeless Joe Jackson. The 1919 World Series was marred by the Black Sox Scandal, in which several members of the White Sox were accused of conspiring with gamblers to fix games.
In response, Major League Baseball's new Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banned the players from Major League Baseball for life. In 1959, led by Early Wynn, Nellie Fox, Luis Aparicio and manager Al López, the White Sox won the American League pennant, they won the AL pennant in 2005, went on to win the World Series, led by World Series MVP Jermaine Dye, Paul Konerko, Mark Buehrle, catcher A. J. Pierzynski, the first Latino manager to win the World Series, Ozzie Guillén. For 1901-2018, the White Sox have an overall record of 9211-9126; the White Sox originated as the Sioux City Cornhuskers of the Western League, a minor league under the parameters of the National Agreement with the National League. In 1894, Charles Comiskey bought the Cornhuskers and moved them to St. Paul, where they became the St. Paul Saints. In 1900, with the approval of Western League president Ban Johnson, Charles Comiskey moved the Saints into his hometown neighborhood of Armour Square, where they became known as the White Stockings, the former name of Chicago's National League team, the Orphans.
In 1901, the Western League broke the National Agreement and became the new major league American League. The first season in the American League ended with a White Stockings championship. However, that would be the end of the season as the World Series did not begin until 1903; the franchise, now known as the Chicago White Sox, made its first World Series appearance in 1906, beating the crosstown Cubs in six games. The White Sox would win a third pennant and second World Series in 1917, beating the New York Giants in six games with help from stars Eddie Cicotte and "Shoeless" Joe Jackson; the Sox were favored in the 1919 World Series, but lost to the Cincinnati Reds in 8 games. Huge bets on the Reds fueled speculation. A criminal investigation went on in the 1920 season, though all players were acquitted, commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banned eight of the White Sox players for life, in what was known as the Black Sox Scandal; this set the franchise back. The White Sox did not finish in the upper half of the American League again until after club founder Charles Comiskey died and passed ownership of the club to his son, J. Louis Comiskey.
They finished in the upper half most years between 1936–1946 under the leadership of manager Jimmy Dykes, with star shortstop Luke Appling, known as Ol' Aches and Pains, pitcher Ted Lyons. Appling and Lyons have their numbers 16 retired. After J. Louis Comiskey died in 1939, ownership of the club was passed down to his widow, Grace Comiskey; the club was passed down to Grace's children Dorothy and Chuck in 1956, with Dorothy selling a majority share to a group led by Bill Veeck after the 1958 season. Veeck was notorious for his promotional stunts, attracting fans to Comiskey Park with the new "exploding scoreboard" and outfield shower. In 1961, Arthur Allyn, Jr. owned the club before selling to his brother John Allyn. From 1951 to 1967, the White Sox had their longest period of sustained success, scoring a winning record for 17 straight seasons. Known as the "Go-Go White Sox" for their tendency to focus on speed and getting on base versus power hitting, they featured stars such as Minnie Miñoso, Nellie Fox, Luis Aparicio, Billy Pierce, Sherm Lollar.
From 1957 to 1965, the Sox were managed by Al López. The Sox finished in the upper half of the American League in eight of his nine seasons, including six years in the top two of the league. In 1959, the White Sox ended the New York Yankees dominance over the American League, won their first pennant since the ill-fated 1919 campaign. Despite winning game one of the 1959 World Series 11-0, they fell to the Los Angeles Dodgers in six games; the late 1960s and 70s were a tumultuous time for the Sox, as they struggled to win games and attract fans. Allyn and Bud Selig agreed to a handshake deal that would give Selig control of the club and move them to Milwaukee. Selig instead bought the Seattle Pilots and moved them to Milwaukee, putting enormous pressure on the American League to place a team in Seattle. A plan was in place for the Sox to move to Seattle and for Charlie Finley to move his Oakland A's to Chicago. However, Chicago had a renewed interest in the Sox after the 1972 season, the American League instead added the expansion Seattle Mariners.
The 1972 White Sox were one of the lone successful sea