The National Film Award for Best Feature Film in English is one of the National Film Awards of India presented annually by the Directorate of Film Festivals, the organisation set up by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. It is one of several awards awarded with Rajat Kamal; the National Film Awards, established in 1954, are the most prominent film awards in India that merit the best of the Indian cinema. The ceremony presents awards for films in various regional languages. Awards for films in seven regional language started from 2nd National Film Awards which were presented on 21 December 1955. Three awards of "President's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film", "Certificate of Merit for the Second Best Feature Film" and "Certificate of Merit for the Third Best Feature Film" were instituted; the two certificate awards were discontinued from 15th National Film Awards. Produced and directed by Serbjeet Singh, the 1964 film The Avalanche was honoured with the first president's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film in English.
After 1964, awards were discontinued for certain period and resumed for feature films produced in 1981 at 29th National Film Awards. Award includes ` cash prize. Following are the award winners over the years: Official Page for Directorate of Film Festivals, India National Film Awards Archives
The pharmacology of estradiol, an estrogen medication and occurring steroid hormone, concerns its pharmacodynamics and various routes of administration. Estradiol is a occurring and bioidentical estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptor, the biological target of estrogens like endogenous estradiol. Due to its estrogenic activity, estradiol has antigonadotropic effects and can inhibit fertility and suppress sex hormone production in both women and men. Estradiol differs from non-bioidentical estrogens like conjugated estrogens and ethinylestradiol in various ways, with implications for tolerability and safety. Estradiol can be taken by mouth, held under the tongue, as a gel or patch, applied to the skin, in through the vagina, by injection into muscle or fat, or through the use of an implant, placed into fat, among other routes. Estradiol can be taken by a variety of different routes of administration; these include oral, sublingual, transdermal, rectal, by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, as a subcutaneous implant.
The pharmacokinetics of estradiol, including its bioavailability, biological half-life, other parameters, differ by route of administration. The potency of estradiol, its local effects in certain tissues, most the liver, differ by route of administration as well. In particular, the oral route is subject to a high first-pass effect, which results in high levels of estradiol and consequent estrogenic effects in the liver and low potency due to first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism into metabolites like estrone and estrogen conjugates. Conversely, this is not the case for parenteral routes, which bypass liver. Different estradiol routes and dosages can achieve varying circulating estradiol levels. For purposes of comparison with normal physiological circumstances, menstrual cycle circulating levels of estradiol in premenopausal women are 40 pg/mL in the early follicular phase, 250 pg/mL at the middle of the cycle, 100 pg/mL during the mid-luteal phase. Mean integrated levels of circulating estradiol in premenopausal women across the whole menstrual cycle are in the range of 80 to 150 pg/mL, according to some sources.
In postmenopausal women, circulating levels of estradiol are below 15 pg/mL. During normal human pregnancy, estrogen production increases progressively and high estrogen levels are attained. Estradiol levels range from 1,000 to 40,000 pg/mL across pregnancy, are on average 25,000 pg/mL at term, reach levels as high as 75,000 pg/mL in some women; the oral bioavailability of estradiol is low. This is due to the fact that estradiol is poorly soluble in water, which limits its dissolution and absorption, is additionally subject to extensive metabolism during the first pass through the intestines and liver. Estradiol is micronized and/or conjugated with an ester, as in estradiol valerate or estradiol acetate, to improve its oral bioavailability and potency. Micronization decreases the particle size of estradiol crystals and hence increases the surface area for absorption, thereby improving the rate and extent of absorption. In addition, there is an improvement in metabolic stability. Oral micronized estradiol consists of more than 80% of estradiol particles micronized to a size smaller than 20 μm in diameter, or to about 1 to 3 μm on average.
All oral formulations of estradiol available today are micronized, oral estradiol valerate tablets seem to be micronized. Oral non-micronized estradiol and oral micronized estradiol do not appear to have been directly compared in a study. Both have been assessed independently however, have been found to produce significant estrogenic effects. Micronization of other poorly water-soluble steroids such as spironolactone and norethisterone acetate has been found to increase their potency by several-fold. In accordance, studies of the amount of oral estradiol necessary for endometrial proliferation in women have reported a total dose of 60 mg for micronized estradiol relative to 120 to 300 mg or more for non-micronized estradiol; as such, micronization has been said to improve the potency of oral estradiol. A study compared different particle sizes of oral micronized estradiol. A preparation with the smallest particles was found to have the most rapid absorption and the highest bioavailability. However, a sharp peak in estradiol levels, without an accompanying rise in estrone levels, was observed during the first 2 hours with this particle size.
It was suggested that the smallest estradiol particles may have been absorbed by the lymphatic system bypassing first-pass metabolism and resulting in high initial estradiol levels. The preparations with the larger particle sizes were found to be absorbed more without a pronounced initial peak in estradiol levels. Levels of estradiol were more and similar to physiological levels with these particle sizes. Differences in area-under-the-curve estradiol levels with the different particle sizes were small; as such, micronization may improve absorption but does not improve therapeutic effect. Micronized estradiol is and absorbed with oral administration; this is true for oral doses of 2 mg and 4 mg, but absorption was found to be incomplete for an oral dose of 8 mg. This dose showed 76% of the expected bioavailability based on dose proportionality and area-under-the-curve levels, indicating a small deviation from linearity; the absolute bioavailability of oral micronized estradiol is 5%, with a possible range of 0.1% to 12%.
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Madison Township is one of the fourteen townships of Perry County, United States. The 2000 census found 1,229 people in the township. Located in the northeastern corner of the county, it borders the following townships: Hopewell Township, Muskingum County - north Newton Township, Muskingum County - east Clayton Township - south Pleasant Township - southwest corner Hopewell Township - west Bowling Green Township, Licking County - northwest cornerNo municipalities are located in Madison Township, although the unincorporated community of Mount Perry lies in the township's north, it is one of twenty Madison Townships statewide. The township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election.
Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. County website History of Madison Township
Kazuko Saegusa was a Japanese novelist. She won the Izumi Kyoka Prize for Literature. Saegusa was born Yotsumoto Kazuko on March 1929 in Kobe, she was the oldest of four children. Her father's job made him transfer locations throughout Hyogo prefecture so Saegusa moved often, her mother was a Protestant, took her children to church with her. Saegusa was an avid reader as a child, began writing in middle school. In 1944, Saegusa worked at a factory in Nagasaki because of the National Mobilization Law, she returned to Hyogo in April 1945 to attend school. Saegusa studied philosophy at the Kwansei Gakuin University, graduating in 1950, she was a member of a Dostoyevsky study group. She went focusing her studies on Hegel, she met Koichi Saegusa while studying at the university. They moved to Kyoto. While living in Kyoto they worked as published literary magazines. Koichi inherited his father's temple in 1962, so they moved to Takino and lived in the temple, they both stopped teaching, Saegusa became a writer full-time.
Koichi started a journal in 1964, Saegusa published much of her writing there during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Her book Sōsō no asa was an honorable mention for the Bungei Prize in 1963. In 1969 she won the Tamura Toshiko Prize for her short story, "Shokei ga okonawareteiru", her book Onidomo no Yoru wa Fukai won the Izumi Kyoka Prize for Literature in 1983. From the 1980s onward she split her time between Takino, she frequently visited Greece. She died on April 24, 2003. Saegusa's style is dark, with unreliable narrators who hallucinate and are obsessed with fate and death. Frequent themes include Japan's defeat in World War II, men's view of womanhood, the collapse of social institutions like villages and families, her studies of Greek and Roman literature and mythology have had a clear influence on her writing. Some of her books, like Sono hi no natsu, show a female perspective of war and its aftermath in contrast to typical war novels that have male protagonists. Getsuyoubi no yoru no koto, 1965 Shokei ga okonawareteiru, 1969 Hachigatsu no shura, 1972 Ranhansha, 1973 Tsuki no tobu mura, 1979 Omoigakezu kaze no cho, 1980 Onidomo no Yoru wa Fukai, 1983 Hookai kokuchi, 1985 Onnatachi wa kodai e tobu, 1986 Sono hi no natsu, 1987 Murakumo no mura no monogatari, 1987
Andrew "Andy" Schuttinger was an American jockey and owner in the sport of thoroughbred horse racing. A successful jockey, Andy Schuttinger won numerous important races including the Travers Stakes, Jockey Club Gold Cup, what would become the second leg of the U. S. Triple Crown series, the Preakness Stakes. Among the many top horses he rode was Man o' War, as well as two-time American Champion Filly, the 1914 American Horse of the Year and a Hall of Fame inductee and another Horse of the Year in 1917, Old Rosebud, Schuttinger announced his retirement from riding on July 20, 1926, advising that he would embark on a career as a trainer with W. T. Anderson's stable based at Saratoga Race Course. In September of the following year he took charge of the racing stable of James Butler, the prominent owner of Empire City Race Track, he remained with Butler until December 24, 1930, on March 28, 1931, he took over the racing stable of Willis Sharpe Kilmer. Among the horses Schuttinger trained for Kilmer was the U.
S. Racing Hall of Fame colt, Sun Beau, he simultaneously trained horses for Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney and Joseph M. Roebling. Successful as a trainer as he had been as a jockey, Andy Schuttinger and his wife notably owned and raced horses he trained such as Pilate, Key Ring, Red Welt, Fortification and their best runner, multiple stakes winner, Ferd. Andy Schuttinger retired from the business, he died in 1971 in Florida at age seventy-eight. Article on Man o' War and Andy Schuttinger winning the Travers stakes August 22, 1920 The New York Times article titled 6 Riders of Previous Winners Of Preakness Watch Classic May 11, 1929 The New York Times Andy Schuttinger at Find a Grave