A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Webcasting is "broadcasting" over the Internet; the largest "webcasters" include existing radio and TV stations, who "simulcast" their output through online TV or online radio streaming, as well as a multitude of Internet only "stations". Webcasting consists of providing non-interactive linear streams or events. Rights and licensing bodies offer specific "webcasting licenses" to those wishing to carry out Internet broadcasting using copyrighted material. Webcasting is used extensively in the commercial sector for investor relations presentations, in e-learning, for related communications activities. However, webcasting does not bear much, if any, relationship to web conferencing, designed for many-to-many interaction; the ability to webcast using cheap/accessible technology has allowed independent media to flourish.
There are many notable independent shows that broadcast online. Produced by average citizens in their homes they cover many interests and topics. Webcasts relating to computers and news are popular and many new shows are added regularly. Webcasting differs from podcasting in that webcasting refers to live streaming while podcasting refers to media files placed on the Internet. Webcasting is the distribution of media files through the internet; the earliest graphically-oriented web broadcasts were not streaming video, but were in fact still frames which were photographed with a web camera every few minutes while they were being broadcast live over the Internet. One of the earliest instances of sequential live image broadcasting was in 1991 when a camera was set up next to the Trojan Room in the computer laboratory of the University of Cambridge, it provided a live picture every few minutes of the office coffee pot to all desktop computers on that office's network. A couple of years its broadcasts went to the Internet, became known as the Trojan Room Coffee Pot webcam, gained international notoriety as a feature of the fledgling World Wide Web.
In 1996 an American college student and conceptual artist, Jenny Ringley, set up a web camera similar to the Trojan Room Coffee Pot's webcam in her dorm room. That webcam photographed her every few minutes while it broadcast those images live over the Internet upon a site called JenniCam. Ringley wanted to portray all aspects of her lifestyle and the camera captured her doing everything – brushing her teeth, doing her laundry, having sex with her boyfriend, her website generated millions of hits upon the Internet, became a pay site in 1998, spawned hundreds of female imitators who would use streaming video to create a new billion dollar industry called camming, brand themselves as camgirls or webcam models. One of the earliest webcast equivalent of an online concert and one of the earliest examples of webcasting itself was by Apple Computer's Webcasting Group in partnership with the entrepreneurs Michael Dorf and Andrew Rasiej. Together with David B. Pakman from Apple, they launched the Macintosh New York Music Festival from July 17–22, 1995.
This event audio webcast concerts from more than 15 clubs in New York City. Apple webcast a concert by Metallica on June 10, 1996 live from Slim's in San Francisco. In 1995, Benford E. Standley produced one of the first audio/video webcasts in history. On October 31, 1996, UK rock band Caduseus broadcast their one-hour concert from 11 pm to 12 midnight at Celtica in Machynlleth, Wales, UK – the first live streamed audio and simultaneous live streamed video multicast – around the globe to more than twenty direct "mirrors" in more than twenty countries. In September 1997, Nebraska Public Television started webcasting Big Red Wrap Up from Lincoln, Nebraska which combined highlights from every Cornhusker football game, coverage of the coaches' weekly press conferences, analysis with Nebraska sportswriters, appearances by special guests and questions and answers with viewers. On August 13, 1998, it is believed the first webcast wedding took place, between Alan K'necht and Carrie Silverman in Toronto Canada.
On October 22, 1998, the first Billy Graham Crusade was broadcast live to a worldwide audience from the Raymond James Stadium in Tampa Florida courtesy of Dale Ficken and the WebcastCenter in Pennsylvania. The live signal was broadcast via satellite to PA encoded and streamed via the BGEA website; the first teleconferenced/webcast wedding to date is believed to have occurred on December 31, 1998. Dale Ficken and Lorrie Scarangella wed on this date as they stood in a church in Pennsylvania, were married by Jerry Falwell while he sat in his office in Lynchburg, Virginia. All major broadcasters now have a webcast of their output, from the BBC to CNN to Al Jazeera to UNTV in television to Radio China, Vatican Radio, United Nations Radio and the World Service in radio. On November 4, 1994, Stef van der Ziel distributed the first live video images over the web from the Simplon venue in Groningen. On November 7, 1994, WXYC, the college radio station of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill became the first radio station in the world to broadcast its signal over the internet.
Translated versions including Subtitling are now possible using SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. A wedcast of a wedding. Allows family and friends of the couple to watch the wedding in real time on the Internet, it is sometimes used for weddings in exotic locations, such as Cancun and the Riviera Maya, Hawaii or the Caribbean, for which it is expensive or difficul
Boulder is the home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, United States. It is the state's 11th most populous municipality; the city is 25 miles northwest of Denver. The population of the City of Boulder was 97,385 people at the 2010 U. S. Census, while the population of the Boulder, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area was 294,567. Boulder is known for its association with American frontier history and for being the home of the main campus of the University of Colorado, the state's largest university; the city receives high rankings in art, well-being, quality of life, education. Boulder City was a part of the Nebraska Territory until February 28, 1861, when the Territory of Colorado was created by the US Congress, it developed as a supply base for miners going into the mountains. Residents of Boulder City provided these miners with equipment, agricultural products and drinking establishments. On November 7, 1861, legislation was passed making way for the state university to be located in Boulder, on September 20, 1875, the first cornerstone was laid for the first building on the CU campus.
The university opened on September 5, 1877. Boulder adopted an anti-saloon ordinance in 1907. Statewide prohibition started in Colorado in 1916 and ended with the repeal of national prohibition in 1933; as of the 2010 census, there were 97,385 people, 41,302 households, 16,694 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,942.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 43,479 housing units at an average density of 1,760.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.0% White, 0.9% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 4.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.2% some other race, 2.6% from two or more races. 8.7% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 41,302 households, out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were headed by married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 59.6% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.1% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.16, the average family size was 2.84. Boulder's population is younger than the national average due to the presence of university students; the median age at the 2010 census was 28.7 years compared to the U. S. median of 37.2 years. In Boulder, 13.9% of the residents were younger than the age of 18, 29.1% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 8.9% were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and older, there were 106.2 males. In 2011 the estimated median household income in Boulder was $57,112, the median family income was $113,681. Male full-time workers had a median income of $71,993 versus $47,574 for females; the per capita income for the city was $37,600. 24.8% of the population and 7.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 17.4% of those under the age of 18 and 6.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Boulder housing tends to be priced higher than surrounding areas.
For the 2nd quarter of 2006, the median single-family home in Boulder sold for $548,000 and the median attached dwelling sold for $262,000. According to the National Association of Realtors, during the same period the median value of one-family homes nationwide was $227,500; the median price of a home exceeded $1 million in July 2016. The city of Boulder is in Boulder Valley. West of the city are slabs of sedimentary stone tilted up on the foothills, known as the Flatirons; the Flatirons are a recognized symbol of Boulder. The primary water flow through the city is Boulder Creek; the creek was named well ahead of the city's founding, for all of the large granite boulders that have cascaded into the creek over the eons. It is from Boulder Creek. Boulder Creek has significant water flow, derived from snow melt and minor springs west of the city; the creek is a tributary of the South Platte River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.7 square miles. 24.7 square miles of it is land and 1.0 square mile of it is water.
The 40th parallel runs through Boulder and can be recognized as Baseline Road today. Boulder lies in a wide basin beneath Flagstaff Mountain just a few miles east of the continental divide and about 25 miles northwest of Denver. Arapahoe Glacier provides water for the city, along with Boulder Creek, which flows through the center of the city. Denver International Airport is located 45 miles southeast of Boulder. Boulder has a temperate climate typical for much of the state and receives many sunny or sunny days each year. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a semi-arid climate. Winter conditions range from mild to the occasional bitterly cold, with highs averaging in the mid to upper 40s °F. There are 4.6 nights annually when the temperature reaches 0 °F. Because of orographic lift, the mountains to the west dry out the air passing over the Front Range shielding the city from precipitation in winter, though heavy falls may occur. Snowfall averages 88 inches per season, but snow depth is shallow.
BBC World Service
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news and discussions in more than 40 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays. In November 2016 the BBC announced again that it would start broadcasting in additional languages including Amharic and Igbo, in its biggest expansion since the 1940s. In 2015 World Service reached an average of 210 million people a week; the English-language service broadcasts 24 hours a day. The World Service is funded by the United Kingdom's television licence fee, limited advertising and the profits of BBC Worldwide Ltd; the service is guaranteed £289 million from the UK government. The World Service was funded for decades by grant-in-aid through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the British Government until 1 April 2014. BBC World Service English maintains eight different regional feeds with several program variations, covering East and South Africa.
There are two separate online-only streams with one being more news-oriented, known as News Internet. The controller of BBC World Service English is Mary Hockaday; the BBC World Service began in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service, broadcasting on shortwave and aimed principally at English-speakers across the British Empire. In his first Christmas Message, King George V characterised the service as intended for "men and women, so cut off by the snow, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them". First hopes; the Director General, Sir John Reith said in the opening programme:"Don't expect too much in the early days. The programmes will neither be interesting nor good." This address was read out five times. On 3 January 1938 the first foreign-language service was launched - in Arabic. Programmes in German started on 29 March 1938, by the end of 1942 the BBC had started broadcasts in all major European languages; as a result, the Empire Service was renamed the BBC Overseas Service in November 1939, supplemented by the addition of a dedicated BBC European Service from 1941.
Funding for these services - known administratively as the External Services of the BBC - came not from the domestic licence-fee but from government grant-in-aid. The External Services broadcast propaganda during the Second World War of 1939-1945, its French service Radio Londres sent coded messages to the French Resistance. George Orwell broadcast many news bulletins on the Eastern Service during World War II. By the end of the 1940s the number of broadcast languages had expanded and reception had improved, following the opening of a relay in modern-day Malaysia and of the Limassol relay in Cyprus in 1957. On 1 May 1965 the service took its current name of BBC World Service, it expanded its reach with the opening of the Ascension Island relay in 1966, serving African audiences with a stronger signal and better reception, with the relay on the Island of Masirah in Oman. In August 1985 the service went off-air for the first time when workers went on strike in protest at the British government's decision to ban a documentary featuring an interview with Martin McGuinness of Sinn Féin.
Subsequently, financial pressures decreased the number and the types of services offered by the BBC. Audiences in countries with wide access to Internet services have less need for terrestrial radio. Broadcasts in German ended in March 1999, after research showed that the majority of German listeners tuned into the English-language service. Broadcasts in Dutch, French, Italian and Malay stopped for similar reasons. On 25 October 2005, the BBC announced that broadcasts in Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Slovak and Thai would end by March 2006, to finance the launch in 2007 of television news-services in Arabic and Persian. Additionally, Romanian broadcasts ceased on 1 August 2008. In January 2011 the closure of the Albanian, Portuguese for Africa and English for the Caribbean services was announced; this reflected the financial situation the Corporation faced following transfer of responsibility for the Service from the Foreign Office, so that it would in future have been funded from within licence-fee income.
The Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese and Spanish for Cuba services ceased radio broadcasting, the Hindi, Kyrgyz, Swahili and Kirundi services ceased shortwave transmissions. The British government announced that the three Balkan countries had wide access to international information, so broadcasts in the local languages had become unnecessary. 650 jobs went as part of the 16% budget cut. The Service broadcasts from Broadcasting House in London, headquarters of the Corporation, it is located in the newer parts of the building, which contains radio and television studios for use by the various language services. The building contains an integrated newsroom used by the international World Service, the international television channel BBC World News, the domestic television and radio BBC News bulletins, the BBC News Channel and BBC Online. At its launch, the Service was located along with m
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
Broadcast relay station
A broadcast relay station known as a satellite station, relay transmitter, broadcast translator, re-broadcaster, repeater or complementary station, is a broadcast transmitter which repeats the signal of a radio or television station to an area not covered by the originating station. It expands the broadcast range of a television or radio station beyond the primary signal's original coverage or improves service in the original coverage area; the stations may be used to create a single-frequency network. They may be used by an FM or AM radio station to establish a presence on the other band. A re-broadcaster may be owned by a community group, rather than the owner of the primary station. WHLS/WHLX in Port Huron, Michigan purchased a translator and switched to an alternative rock format shortly afterwards without mentioning the original FM translator, except for its required top-of-the-hour ID. No AM frequencies have been mentioned. In its simplest form, a broadcast translator is a facility created to receive a terrestrial broadcast over the air on one frequency and rebroadcast the same signal on another frequency.
These stations are used in television and radio to cover areas which are not adequately covered by a station's main signal. They can be used to expand market coverage by duplicating programming on another band. Relays which broadcast within the parent station's coverage area on the same channel are known in the U. S. as booster stations. Signals from the stations may interfere with each other without careful antenna design. Radio interference can be avoided by using atomic time, obtained from GPS satellites, to synchronize co-channel stations in a single-frequency network. Analog television stations cannot have same-channel boosters unless opposite polarization is used, due to video synchronization issues such as ghosting. In the U. S. no new on-channel UHF signal boosters have been authorized since July 11, 1975. A distributed transmission system uses several medium-power stations on the same frequency to cover a broadcast area, rather than one high-power station with repeaters on a different frequency.
Although digital television stations are technically capable of sharing a channel, this is more difficult with the 8VSB modulation and unvariable guard interval used in ATSC standards than with the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing used in the European and Australian DVB-T standard. A distributed transmission system would have stringent synchronization requirements, requiring each transmitter to receive its signal from a central source for broadcast at a GPS-synchronized time. A DTS does not use broadcast repeaters in the conventional sense, since they cannot receive a signal from a main terrestrial broadcast transmitter for rebroadcast; the use of virtual channels is another alternative, although this may cause the same channel to appear several times in a receiver – once for each relay station – and require the user to tune to the best one. Although boosters or DTS cause all relay stations to appear as one signal, they require careful engineering to avoid interference; some licensed stations simulcast another station.
Relay stations in name only, they are licensed like any other station. Although this is unregulated in the U. S. and permitted in Canada, the U. S. Federal Communications Commission regulates radio formats to ensure diversity in programming. U. S. satellite stations may request an FCC exemption from requirements for a properly staffed broadcast studio in the city of license. The stations cover large, sparsely populated regions or operate as statewide non-commercial educational radio and television systems. A television re-broadcaster sells local advertising for broadcast only on the local transmitter, may air a limited amount of programming distinct from its parent station; some "semi-satellites" broadcast local news or separate news segments during part of the newscast. CHEX-TV-2 in Oshawa, Ontario aired daily late-afternoon and early-evening news and community programs separate from its parent station, CHEX-TV in Peterborough, Ontario; the FCC prohibits this on U. S. FM translator stations, only permitting it on licensed stations.
In some cases, a semi-satellite is a autonomous full-service station, programmed remotely through centralcasting or broadcast automation to avoid the cost of a local staff. CBLFT, an owned-and-operated station of the French-language network Ici Radio-Canada Télé in Toronto, is a de facto semi-satellite of its stronger Ottawa sibling CBOFT. A financially weak owned broadcaster in a small market can become a de facto semi-satellite by curtailing local production and relying on a owned station in a larger city for programming. Broadcast automation allows the substitution of syndicated programming or digital subchannel content which the broadcaster was unable to obtain for both cities; some defunct full-service stations have originate nothing. If programming from the parent station must be removed or substituted due to local sports blackouts, the modified signal is that of a semi-satellite station. Most broadcasters outside North America maintain a national network
Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to commercial and public broadcasting. Community stations serve geographic communities of interest, they broadcast content, popular and relevant to a local, specific audience but is overlooked by commercial or mass-media broadcasters. Community radio stations are operated and influenced by the communities they serve, they are nonprofit and provide a mechanism for enabling individuals and communities to tell their own stories, to share experiences and, in a media-rich world, to become creators and contributors of media. In many parts of the world, community radio acts as a vehicle for the community and voluntary sector, civil society, agencies, NGOs and citizens to work in partnership to further community development aims, in addition to broadcasting. There is defined community radio in many countries, such as France, South Africa and Ireland. Much of the legislation has included phrases such as "social benefit", "social objectives" and "social gain" as part of the definition.
Community radio has developed differently in different countries, the term has somewhat different meanings in the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia, where freedom of speech laws and de facto realities differ. Modern community radio stations serve their listeners by offering a variety of content, not provided by the larger commercial radio stations. Community radio outlets may carry information programming geared toward the local area. Specialized musical shows are often a feature of many community radio stations. Community and pirate stations can be valuable assets for a region. Community radio stations avoid content found on commercial outlets such as Top 40 music, sports and "drive-time" personalities. A meme used by members of the movement is that community radio should be 10 percent radio and 90 percent community; this means that community radio stations should focus on getting the community talking and not on radio. There is a distinction drawn in contrast to mainstream stations, which are viewed as pandering to commercial concerns or the personalities of presenters.
Communities are complex entities, what constitutes the "community" in community radio is subject to debate which varies by country. "Community" may be replaced by terms such as "radical" or "citizen" radio. In sociology, a "community" has been defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location. Community radio has been built around the ideals of participation. Stations have been run by locals to serve a local audience. However, the internet's availability and popularity has encouraged many stations to podcast and/or stream and audio and make it available globally. Two philosophical approaches to community radio exist, although the models are not mutually exclusive. One emphasizes service and community-mindedness, focusing on what the station can do for the community; the other stresses participation by the listener. In the service model locality is valued. Sometimes, providing syndicated content not available within the station's service area is viewed as public service. Within the United States, for example, many stations syndicate content from groups such as Pacifica Radio on the basis that it provides content not otherwise available.
In the access model, the participation of community members in producing content is viewed as a good in itself. While this model does not exclude a service approach, there is some disagreement between the two. Community broadcasting is Australia’s third media sector, formally represented by the Community Broadcasting Association of Australia. In January 2012, there were 359 licensed community radio stations. A 2002 report found that 20,000 Australians were involved as volunteers in the community radio sector on a regular basis, volunteers account for more than $145 million in unpaid work each year. Nationally, more than 7 million Australians listen to community radio each month; the role of community broadcasting in Australia, according to CBAA, is to provide a diverse range of services meeting community needs in ways unmet by other sectors. Community broadcasting is sustained by the principles of access and participation, diversity and locality. Community radio stations may be specialized music stations, represent local music and arts or broadcast talks and current-affairs programs representing alternative, indigenous Australian, feminist or gay and lesbian interests.
53 percent of community radio stations serve an array of communities of interest, including indigenous and ethnic groups, people with a print disability, young people, older people, the arts/fine music and the gay and lesbian communities. The remaining stations provide a service which may be described as generalist: addressing the interests of communities in particular areas, but addressing a range of sp
Height above average terrain
Height above average terrain, or effective height above average terrain, is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio and television, as it is more important than effective radiated power in determining the range of broadcasts. For international coordination, it is measured in meters by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States, as Canada and Mexico have extensive border zones where stations can be received on either side of the international boundaries. Stations that want to increase above a certain HAAT must reduce their power accordingly, based on the maximum distance their station class is allowed to cover; the FCC procedure to calculate HAAT is: from the proposed or actual antenna site, either 12 or 16 radials were drawn, points at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 miles radius along each radial were used. The entire radial graph could be rotated to achieve the best effect for the station; the altitude of the antenna site, minus the average altitude of all the specified points, is the HAAT.
This can create some unusual cases in mountainous regions—it is possible to have a negative number for HAAT. The FCC has divided the Contiguous United States into three zones for the determination of spacing between FM and TV stations using the same frequencies. FM and TV stations are assigned maximum ERP and HAAT values, depending on their assigned zones, to prevent co-channel interference; the FCC regulations for ERP and HAAT are listed under Title 47, Part 73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Maximum HAAT: 150 metres Maximum ERP: 50 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 241 km Maximum HAAT: 600 metres Maximum ERP: 100 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 290 km. In all zones, maximum ERP for analog TV transmitters is. In addition, Zone I-A consists of all of California south of 40° north latitude, Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. Zones I and I-A have the most "grandfathered" overpowered stations, which are allowed the same extended coverage areas that they had before the zones were established.
One of the most powerful of these stations is WBCT in Grand Rapids, which operates at 320,000 watts and 238 meters HAAT. Zone III consists of all of Florida and the areas of Alabama, Louisiana and Texas within 241.4 kilometers of the Gulf of Mexico. Zone II is all the rest of the Continental United States and Hawaii. Above mean sea level Above ground level Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission List of broadcast station classes United States Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Part 73 Index FCC: Mass Media Calculated Contours FCC: HAAT Calculator "Superpower" Grandfathered FM stations