Kahului is a census-designated place in Maui County, on the island of Maui, in the U. S. state of Hawaii. Kahului hosts Mauis main airport, deep-draft harbor, light industrial areas, the population was 26,337 at the 2010 census. Kahului is not generally considered a tourist destination and it does feature the Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum, Kanaha Pond State Wildlife Sanctuary, Kanaha Beach County Park, and the Maui Arts and Cultural Center. Kahului is served by Kahului Airport, located outside of the CDP. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has an area of 16.3 square miles. The total area is 7. 16% water, Kahului is directly adjacent to Wailuku located on the west side of town, and to Spreckelsville on the east. Kahului has a hot semi-arid climate zone with a dry season, due to its location on the leeward side of Maui. The normal monthly mean ranges from 71.8 °F in February to 79.7 °F. On average, there are 21 nights annually with a low below 60 °F and 25 days with a high at or above 90 °F, readings of 95 °F or higher are far rarer, occurring on average once every five years.
Temperature records range from 48 °F on January 20,1969 up to 97 °F on August 31,1994 and August 22,2015. The record cool daily maximum is 65 °F on February 28,1990, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 79 °F on October 8 and 17,1979. Normal annual rainfall is 17.83 inches spread over an average 95 days, the wettest month on record is January 1980 with 14.46 inches, while the most rain to occur in a single calendar day is 5.82 inches on December 21,1955. The most recent month without measurable rain is October 2013 with trace amounts, the town is one of the windiest places in the U. S. averaging 13.7 mph per year. As of the 2000 Census, there were 20,146 people,5,880 households, the population density was 1,328.7 people per square mile. There were 6,079 housing units at a density of 400.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 10. 06% White,0. 24% Black or African American,0. 27% Native American,53. 62% Asian,9. 91% Pacific Islander,1. 47% from other races, and 24. 42% from two or more races. 8.
75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,20. 3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.29 and the family size is 3.76
NOAA Weather Radio
NOAA Weather Radio broadcasts National Weather Service warnings, forecasts, weather observations and other hazard information 24 hours a day. It broadcasts alerts of non-weather emergencies such as security, environmental. Known as The Voice of NOAAs National Weather Service, NOAA Weather Radio is provided as a service by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The radio service continuously transmits weather and marine forecasts and other related information, in addition, NWR works in cooperation with the FCCs Emergency Alert System, providing comprehensive severe weather alerts and civil emergency information. For example, a receiver that only tunes in standard FM or AM broadcast stations will not suffice, the seven FM channels, reserved by the U. S. In the wake of the Palm Sunday Tornado Outbreak of 1965, starting in 1966, the Environmental Science Services Administration started a nationwide program known as ESSA VHF Weather Radio Network. In the early 1970s, this would be changed to NOAA Weather Radio, the original frequency was 162.550 MHz, with 163.275 MHz recommended as a backup.
However, this frequency was dropped due to issues with other federal agencies, and 162.400 MHz was added in 1970. Honolulu NWR station KBA99 transmitted on 169.075 MHz for twelve years until it was moved to 162.550 in 1975, many basic weather band receivers manufactured and sold from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s were configured to only receive the three main weather channels. However, for much of period, four additional intermediate channels existed to accommodate anticipated expansion. Over the years, a proliferation of stations meant to ensure near-complete geographical coverage, in addition, more mainstream consumer electronics, such as clock radios, portable multi-band receivers and two-way radios, now feature the ability to receive NWR channels. Many of the devices incorporate alerting capabilities. There are two different channel numbering systems used by various radio manufacturers. The first is the sequence that the radio frequencies were allocated to the service, 1=162.550, 2=162.400, 3=162.475, 4=162.425, 5=162.450, 6=162.500.
The second is in simple increasing radio frequency sequence, 1=162.400, 2=162.425, 3=162.450, 4=162.475, 5=162.500, 6=162.525, 7=162.550. The NWS suggests that users determine which frequency is intended for their location so that they are assured of receiving correct. Government time, and are operated by Department of Commerces National Institute of Standards, according to NOAA, reliable signal reception typically extends in about a 40-mile radius from a full-power transmitter, assuming level terrain. However, signal blockages can occur, especially in mountainous areas, as of 2016, there are over a thousand NWR transmitters across the United States, covering 95% of the population
Alternative rock is a genre of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s and 2000s. In this instance, the word refers to the genres distinction from mainstream rock music. The terms original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their debt to either the musical style or simply the independent. Ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music, Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, and its regional roots. Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü, with the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. By the end of the decade, alternative rocks mainstream prominence declined due to a number of events that caused grunge and Britpop to fade, emo attracted attention in the larger alternative rock world, and the term was applied to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts.
Post-punk revival artists such as Modest Mouse and The Killers had commercial success in the early, before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups he was writing about, in 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled Rock and Roll Alternative. College rock was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the radio circuit. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture, according to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called Alternative Charts. The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980, at the time, the term indie was used literally to describe independently distributed records.
By 1985, indie had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, at first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave and high-energy dance anthems. The use of alternative gained further exposure due to the success of Lollapalooza, for which festival founder, in the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. Defining music as alternative is often difficult because of two conflicting applications of the word, the name alternative rock essentially serves as an umbrella term for underground music that has emerged in the wake of punk rock since the mid-1980s. Alternative bands during the 1980s generally played in clubs, recorded for indie labels. Sounds range from the gloomy soundscapes of gothic rock to the guitars of indie pop to the dirty guitars of grunge to the 1960s/1970s revivalism of Britpop. This approach to lyrics developed as a reflection of the social and economic strains in the United States and United Kingdom of the 1980s, by 1984, a majority of groups signed to independent record labels mined from a variety of rock and particularly 1960s rock influences.
This represented a break from the futuristic, hyper-rational post-punk years
The hertz is the unit of frequency in the International System of Units and is defined as one cycle per second. It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz are commonly expressed in SI multiples kilohertz, gigahertz, kilo means thousand, mega meaning million, giga meaning billion and tera for trillion. Some of the units most common uses are in the description of waves and musical tones, particularly those used in radio-. It is used to describe the speeds at which computers, the hertz is equivalent to cycles per second, i. e. 1/second or s −1. In English, hertz is used as the plural form, as an SI unit, Hz can be prefixed, commonly used multiples are kHz, MHz, GHz and THz. One hertz simply means one cycle per second,100 Hz means one hundred cycles per second, and so on. The unit may be applied to any periodic event—for example, a clock might be said to tick at 1 Hz, the rate of aperiodic or stochastic events occur is expressed in reciprocal second or inverse second in general or, the specific case of radioactive decay, becquerels.
Whereas 1 Hz is 1 cycle per second,1 Bq is 1 aperiodic radionuclide event per second, the conversion between a frequency f measured in hertz and an angular velocity ω measured in radians per second is ω =2 π f and f = ω2 π. This SI unit is named after Heinrich Hertz, as with every International System of Units unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is upper case. Note that degree Celsius conforms to this rule because the d is lowercase. — Based on The International System of Units, the hertz is named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz, who made important scientific contributions to the study of electromagnetism. The name was established by the International Electrotechnical Commission in 1930, the term cycles per second was largely replaced by hertz by the 1970s. One hobby magazine, Electronics Illustrated, declared their intention to stick with the traditional kc. Mc. etc. units, sound is a traveling longitudinal wave which is an oscillation of pressure. Humans perceive frequency of waves as pitch.
Each musical note corresponds to a frequency which can be measured in hertz. An infants ear is able to perceive frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz, the range of ultrasound and other physical vibrations such as molecular and atomic vibrations extends from a few femtoHz into the terahertz range and beyond. Electromagnetic radiation is described by its frequency—the number of oscillations of the perpendicular electric and magnetic fields per second—expressed in hertz. Radio frequency radiation is measured in kilohertz, megahertz, or gigahertz
A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand, webcasting is broadcasting over the Internet. The largest webcasters include existing radio and TV stations, who simulcast their output through online TV or online radio streaming, Webcasting usually consists of providing non-interactive linear streams or events. Rights and licensing bodies offer specific webcasting licenses to those wishing to carry out Internet broadcasting using copyrighted material, Webcasting is used extensively in the commercial sector for investor relations presentations, in e-learning, and for related communications activities. However, webcasting does not bear much, if any, relationship to web conferencing, the ability to webcast using cheap/accessible technology has allowed independent media to flourish. There are many notable independent shows that broadcast regularly online, often produced by average citizens in their homes they cover many interests and topics.
Webcasts relating to computers and news are particularly popular, Webcasting differs from podcasting in that webcasting refers to live streaming while podcasting simply refers to media files placed on the Internet. Webcasting is the distribution of media files through the internet, pakman from Apple, they launched the Macintosh New York Music Festival from July 17–22,1995. This event audio webcast concerts from more than 15 clubs in New York City, Apple webcast a concert by Metallica on June 10,1996 live from Slims in San Francisco. In 1995, Benford E. Standley produced one of the first audio/video webcasts in history, on August 13,1998, it is generally believed the first webcast wedding took place, between Alan Knecht and Carrie Silverman in Toronto Canada. The live signal was broadcast via satellite to PA, encoded and streamed via the BGEA website, the first teleconferenced/webcast wedding to date is believed to have occurred on December 31,1998. Dale Ficken and Lorrie Scarangella wed on this date as they stood in a church in Pennsylvania, on November 4,1994, Stef van der Ziel distributed the first live video images over the web from the Simplon venue in Groningen.
On November 7,1994, WXYC, the radio station of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill became the first radio station in the world to broadcast its signal over the internet. Translated versions including Subtitling are now possible using SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language, a wedcast is a webcast of a wedding. It allows family and friends of the couple to watch the wedding in time on the Internet. Webcasting a funeral is a service provided by funeral homes. Although it has been around for a decade, cheaper broadband, the strain of travel. International Webcasting Association Media clip Podcast Streaming media Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language Video blog Web radio Webisode Webinar PR Newswire
Federal Communications Commission
The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, the spectrum, the media, public safety and homeland security, and modernizing itself. The FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission, the FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The FCCs mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America. The FCC is funded entirely by regulatory fees and it has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US$388 million. Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act and these are, Broadband All Americans should have affordable access to robust and reliable broadband products and services. Competition Competition in the provision of services, both domestically and overseas, supports the Nations economy.
The competitive framework for communications services should foster innovation and offer consumers reliable, Media The Nations media regulations must promote competition and diversity and facilitate the transition to digital modes of delivery. Public Safety and Homeland Security Communications during emergencies and crisis must be available for public safety, defense, the Nations critical communications infrastructure must be reliable, interoperable and rapidly restorable. The FCC is directed by five appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman, only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business, commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements, but may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, as of 2016 this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCCs consumer policies, CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, which is responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness. The Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, and homeland security. S. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations, the Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service.
The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, the Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureaus main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in technology infrastructure, markets
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. The term denotes the modern music of Jamaica and its diaspora. A1968 single by Toots and the Maytals Do the Reggay was the first popular song to use the word reggae, effectively naming the genre, Reggae usually relates news, social gossip, and political comment. Reggae spread into a commercialized jazz field, being known first as ‘Rudie Blues’, ‘Ska’, ‘Blue Beat’ and it is instantly recognizable from the counterpoint between the bass and drum downbeat, and the offbeat rhythm section. The immediate origins of reggae were in ska and rock steady, from the latter, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues, mento, African music, as well as other genres. One of the most easily recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms, staccato chords played by a guitar or piano on the offbeats of the measure, the tempo of reggae is usually slower than ska but faster than rocksteady. The concept of call and response can be found throughout reggae music, the genre of reggae music is led by the drum and bass.
The bass guitar often plays the dominant role in reggae, the bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, and equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized. The guitar in reggae usually plays on the off beat of the rhythm and it is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, and Iyaric dialects. Reggae is noted for its tradition of criticism and religion in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love. Reggae has spread to countries across the world, often incorporating local instruments. Reggae en Español spread from the mainland South America countries of Venezuela, Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, and has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, and there have been a number of European artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica, Reggae in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe in 1980.
In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income, the 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as a recently estab. Sp. for rege, as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either rags, ragged clothing or a quarrel, a row. Reggae as a term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit Do the Reggay by The Maytals which named the genre of Reggae for the world. Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae into reggae, Toots Hibbert said, Theres a word we used to use in Jamaica called streggae. If a girl is walking and the look at her and say Man, shes streggae it means she dont dress well
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, it is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio, FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies, the term FM band describes the frequency band in a given country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. Usually 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions, In the former Soviet republics, and some former Eastern Bloc countries, assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz. This band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many countries, in those countries the 87. 5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used, the frequency of an FM broadcast station is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz.
In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines, in some parts of Europe and Africa, only even multiples are used. In the UK odd or even are used, in Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in countries, including 1,10,30,74,500. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system and this can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise. These processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, the amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used, in the Americas and South Korea,75 µs is used. This applies to both mono and stereo transmissions, for stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing.
They cannot be pre-emphasized as much because it would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier, systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis, e. g. dbx in the BTSC TV sound system, or none at all. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing and these original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated