University of Sarajevo
The University of Sarajevo is a public university located in Sarajevo and Herzegovina. It is the largest and oldest university in the country, as well as the oldest institution of tertiary learning in the former Yugoslavia, tracing its initial origins to 1537 as an Islamic school of law. With 20 faculties, three academies and three faculties of theology and with 30,866 enrolled students as of 2014, it ranks among the largest universities in the Balkans in terms of enrollment. Since opening its doors in 1949, a total of 122,000 students received bachelor's degrees, 3,891 received master's degrees and 2,284 received doctorate degrees in 45 different fields, it is now regarded as the most prestigious university in Bosnia and Herzegovina, employs more than one thousand faculty members. Before establishment of modern University of Sarajevo, first schools of higher educations in Sarajevo and Bosnia and Herzegovina were founded during 16th century under tutelage of Ottomans; as Ottoman institute of higher education first Madrasa in Bosnia, namely Gazi Husrev-beg Madrasa & Library, was inaugurated in Sarajevo 1537 by Gazi Husrev-beg.
The university in its modern, secular incarnation being developed during Austro-Hungarian Empire rule, when many of the institutions of higher education and culture such as National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, still active today, were established. The modern history of the University of Sarajevo continued after the World War I, before World War II as well as during the war extanding its development with new schools and institutes opened, such as the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry in 1940, the Medical Faculty in 1944; the Medical Faculty was re-established in 1946, the Faculty of Law, the Teacher Training College were opened and, in 1948, the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry was re-established. In 1949, the Engineering Faculty was opened. On 2 December of that year with the appointment of the first rector, the University of Sarajevo was established. With the opening of the Faculty of Philosophy and the Faculty of Economics the initial phase of establishment of the Sarajevo University was completed.
The second phase of development was characterized by the affirmation of the university, the opening of new institutions of higher education and the relative satisfaction of the needs for educated personnel in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Another significant achievement is the organization and initiation of postgraduate studies at the university; the third phase was defined by more institutions of higher education being opened at the university, a scientific promotion of the university and its intensified involvement and promotion on the international academic plane. The university contributed directly and indirectly to the establishment of new universities in Banja Luka and Tuzla; the fourth phase was characterized by the separation of scientific activities from the university and the formation of favored scientific institutes outside it. This brought considerable damage to the University of Sarajevo, because the coherence of university education and scientific research was endangered; this resulted in a technological stagnation of the university.
The uncontrolled enrollment of an enormous number of students resulted in a lower efficiency of studies and a hyper-production of personnel in certain areas of education. The fifth phase was marked by devastation of the facilities and equipment of the university, caused by the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Siege of Sarajevo. Despite all of these difficulties of life and work during the four-year siege of Sarajevo, because of the help and the enthusiasm, professionalism and perseverance of university teachers and associates as well as the students, the University of Sarajevo managed to retain its continuity of work and life; this was a specific aspect of intellectual academic resistance against everything, barbaric and uncivilized. It represented the university's contribution to the affirmation of freedom and democracy, the outcry against the war and aggression and the affirmation of the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the beginning of 1996 the University of Sarajevo entered the phase of post-war physical and academic renewal and reconstruction.
The physical renewal is aimed at the reconstruction and the rebuilding of destroyed facilities, the replacement of destroyed educational and scientific equipment and the reconstruction of student dormitories. Significant results have been achieved on this plane and the conditions for higher quality studies have been formed in certain areas. However, despite the numerous reconstruction projects the University of Sarajevo still hasn't reached the full prewar potential; the quality and number of student dormitories are still far below the required, technology is outdated, since the working conditions could be much better academic staff is lacking. In addition, the war caused a rift among the academics and many who worked at the university before the war didn't continue after; the quality of studies is improving because of the Bologna Process implementation, but there is still hyper-production in some areas of education since the Bosnia and Herzegovina doesn't have a unified program of higher education.
The process of renewal and reconstruction of the university is supported by the activities of the European University Association, the European Council, the European Union as well as a whole line of international organizations
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Charlie Yelverton is a retired American professional basketball player. At a height of 1.88 m tall, he played. He is a member of the New York State Basketball Hall of Fame. Yelverton played college basketball at Fordham, with the Fordham Rams, from 1968 to 1971, he won the Haggerty Award in 1971, was an UPI All-American Third Team selection in. Yelverton was drafted 25th overall by the Portland Trail Blazers, in the 1971 NBA draft, but only appeared in one NBA season, he was cut by the Blazers in 1972. He headed to Europe, where he played with Olympiacos in Greece, Ignis Varese in Italy, he helped Ignis Varèse to win the 1975 EuroLeague title, he played with the same team in two other EuroLeague Finals, in 1978 and 1979. He won the 1978 Italian League title, while in Varèse. On February 3, 2008, Yelverton was among the 105 player nominees for the 50 Greatest EuroLeague Contributors list, which commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the EuroLeague competition. NBA Profile and Stats at Basketball-Reference.com EuroLeague 50 Greatest Contributors Nominees
Zetra Olympic Hall, Sarajevo
The Juan Antonio Samaranch Olympic Hall is an indoor multi-purpose arena in Sarajevo and Herzegovina. Named in honor of Juan Antonio Samaranch in 2010 after his death, it was used for various sporting events at the 1984 Winter Olympics, will be the main venue of the 2019 European Youth Olympic Winter Festival; the building of the complex started in June 1981 and was opened by former President of the International Olympic Committee, Juan Antonio Samaranch, on February 14, 1982. Zetra Olympic Hall was constructed for the 1984 Winter Olympics, hosted in Sarajevo, was completed in 1982, its first major event was the 1983 World Junior Speed Skating Championships. It was described as an "ultramodern, angular edifice" with a copper roof; the indoor venue hosted ice hockey and figure skating events, as well as the last closing ceremony held in an indoor place until Vancouver 2010. From 1984 to 1991, Zetra remained in service as a venue for ice sports, it served as the venue for several international speed skating events, several speed skating world records were broken here.
The arena suffered substantial damage from shelling and fire by the Serb forces on Monday, May 25, 1992 during the Bosnian War. The interior of the structure, such as the basements and main hall, were put into service as a morgue, storage space for medication and supplies, a staging area for UN equipment; the wooden seats from the venue were used as material for coffins for civilians killed in the war. After the war, it was discovered that though the building was badly damaged, the foundation was secure. Although the original blueprints were never recovered, in September 1997, reconstruction on the venue, facilitated by the SFOR, began; the International Olympic Committee donated $US 11.5 million to the project, which cost an estimated DM 32 million. The reconstruction was completed in 1999. Zetra hosted the Balkans Stability Pact Summit in July 1999, it is in service as a sporting arena. It is used for music concerts and conferences. Sometimes, parts of the building are rented for other purposes.
The hall contains a small museum about the 1984 Winter Olympics as well as a gym, billiard hall, bowling alley, pistol range, two cafes and other sports related content such as headquarters for various clubs and associations. Media related to Olympic Hall Juan Antonio Samaranch at Wikimedia Commons World Stadiums
A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Team members act together towards a shared objective; this can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, manage conflict, solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. Examples are basketball, rugby, water polo, lacrosse, cricket and the various forms of football and hockey. Team sports are practiced between opposing teams, where the players interact directly and between them to achieve an objective; the objective involves teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar object in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points. The meaning of a "team sport" has been disputed in recent years; some types of sports have different rules than "traditional" team sports. These types of team sports do not involve teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar item in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points.
For example, rowing, dragon boat racing, track and field among others can be considered team sports. In other types of team sports, there may not be an opposing team or point scoring, for example, mountaineering. Instead of points scored against an opposing team, the relative difficulty of the climb or walk is the measure of the achievement. In some sports where participants are entered by a team, they do not only compete against members of other teams but against each other for points towards championship standings. For example, motorsport Formula One. In cycling however, team members whilst still in competition with each other, will work towards assisting one a specialist, member of the team to the highest possible finishing position; this process is known as team orders and although accepted was banned in Formula One between 2002 and 2010. After a controversy involving team orders at the 2010 German Grand Prix however, the regulation was removed as of the 2011 season. Through the years, the popularity of team sport has continued to grow, positively influencing not just athletes, but fans and national economies.
All over the world, the impact of team sport can be seen as professional athletes live out their dreams while serving as role models, youth athletes develop life skills and follow in the footsteps of their role models, fans bond over the love of their teams while supporting their economies with their support. Traces of sprinting as a team sport extend back several thousand years - as evidenced in images in the cave in Lascaux in France which depict people running after animals or vice versa. Organized athletics in Greece traditionally date back to 776 BC, with ongoing activity recorded up to 393 BC; these ancient Olympic Games tested warrior skills and consisted of running, jumping or leaping and javelin throw. In the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia, Neolithic-era cave paintings dating to 7000 BC depict a wrestling match surrounded by crowds. Prehistoric cave-paintings in Japan show a sport similar to sumo wrestling. In Wadi Sura, near Gilf Kebir in Libya, a Neolithic rock painting in the cave of swimmers shows evidence of swimming and archery being practiced around 6000 BC.
The term "athlete", according to mythology, derives from the name of Aethlius, the mythological first King of Elis in Greece. The practice of young athletes carrying flaming torches is traced to the King of Elis, under whose supervision the games took place. Before the start of the races gods were invoked by offerings of fruits and vegetables; the winner of the race was crowned with a wreath of olive or laurel and celery sticks were offered as a trophy. In subsequent years monetary attractions were introduced as prize money. However, the practice of offering celery sticks is still in vogue in the 100 m sprint in the Olympics; the present-day pattern of Olympic Games resembles the practice followed in ancient times. Sprint was the coveted event; the 200 m sprint is known in Greek as "short foot race". The 400 m race called diaulos in Greek. Seven team sports are on the program of the Summer Olympics. Cricket's inclusion in the 2024 Summer Olympics depends on the decision of the International Cricket Council and its members.
A cricket tournament formed part of the Summer Olympics in 1900, although only one match was played, between teams representing Great Britain and France. However, the British team was a club touring side and the French players were drawn from expatriates living in Paris. Ice hockey and curling are team sports at the Winter Olympics together with the bobsleigh competition where the men's event has classes for both two-man and four-man sleds, but the women's class is restricted to two persons only. All Olympic team sports include competitions for both women. Team sports portal Major professional sports teams of the United States and Canada Footnotes BibliographyBaofu, Peter; the Future of Post-Human Sports: Towards a New Theory of Training and Winning. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-6993-5. Barber, Gary. Getting Started in Track and Field Athletics: Advice & Ideas for Children and Teachers. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4122-3847-2. Filppu, The Benefits of Team Sports, retrieved 13 November 2010 Dyer, William.
Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. San Francisco, Ca.: Jossey-Bass. ISBN
Fudbalski klub Sarajevo is a Bosnian professional football club based in Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and is one of the most successful clubs in the country. Founded on 24 October 1946, FK Sarajevo was the most successful club from SR Bosnia in former SFR Yugoslavia, winning two Yugoslav First League titles, being runners-up on two other occasions and finishing 6th in that competition's all-time table; the club's official colours are white. FK Sarajevo was the only major football club founded by the post-war Yugoslav authorities in the city of Sarajevo; the club entered the Yugoslav First League in the 1948–49 season, competed in all but two seasons in the top tier. After Bosnia and Herzegovina gained independence from Yugoslavia, FK Sarajevo became one the country's biggest ambassadors, departing on a large world tour during the Bosnian War with the goal of gaining international support for the country's cause. Today, FK Sarajevo is one of the most prominent members of the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where it has won three Bosnian championships, five Bosnian Cups and one Bosnian Supercup.
Furthermore, the club was runners-up in the national championship another six times. It is ranked first in the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina all-time table and is the country's most prominent representative in European competitions. FK Sarajevo is the most popular football club in the country, together with FK Željezničar, with whom it shares a strong rivalry that manifests itself in the Sarajevo derby; the club plays its home matches at the Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium, named after legendary club striker Asim Ferhatović. The stadium has a capacity of 34.500. Since March 2019, FK Sarajevo is run by Vietnamese businessman Nguyễn Hoài Nam and the PVF Investment and Trading, JSC. FK Sarajevo was established on 24 October 1946 as the result of a merger between local Sarajevo football clubs Udarnik and Sloboda; the club first appeared on the Yugoslav sports scene in 1946 under the name SD Torpedo that represented an homage to Torpedo Moscow. The first chairman of the newly founded club was Safet Džinović, while the positions of vice-chairmen were granted to Vojo Marković and Alojz Stanarević respectively.
Furthermore, Josip Bulat was named manager. The newly formed team, which inherited the results and league standings of Udarnik, was joined by selected players from both Udarnik and Sloboda. Namely, Hodžić, Vlajičić, Šarenkapa, Pauković, Fizović, Konjević, Radović, Viđen and Mustagrudić from the former, Mantula, Glavočević, Tošić, Novo, Strinić, Đ. Lovrić and Alajbegović from the latter; the team played its first match on 3 November 1946. Another historical assembly was held on 5 October 1947 when it was decided, on the proposal of editor of the popular daily newspaper Oslobođenje, Mirko Ostojić, that the club name would be changed to SDM Sarajevo, before it was changed to the current name in 1949. In September 1948 SDM Sarajevo was joined by Yugoslav footballing legend Miroslav Brozović, who brought in a needed level of experience to the new team; the Mostar native wore the black and white jersey of FK Partizan, as well as captaining the Yugoslav national team. Brozović was offered the position of player-manager which he accepted, turning his attentions to promoting the team to the Yugoslav First League.
FK Sarajevo first entered the top-flight Yugoslav First League after eliminating Belgrade club Sloga. They drew the first match 3:3 in Novi Sad, but won the second match 5:1 in Sarajevo; the team were relegated after their first season in the First League, but were promoted back to the top-tier in 1950. From on FK Sarajevo played in every season of the First League apart from 1957 to 1958; the club's first taste of European competitions began during the 1960s when it took part in the 1960 Mitropa Cup and the 1961–63 Balkans Cup, while the first serious European competition the club took part in was the 1962–63 Intertoto Cup. 1966–67 Yugoslav First League table: A key player for Sarajevo in their early years was legendary striker Asim Ferhatović, nicknamed Hase, who played for the club from 1952 to 1967. In 1963–64, he was top scorer in the First League with nineteen goals, while the club finished fourth; the following year the club finished second. Sarajevo won their first Yugoslav First League title in 1966–67, becoming the first national champions from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sarajevo started the historic season with Brozović at the helm of the coaching staff. The team had a dream start with back to back wins against FK Sutjeska Nikšić and their city rivals FK Željezničar; this was followed by a draw against the European Cup runners-up, FK Partizan, in which Sarajevo squandered an early lead. With seven points from their first three fixtures, Sarajevo was still not considered a title favorite, but, to change after Brozović's boys returned from the Dalmatian coast with a win against Hajduk Split. Four days Sarajevo beat NK Olimpija 2:1 at a sold out Koševo stadium. Hard earned wins against HNK Rijeka and Red Star Belgrade followed, by the winter break Sarajevo had won 14 out of their first 20 league fixtures, finishing the year at pole position; the team opened the second part of the season away to Dinamo Zagreb in the last sixteen of the Yugoslav Cup winning 1:0 courtesy of a Boško Antić stunner. In the quarterfinals Sarajevo got the better of FK Napredak, but lost in the Cup final to Hajduk Split, played at the Stari plac stadium on May 24.
The team was back to winning ways, defeating Red Star Belgrade at the Marakana 3:1 with two goals by Antić and one by Prodanović. A week OFK Belgrade was def