A mascot is any person, animal, or object thought to bring luck, or anything used to represent a group with a common public identity, such as a school, professional sports team, military unit, or brand name. Mascots are used as fictional, representative spokespeople for consumer products, such as the rabbit used in advertising and marketing for the General Mills brand of breakfast cereal, Trix. In the world of sports, mascots are used for merchandising. Team mascots are related to their respective team nicknames; this is true when the team's nickname is something, a living animal and/or can be made to have humanlike characteristics. For more abstract nicknames, the team may opt to have an unrelated character serve as the mascot. For example, the athletic teams of the University of Alabama are nicknamed the Crimson Tide, while their mascot is an elephant named Big Al. Team mascots may take the form of a logo, live animal, inanimate object, or a costumed character, appear at team matches and other related events, sports mascots are used as marketing tools for their teams to children.
Since the mid-20th century, costumed characters have provided teams with an opportunity to choose a fantasy creature as their mascot, as is the case with the Philadelphia Phillies' mascot, the Phillie Phanatic, the Philadelphia Flyers' mascot, Gritty. Costumed mascots are commonplace, are used as goodwill ambassadors in the community for their team, company, or organization such as the U. S. Forest Service's Smokey Bear, it was organisations that first thought of using animals as a form of mascot to bring entertainment and excitement for their spectators. Before mascots were fictional icons or people in suits, animals were used in order to bring a somewhat different feel to the game and to strike fear upon the rivalry teams; as the new era was changing and time went on, mascots evolved from predatory animals, to two-dimensional fantasy mascots, to what we know today, three-dimensional mascots. Stylistic changes in American puppetry in the mid-20th century, including the work of Jim Henson and Sid and Marty Krofft, soon were adapted to sports mascots.
It allowed people to not only have visual enjoyment but interact physically with the mascots. Marketers realized the great potential in three-dimensional mascots and took on board the costumed puppet idea; this change encouraged other companies to start creating their own mascots, resulting in mascots being a necessity amongst not only the sporting industry but for other organisations The word'mascot' originates from the French term'mascotte' which means lucky charm. This was used to describe anything; the word was first recorded in 1867 and popularised by a French composer Edmond Audran who wrote the opera La mascotte, performed in December 1880. The word entered the English language in 1881. However, before this, the terms were familiar to the people of France as a slang word used by gamblers; the term is a derivative of the word'masco' meaning sorceress or witch. Before the 19th century, the word'mascot' was associated with inanimate objects that would be seen such as a lock of hair or a figurehead on a sailing ship.
But from on until the present day, the term was seen to be associated with good luck animals, objects etc. The choice of mascot reflects the desired quality. Mascots may symbolize a local or regional trait, such as the Nebraska Cornhuskers' mascot, Herbie Husker: a stylized version of a farmer, owing to the agricultural traditions of the area in which the university is located. Pittsburg State University uses Gus the Gorilla as its mascot, "gorilla" being an old colloquial term for coal miners in the Southeast Kansas area in which the university was established. In the United States, controversy surrounds some mascot choices those using human likenesses. Mascots based on Native American tribes are contentious, as many argue that they constitute offensive exploitations of an oppressed culture. However, several Indian tribes have come out in support of keeping the names. For example, the Utah Utes and the Central Michigan Chippewas are sanctioned by local tribes, the Florida State Seminoles are supported by the Seminole Tribe of Florida in their use of Osceola and Renegade as symbols.
FSU chooses not to refer to them as mascots because of the offensive connotation. This has not, prevented fans from engaging in "Redface"—dressing up in stereotypical, Plains Indian outfits during games, or creating offensive banners saying "Scalp'em" as was seen at the 2014 Rose Bowl; some sports teams have "unofficial" mascots: individual supporters or fans that have become identified with the team. The New York Yankees have such an individual in fan Freddy Sez. Former Toronto Blue Jays mascot BJ Birdie was a costumed character created by a Blue Jays fan hired by the team to perform at their home games. USC Trojans mascot is Tommy Trojan. See also: Lists of sports mascots: Australian sports, Brazilian football, MLB, NBA, NFL, NHL, Olympics and Paralympics, U. S. colleges See also: Native American mascot controversy, List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples Many sports teams in the United States have official mascots, sometimes enacted by costumed humans or live animals.
One of the earliest was a taxidermy mount for the Chicago Cubs, in 1908, a live animal used in 1916 by the same team. They abandoned the concept shortly thereafter and remained with
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively; because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments claim authority to regulate them.
Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via subchannels as well. Television stations require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. In the United States, for example, a television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station's transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages. Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably.
Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer's point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news. To broadcast its programs, a television station requires operators to operate equipment, a transmitter or radio antenna, located at the highest point available in the transmission area, such as on a summit, the top of a high skyscraper, or on a tall radio tower. To get a signal from the master control room to the transmitter, a studio/transmitter link is used; the link can be either by radio or T1/E1. A transmitter/studio link may send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may pick-up that station over-the-air, or via STL or satellite.
The license specifies which other station it is allowed to carry. VHF stations have tall antennas due to their long wavelength, but require much less effective radiated power, therefore use much less transmitter power output saving on the electricity bill and emergency backup generators. In North America, full-power stations on band I are limited to 100 kW analog video and 10 kW analog audio, or 45 kW digital ERP. Stations on band III can go up by 31.6 kW audio, or 160 kW digital. Low-VHF stations are subject to long-distance reception just as with FM. There are no stations on Channel 1. UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, thus requires a shorter antenna, but higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, but UHF does not suffer from as much electromagnetic interference and background "noise" as VHF, making it much more desirable for TV. Despite this, in the U. S. the Federal Communications Commission is taking another large portion of this band away, in contrast to the rest of the world, taking VHF instead.
This means. Since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America for radio astronomy purposes. Most television stations are commercial broadcasting enterprises which are structured in a variety of ways to generate revenue from television commercials, they may be some other structure. They can produce some or all of their programs or buy some broadcast syndication programming for or all of it from other stations or independent production companies. Many stations have some sort of television studio, which on major-network stations is used for newscasts or other local programming. There is a news department, where journalists gather information. There is a section where electronic news-gathering operations are based, receiving remote broadcasts via remote pickup unit or satellite TV. Outside broadcasting vans, production trucks, or SUVs with electronic field production equipment are sent out with reporters, who may bring back news stories on video tape rather than sending them back live.
To keep pace with technology United States television stations have been replacing operators with broadcast automation systems to increas
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean, its primary competitors are cable television providers. On July 24, 2015, after receiving approval from the United States Federal Communications Commission and United States Department of Justice, AT&T acquired DirecTV in a transaction valued at $67.1 billion. As of Q1 2017, DirecTV U. S. had 21 million revenues of $12 billion. On November 30, 2016, DirecTV Now, their internet streaming TV service, was launched. In 1953, Howard Hughes created the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, to which he transferred full ownership of Hughes Aircraft. Ostensibly created as a non-profit medical research foundation, HHMI was accused of being used by Hughes as a tax shelter. Following Hughes' death in 1976, HHMI was incorporated in 1977, litigation ensued to determine whether it would be allowed to maintain its interest in Hughes Aircraft.
In 1984, the court appointed a new board for HHMI, which proceeded to sell off Hughes Aircraft to General Motors on December 20, 1985, for an estimated $5.1 billion. General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its subsidiary Delco Electronics to create Hughes Electronics Corporation; the new subsidiary was composed of four units: Delco Electronics Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, Hughes Network Systems. Stanley E. Hubbard founded United States Satellite Broadcasting in 1981 and was a leading proponent for the development of direct-broadcast satellite service in the United States. USSB was awarded five frequencies at the coveted 101-degree west satellite location. Hughes Communications, Inc. was awarded 27 frequencies at the same 101-degree location. After many years, the technology was developed to enable the building of high-power satellites, digital compression standards were developed that allowed multiple digital television channels to be sent through each satellite frequency.
Hughes attempted to create a joint venture with NBC, News Corp. and Cablevision in 1990, to launch the first high-power digital television service called Sky Cable. Failing to do so, the company instead created DirecTV as a separate division and secured an agreement with USSB to build and launch the first high-power direct-broadcast satellite system. DirecTV's name is a portmanteau of "direct" and "TV". Hughes/DirecTV turned to Thomson Consumer Electronics to develop the digital satellite system for the service that would be capable of receiving 175 channels on a small 18-inch dish; these dishes utilized a new generation of smaller, lighter receiver dishes based on military technology introduced by the Global Broadcast System, which predated DirecTV's viability by ten years. Hughes was awarded the contract to build and launch the new high-powered satellites, USSB and DirecTV agreed that the new satellites would carry the two separate programming services: USSB and DirecTV; the USSB and DirecTV programming services were launched on June 17, 1994.
Digital Equipment Corporation provided the hardware for DirecTV, Matrixx Marketing provided customer care via the Matrixx Plus department, DBS Systems created the billing software. In December 1998, DirecTV acquired USSB for $1.3 billion, combined the two satellite services. In 1999, DirecTV acquired PrimeStar, a competitor in the satellite television industry, for $1.83 billion increasing its share of the satellite television market in the US. In September 1996, Hughes purchased 70% of PanAmSat for $3 billion. In 1997, GM transferred it to Delphi Automotive Systems; that same year, Hughes Aircraft was sold to Raytheon for $9.5 billion. Raytheon filed a lawsuit in 1999 accusing Hughes of overstating the value of Hughes Aircraft by $1 billion. A $635.5-million settlement was reached in 2001. In 2000, Hughes Space and Communications was sold to Boeing for $3.75 billion, which it claimed had been overvalued by Hughes. Hughes settled with Boeing for $360 million; these sales left DirecTV, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems as the remaining components of Hughes Electronics.
Direct satellite broadcaster were mandated in 1992 to set aside 4% of its channel space for noncommercial educational and informational programming. DirecTV selected C-SPAN, EWTN and the Trinity Broadcasting Network from its current channel lineup plus request additional proposals from other programmers. DirecTV had given PBS Kids, PBS's original application, carriage that did not count against the set aside six weeks before the deadline. DirecTV selected an additional six channels. In 2000, DirecTV introduced the first live in-flight television service for airlines. In September 2000, GM executives, under pressure from GM's shareholders as a result of its poor performance and the greater market worth of Hughes, authorized Hughes executives to begin seeking buyers. In 2001, News Corporation began negotiations to acquire Hughes Electronics in a deal worth $8 billion, which would allow News Corp. to expand its Sky Global Networks satellite television operations into the United States. Negotiations with News Corp. failed, Hughes entered into an agreement on October 28, 2001 to be purchased for $26 billion
Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously; as a result, a client media player can begin playing the content immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet. IPTV is deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity. Many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security and reliability. Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services; these services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand and Interactive TV. These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers and customers alike.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol and Real time control protocol; the software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998. Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over digital subscriber line service in September 1999; the operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL as a commercial service.
The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999, NBTel was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV; the service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Aliant. IMagic TV was sold to Alcatel. In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden; as of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer. In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV.
By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan; this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010, CenturyLink – after acquiring Embarq and Qwest – entered five U. S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In 2016, Korean Central Television introduced the set-top box called Manbang providing video-on-demand services in North Korea via quasi-internet protocol television. Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, read find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and Juche ideology, read articles from state-run news organizations; the technology was hindered by low broadb
CityPlex Towers is a complex of three high-rise office towers located at 81st Street and Lewis Avenue in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The complex was constructed by Oral Roberts University as City of Faith Medical and Research Center and meant to be a major charismatic Christian hospital; the complex is now office space. Oral Roberts sojourned to California in 1977 after the death of his daughter and son-in-law, who were killed along with five other passengers in a small airplane crash. During the pilgrimage, Roberts claimed to have had a religious vision that directed him to construct the City of Faith Medical and Research Center; the facility was conceived to serve as a nationally renowned healing and research and teaching facility for the medical faculty of the adjacent Oral Roberts University. The hospital was intended to combine the healing disciplines of modern medical science and faith healing where volunteer prayer partners would comfort the patients with prayers for healing. A gigantic bronze sculpture entitled "Praying Hands", representing the hands of science and faith clasped together in prayer, was erected at the entrance of the hospital.
Roberts encountered many obstacles during the construction of the City of Faith hospital, constructed between 1979 and 1981, such as opposition by the Oklahoma health authorities who did not agree that the project was needed. They said that resources would be wasted as overhead increased caused by an abundance of empty beds, that the hospital would divert medical staff leading to a shortage. Oklahoma City attorney Earl Sneed opposed the hospital as the facility offered a redundant service and skepticism with the discipline of faith healing. Roberts struggled to find financial support during the early stages of planning. Roberts said that God gave him detailed instructions to realize the completion of City of Faith, to reassure his partners of the completion of the hospital. According to a fundraising letter, on May 25, 1980 Roberts prayed for guidance in front of the unfinished hospital. Roberts claimed. Jesus said according to Roberts'I told you I would speak to your'partners', through them I will build it'.
Roberts described the vision: "when I opened my eyes, there He stood... some 900 feet tall, looking at me. Oh! His eyes! He stood a full 300 feet taller than the 600 foot tall City of Faith." However his opponents suggested that Roberts imagined the vision. He raised the funds by appealing to his partners, by revealing inspiration from God instructing them how to finance the project. In a fundraising letter, Roberts instructed that if they pledge funds in multiples of $7, $77, $777 God would bless them abundantly; the hospital accepted its first patient in November 1981. By 1986 the City of Faith was losing over $10 million per year. In 1987, with costs spiraling out of control, the medical center went vacant. Roberts told a television audience unless he raised $8 million by March, God would "call him home"; the donations goal was reached but Roberts soon began looking for buyers or people to manage the facility. In 1989, only eight years after it opened, the City of Faith was $25 million in debt and Roberts closed the hospital.
The last patient left on 16 October. Most of the complex was leased out as CityPlex Towers. There are three triangular towers with over 2,200,000 square feet of office space; the tallest is the 60-story CityPlex Tower which at 648 feet is the third tallest building in Oklahoma. The 60th floor features a dining room with a panoramic view of Tulsa; the main CityPlex tower is flanked by 30-story CityPlex West Tower and 20-story CityPlex East Tower, which are 348 feet and 248 ft high. Cityplex West is wholly vacant above the ninth floor, with many floors still unfinished since the time of construction. Below the fifth floor, all three towers are joined within a structure called the base building; the spacious complex includes three auditoriums with theatre-style seating, a fitness centre, food court, convenience store and catering services. Two towers are non-medical; the Cancer Treatment Centers of America was in CityPlex West until April 2005 when they built their own facility. Oklahoma Surgical Hospital, an orthopedic specialty hospital, operates on the lower floors of CityPlex West and the base building.
Christian radio station KTSO and Alternative Rock radio station KMYZ-FM have studios and offices there with transmitting equipment at the top of the 60-story tower. The leasing agent claims; the facility was 75% occupied in November 2013. During the 1990s, CityPlex was the home of Commercial Financial Services, a large debt collection agency founded by Bill Bartmann, which at one point had four thousand employees, but filed a high-profile bankruptcy in 1998. In November 2010, it was reported that Bartmann would return to CityPlex with his new debt collection company, CFS II, taking a lease for two floors in the 20-story tower. A large bronze sculpture called Praying Hands sat directly in front of the lobby with a series of fountains and streams headed towards the street until the summer of 1991 when it was moved to the nearby campus entrance of Oral Roberts University. MC 900 Ft. Jesus List of tallest buildings in Oklahoma List of tallest buildings in Tulsa CityPlex Towers Emporis
Joel Scott Osteen is an American pastor and author, based in Houston, Texas. Osteen's televised sermons are seen by over 7 million viewers weekly and over 20 million monthly in over 100 countries, he is the author of ten books which have been ranked number one on The New York Times Best Seller list. Osteen was born in Houston, is one of six children of John Osteen and Dolores Pilgrim, his father, a former Southern Baptist pastor, founded Lakewood Church in the back of an old feed store. He was educated at Humble High School, a public high school in the city of Humble, from which he graduated in 1981, followed by Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, where he studied radio and television communications, but did not graduate and did not receive a degree from a divinity school. In 1982, he returned to Houston and founded Lakewood's television program, where he produced his father's televised sermons for 17 years until January 1999, when his father died unexpectedly from a heart attack. Osteen's father encouraged him to preach for many years, but he declined, preferring to work behind the scenes until January 17, 1999, when he accepted his father's suggestion and he preached his first sermon.
John Osteen died six days of a heart attack. Two weeks after his father's death, Osteen began preaching and that year was installed as the new senior pastor of Lakewood Church on October 3, 1999. Since Lakewood's attendance has grown from 5,000 to 43,000. In 2003, Lakewood Church acquired former home of the NBA Houston Rockets. Renovations cost $105 million; the renovations took over 15 months to complete, included the addition of five stories to add more capacity. Lakewood's 2005 grand opening was attended by an estimated 56,000 people, including Texas Governor Rick Perry and Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi. Lakewood Church services are seen in over 100 countries. Osteen was selected by Barbara Walters as one of her 10 Most Fascinating People of 2006. Former presidential candidate John McCain described Osteen as his favorite inspirational author; the Osteen family attended Easter breakfast hosted by President Barack Obama at the White House in 2010. Osteen's sermon preparation involves listening to himself on tape.
Osteen says that he chooses to focus more on the goodness of God and on living an obedient life rather than on sin. He says that he tries to teach Biblical principles in a simple way, emphasizing the power of love and a positive attitude; when asked why he does not focus more on sin, the devil and hell in detail, Osteen stated in an interview with CBN News: When I grew up, the devil was a reason why I had a headache or the devil was the reason I got mad today. We always blamed the devil. I think today when I say the enemy, I like to make it broader. Sometimes the enemy can be our own thoughts. We've trained ourselves the wrong way. Or the enemy can be our own lack of discipline; some people preach about hell like you're going there, to me the Gospel means'Good News.' I'd rather say. So I think the people know what they're doing wrong, I believe in hell, but to me, when I see thousands of people before me, it just doesn't come out of me to say,'You guys are terrible, you're going to hell.' I'd rather say.
You've got to live an obedient life, but for every mistake you've made, there's mercy there, I believe we can do better. Osteen's first book, Your Best Life Now: 7 Steps to Living at Your Full Potential, was released in October 2004, reached the number 1 position on The New York Times Best Seller list, he released his second book, titled Become a Better You: 7 Keys to Improving Your Life Every Day, in October 2007. It topped The New York Times Best Seller list and had a first printing of four million copies. Osteen has said that the book focuses more on relationships and not getting stuck where we are in life. Osteen married Lakewood Church co-pastor Victoria Osteen on April 4, 1987, they have a daughter. His older siblings, Paul and Tamara, his younger sister, are involved in full-time ministry, his half-brother Justin is based in New York. Osteen's 2017 net worth has been reported between $40–60 million, he lives with his family in a 17,000 square-foot mansion, worth an estimated $10.5 million in River Oaks.
As senior pastor, Osteen says he draws no salary from the church, which has an annual budget of $70 million. Instead, he relies on income from book sales. Osteen has avoided discussing controversial issues such as gay marriage and politics. However, when asked, Osteen said. Osteen refuses to preach about homosexuality due to his belief that God likes and approves of all people; when asked if he thought God approves of homosexuality, Osteen said homosexuality is a sin according to the Scripture, but gay people are welcome in his church. He has said sin is human nature, nobody's perfect, he is not judging, but God is the judge. Osteen has stated he believes a person can be freed from a lifestyle of homosexuality. Osteen has stressed he does not approve of homophobia, but his faith is based on his reading of the Scriptures, he has said the church has a tendency to become overly focused on single issues to the point of neglecting others. In an interview on Fox News in 2008 during the Republican Party Presidential primary race, when discussing whether he thought that Mormons were Christians, Osteen indicated that he believed that they were.
He further revealed that
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high