Emmis Communications is an American media conglomerate based in Indianapolis, Indiana. The company owns radio magazines in the United States and Slovakia. In 1980, Emmis Broadcasting founder Jeffrey Smulyan purchased his first radio station, WSVL-FM Shelbyville, Indiana. In July 1981, Smulyan changed the format from country music to adult contemporary and renamed the station WENS; the station's quick success led him to purchase other radio stations throughout the country. Around 1984, the company bought Magic 106 in California. A. Lakers player "Magic" Johnson was an early spokesperson for the station. In early 1986, Emmis changed Magic 106 to Power 106 KPWR. In 1986, the company expanded as they purchased WAPP-FM and WHN in New York as well as WAVA-FM in Washington, D. C. from the Doubleday Broadcasting Company. Both KPWR and WQHT would pioneer the rhythmic format and go on to be Emmis' two flagship radio properties. In 1987, Emmis would transform WHN into the world's first all-sports radio station, WFAN.
Emmis sold two to avoid a duopoly. In 1994, the company purchased WIBC and WKLR in Indianapolis from the Horizon Broadcast Corporation and WRKS in New York City from the Summit Communications Group. WKLR was changed from an oldies format to a classic hits format with the call letters of WNAP in September 1994. In 1994, Emmis became a public company; the expansion continued as the company purchased numerous television and radio stations in the late 1990s. In 1998, Emmis Broadcasting changed its name to Emmis Communications and moved into its current headquarters on Monument Circle in Indianapolis. In 2003, Emmis appointed Barry Mayo, he oversaw 98.7 Kiss FM, Hot 97, WQCD, all in New York City. In 2005, Emmis changed the format of their first radio station from its long-term adult contemporary format to country, the call letters were changed from WENS to WLHK. Emmis was named one of Fortune's 100 Best Companies to Work For. In March of that year, Emmis Communications and 98.7 KISS-FM, NY celebrated Women's History Month by introducing their first annual salute to Phenomenal Women.
In January 2006, after 3 years in which Barry Mayo's New York station moved behind Power 105.1 as the second-tier rap station in New York, Mayo announced his departure from his post. In 2006, Emmis flipped KZLA/Los Angeles to Adult Rhythmic Contemporary as "KMVN, Movin' 93.9". The move gives Emmis a companion station to complement KPWR. However, on April 15, 2009, KMVN switched to Spanish-language programming, KXOS, under a seven-year Local Marketing Agreement with Grupo Radio Centro of Mexico City. On June 9, 2009, Emmis announced it has formed a strategic alliance with StreamTheWorld, the radio industry's streaming technology and services company, to put all Emmis radio stations on a new streaming platform. On January 12, 2011, the share price of Emmis stock surged 42% as insiders speculated that the company could be close to selling off several of its radio stations. In their January, 2011 filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the company reported that it had the necessary cash to survive through February, 2011.
"Absent asset sales, which the company is pursuing," Emmis attorneys stated in the regulatory filing, "the company believes it is unlikely it will be able to maintain compliance with the financial covenants after Sept. 1, 2011."On August 16, 2013, Emmis launched the NextRadio smartphone app on HTC One Android phones from Sprint. A deal struck between the radio industry and Sprint facilitated the launch which subsequently enabled FM radio support for the app on additional Android devices available on the Sprint wireless network. On October 12, 2016, Emmis announced that they will sell their radio stations in the Terre Haute cluster to Midwest Communications and DLC Media. Midwest Communications will acquire WTHI-FM and the intellectual property of WWVR while DLC Media will acquire WFNF, WFNB and the broadcast license for WWVR. Midwest Communications will sell WDKE to DLC Media to stay under FCC ownership limits; the sale was consummated on January 27, 2017. It was announced on March 1, 2017, that Emmis has sold four of its magazines to Hour Media Group, LLC for $6.5 million.
It has sold Texas Monthly to Genesis Park, LP for $25 million. On May 9, 2017, Emmis announced; the announcement comes after Emmis, who exits the nation's second-largest radio market, made a deal in April with its lenders to seek $80 million worth of divestments by January 2018 to amend its credit agreement. The Meruelo Group began operating the station under an LMA on July 1, 2017 until the sale was consummated on August 1, 2017. On January 30, 2018, Emmis announced it would leave the St. Louis market, selling KSHE and KPNT to Hubbard Broadcasting, KFTK and KNOU to Entercom. Current clients include: Astral Media, Corus Entertainment, Emmis Radio, Greater Media, Lincoln Financial Media, Renda Broadcasting, Emmis Interactive was sold to Marketron in October 2012. Indianapolis Monthly Atlanta Cincinnati Los Angeles Orange Coast Texas Monthly The NextRadio smartphone app was developed by Emmis, with support from the National Association of Broadcasters, to take advantage of mobile devices with activated internal FM receivers.
NextRadio allows users of select FM-enabled smartphones to listen to live broadcast FM radio while receiving supplemental data such as album art, program information, metadata over the internet. Launched in August 2013 through a radio industry agreement with Sprint Corporation, the app was preloaded on select devices and was available
San Antonio the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731; the area was still part of the Spanish Empire, of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality; the city's deep history is contrasted with its rapid recent growth during the past few decades. It was the fastest-growing of the top ten largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the second from 1990 to 2000. Straddling the regional divide between South and Central Texas, San Antonio anchors the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion colloquially known as the "Texas Triangle". San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County. Since San Antonio was founded during the Spanish Colonial Era, it has a church in its center, on the main civic plaza in front, a characteristic of many Spanish-founded cities and villages in Spain and Latin America.
As with many other urban centers in the Southwestern United States, areas outside the city limits are sparsely populated. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels metropolitan statistical area. Called Greater San Antonio, the metro area has a population of 2,473,974 based on the 2017 U. S. census estimate, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and third-largest in Texas. Growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named by a 1691 Spanish expedition for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is June 13; the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which together were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2015. Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, SeaWorld, the Alamo Bowl, Marriage Island. Commercial entertainment includes Morgan's Wonderland amusement parks.
According to the San Antonio Convention and Visitors Bureau, the city is visited by about 32 million tourists a year. It is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs, hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the U. S; the U. S. Armed Forces have numerous facilities around San Antonio. Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air Force Base, Lackland AFB/Kelly Field Annex, Camp Bullis, Camp Stanley are outside the city limits. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, when the airfield was transferred to Lackland AFB; the remaining parts of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, the only medical research and care provider in the South Texas region. At the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, they called the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning "refreshing waters".
In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13, the feast day of St. Anthony of Padua, they named the river "San Antonio" in his honor. It was years. Father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there; the viceroy gave formal approval for a combined mission and presidio in late 1716, as he wanted to forestall any French expansion into the area from their colony of La Louisiane to the east, as well as prevent illegal trading with the Payaya. He directed the governor of Coahuila y Tejas, to establish the mission complex. Differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, construction did not start until 1718. Olivares built, with the help of the Payaya Indians, the Misión de San Antonio de Valero, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the bridge that connected both, the Acequia Madre de Valero; the families who clustered around the presidio and mission were the start of Villa de Béjar, destined to become the most important town in Spanish Texas.
On May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5, 1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14, 1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas, his plan was approved, notice was given the Canary Islanders to furnish 200 families. By June 1730, 25 families had reached Cuba, 10 families had been sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, where they arrived on March 9, 1731. Due to marriages along the way, the party now included a total of 56 persons, they joined the military community established in 1718. The immigrants f
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
Broadcast relay station
A broadcast relay station known as a satellite station, relay transmitter, broadcast translator, re-broadcaster, repeater or complementary station, is a broadcast transmitter which repeats the signal of a radio or television station to an area not covered by the originating station. It expands the broadcast range of a television or radio station beyond the primary signal's original coverage or improves service in the original coverage area; the stations may be used to create a single-frequency network. They may be used by an FM or AM radio station to establish a presence on the other band. A re-broadcaster may be owned by a community group, rather than the owner of the primary station. WHLS/WHLX in Port Huron, Michigan purchased a translator and switched to an alternative rock format shortly afterwards without mentioning the original FM translator, except for its required top-of-the-hour ID. No AM frequencies have been mentioned. In its simplest form, a broadcast translator is a facility created to receive a terrestrial broadcast over the air on one frequency and rebroadcast the same signal on another frequency.
These stations are used in television and radio to cover areas which are not adequately covered by a station's main signal. They can be used to expand market coverage by duplicating programming on another band. Relays which broadcast within the parent station's coverage area on the same channel are known in the U. S. as booster stations. Signals from the stations may interfere with each other without careful antenna design. Radio interference can be avoided by using atomic time, obtained from GPS satellites, to synchronize co-channel stations in a single-frequency network. Analog television stations cannot have same-channel boosters unless opposite polarization is used, due to video synchronization issues such as ghosting. In the U. S. no new on-channel UHF signal boosters have been authorized since July 11, 1975. A distributed transmission system uses several medium-power stations on the same frequency to cover a broadcast area, rather than one high-power station with repeaters on a different frequency.
Although digital television stations are technically capable of sharing a channel, this is more difficult with the 8VSB modulation and unvariable guard interval used in ATSC standards than with the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing used in the European and Australian DVB-T standard. A distributed transmission system would have stringent synchronization requirements, requiring each transmitter to receive its signal from a central source for broadcast at a GPS-synchronized time. A DTS does not use broadcast repeaters in the conventional sense, since they cannot receive a signal from a main terrestrial broadcast transmitter for rebroadcast; the use of virtual channels is another alternative, although this may cause the same channel to appear several times in a receiver – once for each relay station – and require the user to tune to the best one. Although boosters or DTS cause all relay stations to appear as one signal, they require careful engineering to avoid interference; some licensed stations simulcast another station.
Relay stations in name only, they are licensed like any other station. Although this is unregulated in the U. S. and permitted in Canada, the U. S. Federal Communications Commission regulates radio formats to ensure diversity in programming. U. S. satellite stations may request an FCC exemption from requirements for a properly staffed broadcast studio in the city of license. The stations cover large, sparsely populated regions or operate as statewide non-commercial educational radio and television systems. A television re-broadcaster sells local advertising for broadcast only on the local transmitter, may air a limited amount of programming distinct from its parent station; some "semi-satellites" broadcast local news or separate news segments during part of the newscast. CHEX-TV-2 in Oshawa, Ontario aired daily late-afternoon and early-evening news and community programs separate from its parent station, CHEX-TV in Peterborough, Ontario; the FCC prohibits this on U. S. FM translator stations, only permitting it on licensed stations.
In some cases, a semi-satellite is a autonomous full-service station, programmed remotely through centralcasting or broadcast automation to avoid the cost of a local staff. CBLFT, an owned-and-operated station of the French-language network Ici Radio-Canada Télé in Toronto, is a de facto semi-satellite of its stronger Ottawa sibling CBOFT. A financially weak owned broadcaster in a small market can become a de facto semi-satellite by curtailing local production and relying on a owned station in a larger city for programming. Broadcast automation allows the substitution of syndicated programming or digital subchannel content which the broadcaster was unable to obtain for both cities; some defunct full-service stations have originate nothing. If programming from the parent station must be removed or substituted due to local sports blackouts, the modified signal is that of a semi-satellite station. Most broadcasters outside North America maintain a national network
HD Radio is a trademarked term for Xperi's in-band on-channel digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD or as a standard broadcast. The HD format provides the means for a single radio station to broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel, it was developed by iBiquity. In September 2015 iBiquity was acquired by DTS bringing the HD Radio technology under the same banner as DTS' eponymous theater surround sound systems.. It was acquired by Xperi in 2016, it was selected by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States, is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States, it is known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-D.
Other digital radio systems include FMeXtra, Digital Audio Broadcasting, Digital Radio Mondiale, Compatible AM-Digital. While HD Radio does allow for an all-digital mode, this system is used by some AM and FM radio stations to simulcast both digital and analog audio within the same channel as well as to add new FM channels and text information. Although HD Radio broadcasting's content is free-to-air, listeners must purchase new receivers in order to receive the digital portion of the signal. By May 2018, HD Radio technology was claimed to be used by more than 3500 individual services in the United States; this compares with more than 2200 services operating with the DAB system. HD Radio increases the bandwidth required in the FM band to 400 kHz for the analog/digital hybrid version; this makes adoption outside the United States problematic. In the United States the FM broadcast band channels have a spacing of 200 kHz, as opposed to the 100 kHz, normal elsewhere; the 200 kHz spacing means that in practice, stations having concurrent or adjacent coverage areas will not be spaced at less than 400 kHz in order to respect protection ratios which would not be met with 200 kHz spacing.
This leaves space for the digital sidebands. Outside the US, spacing can be 300 kHz; the FCC has not indicated any intent to force off analog radio broadcasts as it has with analog television broadcasts, as it would not result in the recovery of any radio spectrum rights which could be sold. Thus, there is no deadline. In addition, there are many more analog AM/FM radio receivers than there were analog televisions, many of these are car stereos or portable units that cannot be upgraded. Digital information is transmitted using OFDM with an audio compression algorithm called HDC.. HD Radio equipped stations pay a one-time licensing fee for converting their primary audio channel to iBiquity's HD Radio technology, 3% of incremental net revenues for any additional digital subchannels; the cost of converting a radio station can run between $100,000 and $200,000. Receiver manufacturers pay a royalty. If the primary digital signal is lost the HD Radio receiver will revert to the analog signal, thereby providing seamless operation between the newer and older transmission methods.
The extra HD-2 and HD-3 streams are not simulcast on analog, causing the sound to drop-out or "skip" when digital reception degrades. Alternatively the HD Radio signal can revert to a more-robust 20 kilobit per second stream, though the sound is reduced to AM-like quality. Datacasting is possible, with metadata providing song titles or artist information. IBiquity Digital claims that the system approaches CD quality audio and offers reduction of both interference and static. Sending pure digital data through the 20 kilohertz AM channel is equivalent to sending data through two 33 kbit/s analog telephone lines, thus limiting the maximum throughput possible. By using spectral band replication the HDC+SBR codec is able to simulate the recreation of sounds up to 15,000 Hz, thus achieving moderate quality on the bandwidth-tight AM band; the HD Radio AM hybrid mode offers two options which can carry 40 or 60 kbit/s of data, but most AM digital stations default to the more-robust 40 kbit/s mode which features redundancy.
HD Radio provides a pure digital mode, which lacks an analog signal for fallback and instead reverts to a 20 kbit/s signal during times of poor reception. The pure digital mode transmissions will stay within the AM station's channel instead of spilling into the channels next to the station transmitting "HD radio" as the hybrid stations do; the AM version of HD Radio technology uses the 20 kHz channel, overlaps 5 kHz into the opposite sideband of the adjacent channel on both sides. When operating in pure digital mode, the AM HD Radio signal fits inside a standard 20 kHz channel or an extended 30 kHz channel, at the discretion of the station manager; as AM radio stations are spaced at 9 kHz or 10 kHz intervals, much of the digital information overlaps adjacent channels when in hybrid mode. Some nigh
KEYE-TV, virtual channel 42, is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Austin, United States. The station is owned by the Sinclair Broadcast Group. KEYE's studios are located on Metric Boulevard in North Austin, its transmitter is located on Waymaker Way on the west side of Austin. On cable, KEYE can be seen on Charter Spectrum and Grande Communications channel 5; the UHF channel 42 allocation in Austin had been used by NBC affiliate KHFI-TV, when that station signed on in February 1965. That station moved to channel 36 in 1973 and is now KXAN-TV. KEYE-TV signed on the air on channel 42 on December 4, 1983 as KBVO-TV, it was Austin's first independent station. The station was owned by Steve Beard, an Austin advertising executive, a small group of investors. On October 6, 1986, the station became a charter affiliate of the upstart Fox network and began branding itself as "Fox 42" on-air in the late 1980s. In 1993, Beard sold KBVO to Granite Broadcasting for $54 million—a handsome return on his original investment.
In 1995, New World Communications purchased KTBC, included in a groupwide affiliation deal to switch most of New World's stations to Fox. On July 1, 1995, KTBC and KBVO swapped affiliations, with Fox moving to KTBC and the CBS affiliation going to KBVO, which changed its call letters to the current KEYE-TV the next day; the callsign refers to the iconic CBS Eye logo, as well as to "The Eyes of Texas", one of several songs associated with the University of Texas. It branded itself as "K-EYE 42, Your Eye on Austin" until 1999, when the branding was shortened to "K-EYE" on account of the fact that it was now available to all Austin area cable subscribers on cable channel 5. In 1999, Granite put KEYE up for sale; the sale closed that August, making KEYE the second owned-and-operated station of any major network in the market. The next year, Viacom bought CBS; the latter station was swapped to Fox in 2001 in exchange for San Francisco's KBHK. In 2005, the station rebranded again, strangely enough, to "CBS42 K-EYE" to reflect its CBS ownership and for cable subscribers to avoid confusion with San Antonio's CBS outlet KENS-TV, seen on VHF analog channel 5.
In 2006, the "K-EYE" branding was phased out in favor of referring itself as "CBS42". On February 7, 2007, CBS agreed to sell seven of its stations to Cerberus Capital Management, L. P. for $185 million. Cerberus formed a new holding company for the stations, Four Points Media Group, which took over the operations of the stations through local marketing agreements in late June 2007; the sale to Four Points was consummated on January 10, 2008. The latter company took over the management of all of the Four Points stations, including KEYE. In August 2009, the "CBS42" branding was dropped in favor of "KEYE-TV", the station website address was changed to weareaustin.com. On September 8, 2011, Sinclair Broadcast Group announced its intent to purchase Four Points from Cerberus Capital Management for $200 million. S. Department of Justice, until the sale's closure; the sale made KEYE-TV the third Sinclair-owned television property in Texas, as the group owned Fox affiliate KABB and CW affiliate KMYS in San Antonio.
The deal was completed on January 3, 2012. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: It was announced on March 29, 2008 that KEYE would begin carrying the Retro Television Network on a new digital subchannel 42.2, running a customized schedule for the Austin market. On October 1, 2009, digital channel 42.2 switched its affiliation to Telemundo and debuted locally produced Spanish-language newscasts at 5 and 10 p.m. weeknights, displacing RTV. It was the second Sinclair property upon their purchase associated with a Spanish-language network after West Palm Beach sister station WWHB-CA with Azteca America. KEYE-TV shut down its analog signal in November 2008; the station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 43, using PSIP to display KEYE-TV's virtual channel as 42 on digital television receivers. After the 2016-2017 FCC TV spectrum auction, KEYE will need to move from RF channel 43 to RF channel 34 for testing starting in April 2019; the switch is to be complete by June 21, 2019 Syndicated programming seen on KEYE includes Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, Dr. Phil, The 700 Club and Steve among others.
From 2002 to 2008, KEYE held local broadcast rights to Houston Texans pre-season games, in addition to airing CBS' coverage of NFL games from the Texans' home conference, the American Football Conference. On April 3, 2006, the station signed a deal to become the official home of the Dallas Cowboys in Austin.
Cedar Park, Texas
Cedar Park is a major suburb of Austin in the state of Texas, the center of, 16 miles to the southeast. According to the U. S. Census, the city's estimated population as of July 2017 was 75,226. Cedar Park is located at 30°30′24″N 97°49′49″W, it lies in Williamson County, although a small amount extends into Travis County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.6 sq mi, of which, 25.3 sq mi of it is land and.3 sq mi of it is water. Cedar Park is bisected north to south by U. S. Route 183. A bypass route, the 183A toll road runs through Cedar Park and opened to traffic on March 15, 2007. Major east-west routes include Cypress Creek/Brushy Creek Road. Cedar Park was incorporated in 1973 with a council-manager system of local government; as of the election on May 6, 2017, Cedar Park City Council members are as follows:The seven members serve two year terms. The mayor and council members place two, place four and place six are elected in years. Council members place place three and place five are elected in odd years.
Cedar Park is represented in Texas House of Representatives by former Cedar Park Council member Republican Tony Dale. In the State Senate, Cedar Park is represented by Republican Charles Schwertner. Cedar Park is home to the Texas Stars of the American Hockey League and the Austin Spurs of the NBA G League both play home games at the H-E-B Center at Cedar Park. A public skate park facility opened in Cedar Park in July 2010; the 15,000-square-foot facility features a large bowl, mini bowl, modern street course. Cedar Park is served by the Leander Independent School District, is home to the Cedar Park High School Timberwolves and the Vista Ridge High School Rangers. Cedar Park won its first football state championship on December 21, 2012; the Timberwolves defeated Lancaster 17-7 at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, winning the Class 4A, Division II state title. In 2015, the Timberwolves won both state titles in Band and Football with the latter beating Frisco Lone Star for the Class 5a, Division II state championship.
Cedar Park High school is the only Texas high school to win UIL state titles in both band and football in the same year. Neighborhoods in the southern and easternmost areas of the city are wholly or served by the Round Rock Independent School District; some of these neighborhoods or the Ranch at Brushy Creek, or Walsh Trails. Some elementary schools that serve these neighborhoods are Old Patsy Sommer; the middle school Walsh, the high school Round Rock serve these areas. The city is home to the Cypress Creek campus of Austin Community College, expanded in 2008 to accommodate the area's growing population; the Texas Psychological Association is located in the city. The H-E-B Center at Cedar Park was completed in 2009 and hosts a wide array of live entertainment events. George Strait opened the Cedar Park Center as the first event at the Center on September 25, 2009; the H-E-B Center is home of the Texas Stars, the AHL affiliate of the Dallas Stars, the Austin Spurs, the D-league affiliate of the San Antonio Spurs.
The Center is located at the corner of 183A Toll Road. Before the arrival of European settlers in the 19th century, the Cedar Park area was inhabited by Native American tribes including the Tonkawa, the Lipan Apache, the Comanche. A paleo-American archaeological site was discovered in Cedar Park in 1983 that showed evidence of continual habitation of the area since circa 5000 BC. In the mid-19th century the community was known as Running Brushy, named after a spring that formed the headwaters of a creek of the same name. In 1873 George and Harriet Cluck, after having run cattle up the Chisholm Trail for many years, bought 329 acres of land that included the Running Brushy spring, their ranch formed the core of the community. Ten years the railroad came through; the Austin and Northwestern Railroad, which connected the state capitol with the cities of Burnet and Lampasas to the north, was finished in 1882 and passed through Running Brushy and the Cluck ranch. The community was at this point renamed Bruggerhoff, after a railroad company official.
However, the name was disliked by locals, being both hard to spell and pronounce. In 1887, Emmett Cluck changed the community name to Cedar Park. In 1892, a "strolling park" of 0.5 acres was built near the train depot. Austinites would ride the train to Cedar Park for day trips to the park. Cedar Park changed little until the 1950s and 1960s when housing subdivisions began to be built, spurred by the growth of nearby Austin. On February 24, 1973, the citizens of Cedar Park voted to incorporate; the estimated population was 1,765. A library followed in 1978. On May 27, 1997, a strong and destructive F3 tornado struck the town; the tornado was one of 20 confirmed tornadoes that occurred during the 1997 Central Texas Tornado outbreak. It devastated the downtown area of the city, killing one person and nearly destroying the Albertson's grocery store. Major retailers began finding their way to the city in 2002. Additional large retailers now include Super Target, multiple HEB grocery stores, Academy Sports and Outdoors, Whole Foods, Sprouts Farmers Market, Costco.
The major shopping centers include 1890 Ranch, Cedar Park Town Center, The Parke, the Cypress Creek Shopping Center. In December 2007, Cedar Park Regional Medical Center opened becoming the first major medical center in Cedar Park. In 2013, the US Census Bur