St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i
Height above average terrain
Height above average terrain, or effective height above average terrain, is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio and television, as it is more important than effective radiated power in determining the range of broadcasts. For international coordination, it is measured in meters by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States, as Canada and Mexico have extensive border zones where stations can be received on either side of the international boundaries. Stations that want to increase above a certain HAAT must reduce their power accordingly, based on the maximum distance their station class is allowed to cover; the FCC procedure to calculate HAAT is: from the proposed or actual antenna site, either 12 or 16 radials were drawn, points at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 miles radius along each radial were used. The entire radial graph could be rotated to achieve the best effect for the station; the altitude of the antenna site, minus the average altitude of all the specified points, is the HAAT.
This can create some unusual cases in mountainous regions—it is possible to have a negative number for HAAT. The FCC has divided the Contiguous United States into three zones for the determination of spacing between FM and TV stations using the same frequencies. FM and TV stations are assigned maximum ERP and HAAT values, depending on their assigned zones, to prevent co-channel interference; the FCC regulations for ERP and HAAT are listed under Title 47, Part 73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Maximum HAAT: 150 metres Maximum ERP: 50 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 241 km Maximum HAAT: 600 metres Maximum ERP: 100 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 290 km. In all zones, maximum ERP for analog TV transmitters is. In addition, Zone I-A consists of all of California south of 40° north latitude, Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. Zones I and I-A have the most "grandfathered" overpowered stations, which are allowed the same extended coverage areas that they had before the zones were established.
One of the most powerful of these stations is WBCT in Grand Rapids, which operates at 320,000 watts and 238 meters HAAT. Zone III consists of all of Florida and the areas of Alabama, Louisiana and Texas within 241.4 kilometers of the Gulf of Mexico. Zone II is all the rest of the Continental United States and Hawaii. Above mean sea level Above ground level Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission List of broadcast station classes United States Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Part 73 Index FCC: Mass Media Calculated Contours FCC: HAAT Calculator "Superpower" Grandfathered FM stations
KYFI is a Christian radio station broadcasting from St. Louis, Missouri. KYFI is operated by Bible Broadcasting Network, Inc.. KYFI's transmitters are located near Gateway Motorsports Park in Illinois. From 1994 until September 20, 2013, the station was owned by Crawford Broadcasting and held the callsign KJSL; this frequency was used by KXOK. While KXOK had used a number of formats, it is best remembered as being a pioneer of the Top 40 music format during the 1960s and 1970s; the station was owned by Storz Communications, notably long after the death of Todd Storz, the father of the Top 40 radio format. KXOK was changed to KJSL in June 1994 under the new ownership of Crawford Broadcasting; the longest-running daily program, The Bob Wells Show, hosted by Bob Wells, aired on KJSL from April 1999 until May 28, 2010 with a format of news of the day: Social and political. Wells interviewed guests from the political arena, including presidential candidates as well as local politicians. J. Bradley Young was the political consultant and guest hosted the program along with Author William J. Federer.
Voice over talent and writer Bryan Kreutz voiced a Star Trek news segment for the Monday show as a Co-Producer sharing the duties with traffic director Jen Collins-Smith. Jen Collins-Smith and Bryan Kreutz graduated from Broadcast Center in "The Hill, St. Louis" district; the Bob Wells Show, during its run, was the only Christian radio program in Saint Louis to allow the caller to pick the topic for the full two-hour show on Fridays titled "Free for all Fridays". Pat Knox, a producer with the program for much of its run, arranged most of the interviews and guests. Bob Wells interviewed many former guests and KJSL personalities on his final week on the air, notably Tim Berends. Mornings with Tim & Al aired from 1994–2005 weekdays at 6–10 am. Hosted by Al Gross and Tim Berends, the show was pre-recorded and mixed in as a live broadcast; the hosts were on-air teachers of evangelism interviewing celebrities and sharing the Gospel with them. In the Spring of 2008 Tim Berends has signed on to have his own live one-hour program on Thursday nights at 8 pm titled "A million bibles for Kenya" and re-titled to "Jesus & Tim in Las Vegas".
Debra Peppers hosted one of the longest-running live radio program on KJSL from 1996 through May 2006 titled Talk from the Heart, a two-hour call-in interactive radio program with uplifting Christian topics. The program was produced by current KJSL Producer Pat Knox, the lead producer for the program from July 2002 to May 2006. In August 1998 The St. Louis Post-Dispatch published a story relating to a controversial billboard off of a major interstate near Saint Louis titled "Hell Hates Tim and Al" with flames depicted around the edges of the billboard. KJSL posted the billboard to get the word out to the public to capture the attention of potential listeners to tune in to the program "Mornings with Tim & Al"; the station's emphasis shifted towards Contemporary Christian music in April 2006 as a leading theme during the rush hour drive time as well as morning commute in an effort to draw in a broad audience. KXOK KYFI official website Query the FCC's AM station database for KYFI Radio-Locator Information on KYFI Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KYFI
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co
Foo Fighters is an American rock band, formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1994. It was founded by Nirvana drummer Dave Grohl as a one-man project following the dissolution of Nirvana after the suicide of Kurt Cobain; the group got its name from the UFOs and various aerial phenomena that were reported by Allied aircraft pilots in World War II, which were known collectively as "foo fighters". Prior to the release of Foo Fighters' 1995 debut album Foo Fighters, which featured Grohl as the only official member, Grohl recruited bassist Nate Mendel and drummer William Goldsmith, both of Sunny Day Real Estate, as well as Nirvana touring guitarist Pat Smear to complete the lineup; the band began with performances in Oregon. Goldsmith quit during the recording of the group's second album, The Colour and the Shape, when most of the drum parts were re-recorded by Grohl himself. Smear's departure followed soon afterward, though he would appear as a guest with the band starting in 2006, would rejoin as an official full-time member in 2011.
They were replaced by Taylor Hawkins and Franz Stahl although Stahl was fired before the recording of the group's third album, There Is Nothing Left to Lose. The band continued as a trio until Chris Shiflett joined as the band's lead guitarist after the completion of There Is Nothing Left to Lose; the band released its fourth album, One by One, in 2002. The group followed that release with the two-disc In Your Honor, split between acoustic songs and heavier material. Foo Fighters released its sixth album, Silence, Patience & Grace, in 2007; the band's seventh studio album, Wasting Light, produced by Butch Vig, was released in 2011, in which Smear returned as a full member. In November 2014, the band's eighth studio album, Sonic Highways, was released as an accompanying soundtrack to the Grohl-directed 2014 miniseries of the same name. On September 15, 2017, the band released their ninth studio album and Gold, which became their second to reach number one in the United States and was the band's first studio album to feature longtime session and touring keyboardist Rami Jaffee as a full member.
Over the course of the band's career, four of its albums have won Grammy Awards for Best Rock Album. As of 2015, the band has sold 12 million copies in the United States alone. Foo Fighters frontman Dave Grohl joined the grunge group Nirvana as its drummer in 1990. During tours, he wrote songs. Grohl held back these songs from the rest of the band. I thought it was best that I kept my songs to myself." Grohl booked studio time to record demos and covers of songs he liked and issued a cassette of some of those songs called Pocketwatch under the pseudonym "Late!" in 1992. Frontman Kurt Cobain was found dead in his Seattle home on April 8, 1994, Nirvana subsequently disbanded. Grohl received offers to work with various artists. Grohl declined and instead entered Robert Lang Studios in October 1994 to record fifteen of the forty songs he had written. With the exception of a guitar part on "X-Static", played by Greg Dulli of the Afghan Whigs, Grohl played every instrument and sang every vocal on the tracks.
"I was supposed to just join another band and be a drummer the rest of my life," Grohl said. "I thought. I enjoy writing music and I enjoy trying to sing, there's nothing anyone can do to discourage me." Grohl completed an album's worth of material in five days and handed out cassette copies of the sessions to his friends for feedback. Grohl hoped to keep his anonymity and release the recordings in a limited run under the title "Foo Fighters", taken from the World War II term "foo fighter", used to refer to unidentified flying objects. "Around the time that I recorded the first FF tape, I was reading a lot of books on UFO's. Not only is it a fascinating subject, but there's a treasure trove of band names in those UFO books!" he said. "So, since I had recorded the first record by myself, playing all the instruments, but I wanted people to think that it was a group, I figured that FOO FIGHTERS might lead people to believe that it was more than just one guy. Silly, huh?" Continuing, Grohl insisted.
"Had I considered this to be a career, I would have called it something else, because it's the stupidest fucking band name in the world."However, the demo tape circulated in the music industry, creating interest among record labels. Grohl formed a band to support the album, he talked to former Nirvana bandmate Krist Novoselic about joining the group, but both decided against it. "For Krist and I, it would have felt natural and great", Grohl explained. "But for everyone else, it would have been weird, it would have left me in a bad position. I would have been under the microscope." Having heard about the disbanding of Seattle-based rock band Sunny Day Real Estate, Grohl drafted the group's bass player, Nate Mendel, drummer, William Goldsmith. Grohl asked Pat Smear, who served as a touring guitarist for Nirvana after the release of its 1993 album, In Utero, to join as the group's second guitarist. Grohl licensed the album to Capitol Records, releasing it on Roswell Records, his new record label.
Foo Fighters made its live public debut on February 23, 1995, at the Jambalaya Club in Arcata and March 3 at The Satyricon in Portland. They followed that with a show at the Velvet Elvis in
"2 On" is a song by American singer-songwriter Tinashe for her debut studio album Aquarius. The song, which features a rap verse from American rapper SchoolBoy Q, was written by Tinashe, Schoolboy Q, Bobby Brackins, DJ Mustard, Jon Redwine, Marley Waters, it features an interpolation of the 2005 single "We Be Burnin'" by Jamaican recording artist Sean Paul, resulting in writing credits for Cezar Cunningham, Sean Paul, Steven Marsden, Delano Thomas, Michael Jarrett, Craig Serani Marsh. "2 On" was released as Tinashe's commercial debut single from Aquarius on January 21, 2014 and was sent to US rhythmic contemporary and urban contemporary radio on March 18, 2014. "2 On" is an electro-R&B song that contains elements of trap production. Lyrically, the song is a party song about living life to the fullest. Music critics praised the song for its sound and carefree lyrics, "2 On" was noted by critics as a departure from Tinashe's murky alternative R&B, part of her previous songs; the single peaked at number 24 on the US Billboard Hot 100 and was certified platinum by the RIAA.
The accompanying music video for the track was directed by Hannah Lux Davis and was released on March 24, 2014, with Tinashe dancing in several different scenes. To further promote the song, Tinashe made various live performances, including the SXSW Festival, the Power 106 LA concert, Capital Xtra, Rinse FM, V100.7/Milwaukee's Family Affair and The Wendy Williams Show. Canadian rapper Drake released an unofficial rework of the song to his Soundcloud account. An official Spanish remix featuring reggaeton singer Randy was released on November 18, 2014, included on his mixtape Under Doxis. "2 On" was written by Tinashe, Schoolboy Q and Bobby Brackins and produced by DJ Mustard, Jon Redwine and DJ Marley Waters. It is nightclub-oriented, which contrasts with Tinashe's previous work such as her 2013 mixtape Black Water, she stated: "I wanted'2 On' to be transitional, so people get used to the idea of,'She can make songs that can play on the radio, she can still make songs that I can vibe out to in my car.'"
"2 On" was released worldwide as a music download by RCA Records on January 21, 2014. It impacted US rhythmic contemporary and urban contemporary radio on March 18, 2014. "2 On" is an electronic R&B song, marking a slight departure from the murky alternative R&B from her mixtapes. The song features "effervescent keys", "synth-string accents", finger snaps, trap hi-hats, electro beats and distant chilly sighs, the latter which Bradley Stern of MuuMuse described as more reminiscent of her mixtape releases; the song features a sample of Sean Paul's 2005 single "We Be Burnin'", with the line "Just give me the trees and we can smoke it ya/Just give me the drink and we can pour it ya" featured in the middle eight. As a result, the song's writers are credited. Lyrically, the song is a carpe-diem anthem about being "super hyped up, super extra out on whatever emotion that it is." Although the song became her first hit and got a lot of people buzzing about the song, some listeners didn't understand the concept of the meaning of "2 On."
She spoke with VladTV to address this by saying "2 On is a new way of saying turn up. Being super hyped up with your friends. I just wanted to come up with a fresh phrase that people can catch on to." J. Leeds of the online publication Idolator praised the song's production calling it a "club thumper" and comparing the music video choreography to Britney Spears and Janet Jackson Tom Breihan of Stereogum commented on the throwback feel from the track saying "2 On recreates some of the tropes of the late-’90s/early-’00s teenpop/R&B crossover era, but it does it within quotes" and comparing the video having an Aaliyah vibe on it. Gotty, a writer for The Smoking Section, commented. Maybe not as rhythmic and polished as Tip and them did in ATL but I could hit the rink, do a little bop once I get some speed and cut the corners." Gotty commended DJ Mustard's production, writing "it’s not what we’ve come to expect as his signature sound and that’s a good thing here."Bradley Stern of MuuMuse classified the song as a "female version of Tyga‘s “Rack City” and 2 Chainz‘ “I’m Different” mixed with the icy flow of Cassie‘s “Me & U,” blending #TurnUp club culture with hypnotic minimal beats — it’s all sorts of sexy."
Jon Ali, in his blog, appraised the song as "a hot slow-burning R&B number packed with an icy electro beat and a infectious chorus loaded with plenty of memorable sexual come-ons. The song works so well in its simplicity" and the sample used as "all sorts of perfect." A writer for Fact Magazine opined that "Tinashe and Mustard are a potent pairing, but we hoped rappers would leave the “beat the pussy up” schtick in the bin." John Kennedy of Billboard noted that "ScHoolboy Q's rambunctious bars give this feel-good smash just the right amount of scruffiness." "2 On" was labeled an album highlight by several critics. Following its release the song has peaked at number 24 on the Billboard Hot 100, number 53 on the UK Singles Chart and stayed at number one for four weeks on the Billboard Rhythmic Charts; as of August 8, 2014, "2 On" has sold 473,000 downloads in the US. On November 24, 2014 the song was certified Platinum by RIAA for selling 1,000,000 copies; the song's official music video, directed by Hannah Lux Davis, was released on March 24, 2014.
One of the songwriters, Bobby Brackins, makes a cameo
A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Webcasting is "broadcasting" over the Internet; the largest "webcasters" include existing radio and TV stations, who "simulcast" their output through online TV or online radio streaming, as well as a multitude of Internet only "stations". Webcasting consists of providing non-interactive linear streams or events. Rights and licensing bodies offer specific "webcasting licenses" to those wishing to carry out Internet broadcasting using copyrighted material. Webcasting is used extensively in the commercial sector for investor relations presentations, in e-learning, for related communications activities. However, webcasting does not bear much, if any, relationship to web conferencing, designed for many-to-many interaction; the ability to webcast using cheap/accessible technology has allowed independent media to flourish.
There are many notable independent shows that broadcast online. Produced by average citizens in their homes they cover many interests and topics. Webcasts relating to computers and news are popular and many new shows are added regularly. Webcasting differs from podcasting in that webcasting refers to live streaming while podcasting refers to media files placed on the Internet. Webcasting is the distribution of media files through the internet; the earliest graphically-oriented web broadcasts were not streaming video, but were in fact still frames which were photographed with a web camera every few minutes while they were being broadcast live over the Internet. One of the earliest instances of sequential live image broadcasting was in 1991 when a camera was set up next to the Trojan Room in the computer laboratory of the University of Cambridge, it provided a live picture every few minutes of the office coffee pot to all desktop computers on that office's network. A couple of years its broadcasts went to the Internet, became known as the Trojan Room Coffee Pot webcam, gained international notoriety as a feature of the fledgling World Wide Web.
In 1996 an American college student and conceptual artist, Jenny Ringley, set up a web camera similar to the Trojan Room Coffee Pot's webcam in her dorm room. That webcam photographed her every few minutes while it broadcast those images live over the Internet upon a site called JenniCam. Ringley wanted to portray all aspects of her lifestyle and the camera captured her doing everything – brushing her teeth, doing her laundry, having sex with her boyfriend, her website generated millions of hits upon the Internet, became a pay site in 1998, spawned hundreds of female imitators who would use streaming video to create a new billion dollar industry called camming, brand themselves as camgirls or webcam models. One of the earliest webcast equivalent of an online concert and one of the earliest examples of webcasting itself was by Apple Computer's Webcasting Group in partnership with the entrepreneurs Michael Dorf and Andrew Rasiej. Together with David B. Pakman from Apple, they launched the Macintosh New York Music Festival from July 17–22, 1995.
This event audio webcast concerts from more than 15 clubs in New York City. Apple webcast a concert by Metallica on June 10, 1996 live from Slim's in San Francisco. In 1995, Benford E. Standley produced one of the first audio/video webcasts in history. On October 31, 1996, UK rock band Caduseus broadcast their one-hour concert from 11 pm to 12 midnight at Celtica in Machynlleth, Wales, UK – the first live streamed audio and simultaneous live streamed video multicast – around the globe to more than twenty direct "mirrors" in more than twenty countries. In September 1997, Nebraska Public Television started webcasting Big Red Wrap Up from Lincoln, Nebraska which combined highlights from every Cornhusker football game, coverage of the coaches' weekly press conferences, analysis with Nebraska sportswriters, appearances by special guests and questions and answers with viewers. On August 13, 1998, it is believed the first webcast wedding took place, between Alan K'necht and Carrie Silverman in Toronto Canada.
On October 22, 1998, the first Billy Graham Crusade was broadcast live to a worldwide audience from the Raymond James Stadium in Tampa Florida courtesy of Dale Ficken and the WebcastCenter in Pennsylvania. The live signal was broadcast via satellite to PA encoded and streamed via the BGEA website; the first teleconferenced/webcast wedding to date is believed to have occurred on December 31, 1998. Dale Ficken and Lorrie Scarangella wed on this date as they stood in a church in Pennsylvania, were married by Jerry Falwell while he sat in his office in Lynchburg, Virginia. All major broadcasters now have a webcast of their output, from the BBC to CNN to Al Jazeera to UNTV in television to Radio China, Vatican Radio, United Nations Radio and the World Service in radio. On November 4, 1994, Stef van der Ziel distributed the first live video images over the web from the Simplon venue in Groningen. On November 7, 1994, WXYC, the college radio station of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill became the first radio station in the world to broadcast its signal over the internet.
Translated versions including Subtitling are now possible using SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. A wedcast of a wedding. Allows family and friends of the couple to watch the wedding in real time on the Internet, it is sometimes used for weddings in exotic locations, such as Cancun and the Riviera Maya, Hawaii or the Caribbean, for which it is expensive or difficul