Everett is the county seat of and the largest city in Snohomish County, United States. It is located 25 miles north of Seattle and is one of the main cities in the metropolitan area and Puget Sound region. Everett is the seventh-largest city in Washington state and had a total population of 103,019 at the 2010 census; the city is located at the mouth of the Snohomish River along Port Gardner Bay, an inlet of Possession Sound. American settlement on the Everett peninsula began in the 1860s, with several sawmills built to serve the area's growing timber industry. Everett was platted by a group of investors seeking to build an industrial city and named for the son of co-founder Charles L. Colby; the city was incorporated in 1893, shortly after the arrival of the Great Northern Railway, prospered as a major industrial center. Everett's economy transitioned away from lumber and towards aviation after World War II, with the construction of Boeing's aircraft assembly plant at Paine Field in 1967. Boeing remains the city's largest employer, alongside the U.
S. Navy, which has operated Naval Station Everett since 1992. Everett received an All-America City Award in 2002. Everett remains a major employment center for Snohomish County, but has become a bedroom community for Seattle in recent decades, it is connected to Seattle by Interstate 5 and various public transit services at Everett Station, including the Sounder commuter train and commuter buses. The Port Gardner peninsula was inhabited by local Coast Salish tribes, including the Snohomish, who maintained a winter village at Hibulb at the mouth of the Snohomish River; the area was explored by the Vancouver Expedition of 1792, which landed on a beach on the modern Everett waterfront on June 4 and claimed the land for England. The Snohomish and other tribes signed the Treaty of Point Elliott in 1855, relocating to the nearby Tulalip Indian Reservation and relinquishing its lands to the territorial government, opening the region to American settlement; the first permanent American settler to arrive on the peninsula was Dennis Brigham, a carpenter from Worcester, who claimed a 160-acre homestead on Port Gardner Bay in 1861 and built a cabin for himself.
He was joined by several other families on their own homesteads, which included the establishment of a general store and a sawmill that went out of business. Over the next several years a handful of settlers moved to the area, but it wasn't until 1890 that plans for platting a town were conceived. On July 17, 1890, The steamship Queen of the Pacific left Tacoma for an Alaskan cruise with Henry Hewitt, Jr. and Charles L. Colby aboard. During this "Fateful voyage" initial plans for an industrial city on the peninsula along the banks of the Snohomish river were formulated. On August 22, 1890, The Rucker Brothers filed their plat at Port Gardner, a 50-acre townsite on the bayfront side of what is now the city of Everett; this plat was withdrawn to accommodate the plans of the Hewitt-Colby group. On September 1, 1890, Henry Hewitt filed a bond on the Davis tract at the north end of what was to become the Everett town site, beginning the process of acquisition that would become the Everett Land Company along with Charles L. Colby and Colgate Hoyt.
In October 1890, the Hewitt-Colby syndicate decided to name their industrial city after Everett Colby, the fifteen-year-old son of investor Charles L. Colby, who had displayed a prodigious appetite at dinner. Everett Colby in turn was named for orator Edward Everett. On November 19, 1890, the Articles of Incorporation for the Everett Land Company were filed, with Henry Hewitt Jr. as president. On November 26, 1890, the Rucker Brothers transferred 434.15 acres of property on the Everett peninsula to Hewitt. Three days "The Remarkable Document" was drafted, setting the terms by which the Rucker Brothers would donate half their remaining holdings to Hewitt in exchange for promises of specific development; the Company bought much of the Ruckers' land. Everett was incorporated on May 4, 1893, the year the Great Northern Railway came to the town. Both Hewitt and the Ruckers had speculated that James J. Hill would make the town the terminus of his railroad; however Hill continued the railroad along the shore of Puget Sound to Seattle.
Although it succeeded in building the city, the Everett Land Company was a failure for its investors. The outside investors withdrew, the Company's holdings were transferred to a new company controlled by Hill; the Ruckers, who helped broker the deal, stayed in Everett and became leading citizens of the young city. Railroads and mines played a part in Everett's future; the mining community of Monte Cristo depended on a railway for supplies. It was hoped that the railroad would bring in traffic. For a while ore was smelted in Everett sawmilling and port activity commenced. A dozen steam riverboats were built in Everett for the Yukon gold rush. Several survivors of the Bellingham riots settled in Everett for two months, until they were beaten and forcefully evicted by a mob on November 5, 1907. Everett was the site of the Everett Massacre of 1916 in which a posse led by local Sheriff Donald McRae shot and killed five Industrial Workers of the World members; the IWW members on the steamer Verona travelled from Seattle to support strikers in Everett and sought to land, but McRae and his posse of deputized civilians blocked the harbor.
Shooting broke out and at least five IWW members were killed, along with two in the posse who were deemed to have been killed by friendly fire. Everett streets are named after each of the three founders. Adjacent streets Colby Avenue and Hoyt Avenue run
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music known as dance music, club music, or dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made for nightclubs and festivals. It is produced for playback by disc jockeys who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix by segueing from one recording to another. EDM producers perform their music live in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In Europe, EDM is more called'dance music', or simply'dance'. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, following the emergence of raving, pirate radios and an upsurge of interest in club culture, EDM achieved widespread mainstream popularity in Europe. In the United States at that time, acceptance of dance culture was not universal. There was a perceived association between EDM and drug culture, which led governments at state and city level to enact laws and policies intended to halt the spread of rave culture. Subsequently, in the new millennium, the popularity of EDM increased globally in Australia and the United States.
By the early 2010s, the term "electronic dance music" and the initialism "EDM" was being pushed by the American music industry and music press in an effort to rebrand American rave culture. Despite the industry's attempt to create a specific EDM brand, the initialism remains in use as an umbrella term for multiple genres, including house, trance and bass and dubstep, as well as their respective subgenres. Various EDM genres have evolved for example. Stylistic variation within an established EDM genre can lead to the emergence of what is called a subgenre. Hybridization, where elements of two or more genres are combined, can lead to the emergence of an new genre of EDM. In the late 1960s bands such as Silver Apples created electronic music, intended to be danced to. Other early examples of music that influenced electronic dance music include Jamaican dub music during the late 1960s to 1970s, the synthesizer-based disco music of Italian producer Giorgio Moroder in the late 1970s, the electro-pop of Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra in the mid-to-late 1970s.
Author Michael Veal considers dub music, a Jamaican music stemming from roots reggae and sound system culture that flourished between 1968 and 1985, to be one of the important precursors to contemporary electronic dance music. Dub productions were remixed reggae tracks that emphasized rhythm, fragmented lyrical and melodic elements, reverberant textures; the music was pioneered by studio engineers, such as Sylvan Morris, King Tubby, Errol Thompson, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Scientist. Their productions included forms of tape editing and sound processing that Veal considers comparable to techniques used in musique concrète. Dub producers made improvised deconstructions of existing multi-track reggae mixes by using the studio mixing board as a performance instrument, they foregrounded spatial effects such as reverb and delay by using auxiliary send routings creatively. The Roland Space Echo, manufactured by Roland Corporation, was used by dub producers in the 1970s to produce echo and delay effects.
Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. Ambient dub was pioneered by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists, using DJ-inspired ambient electronics, complete with drop-outs, echo and psychedelic electronic effects, it featured layering techniques and incorporated elements of world music, deep bass lines and harmonic sounds. Techniques such as a long echo delay were used. Hip hop music has played a key role in the development of electronic dance music since the 1970s. Inspired by Jamaican sound system culture Jamaican-American DJ Kool Herc introduced large bass heavy speaker rigs to the Bronx, his parties are credited with having kick-started the New York hip-hop movement in 1973. A technique developed by DJ Kool Herc that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables, in alternation, at the point where a track featured a break.
This technique was further used to manually loop a purely percussive break, leading to what was called a break beat. Turntablism has origins in the invention of the direct-drive turntable, by Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita. In 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable on the market, the first in their influential Technics series of turntables; the most influential turntable was the Technics SL-1200, developed in 1971 by a team led by Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which released it onto the market in 1972. In the 1980s and 1990s hip-hop DJs used turntables as musical instruments in their own right and virtuosic use developed into a creative practice called turntablism. In 1974, George McCrae's early disco hit "Rock Your Baby" was one of the first records to use a drum machine, an early Roland rhythm machine, its use of a drum machine was anticipated by Sly and the Family Stone's "Family Affair", which anticipated the sound of disco, with its rhythm echoed in "Rock Your Baby".
The use of drum machines in "Family Affair" and Timmy Thomas' "Why Can't We Live Together", which used a 1972 Roland rhythm machine, influenced the adoption of drum machines by disco artists. Disco producer Biddu used synthesizers in several disco songs from 1976 to 1977, including "Bionic Boogie" from Rain Forest, "Soul Coaxing", and
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. In analog frequency modulation, such as FM radio broadcasting of an audio signal representing voice or music, the instantaneous frequency deviation, the difference between the frequency of the carrier and its center frequency, is proportional to the modulating signal. Digital data can be encoded and transmitted via FM by shifting the carrier's frequency among a predefined set of frequencies representing digits – for example one frequency can represent a binary 1 and a second can represent binary 0; this modulation technique is known as frequency-shift keying. FSK is used in modems such as fax modems, can be used to send Morse code. Radioteletype uses FSK. Frequency modulation is used for FM radio broadcasting, it is used in telemetry, seismic prospecting, monitoring newborns for seizures via EEG, two-way radio systems, music synthesis, magnetic tape-recording systems and some video-transmission systems.
In radio transmission, an advantage of frequency modulation is that it has a larger signal-to-noise ratio and therefore rejects radio frequency interference better than an equal power amplitude modulation signal. For this reason, most music is broadcast over FM radio. Frequency modulation and phase modulation are the two complementary principal methods of angle modulation; these methods contrast with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier wave varies, while the frequency and phase remain constant. If the information to be transmitted is x m and the sinusoidal carrier is x c = A c cos , where fc is the carrier's base frequency, Ac is the carrier's amplitude, the modulator combines the carrier with the baseband data signal to get the transmitted signal: y = A c cos = A c cos = A c cos where f Δ = K f A m, K f being the sensitivity of the frequency modulator and A m being the amplitude of the modulating signal or baseband signal. In this equation, f is the instantaneous frequency of the oscillator and f Δ is the frequency deviation, which represents the maximum shift away from fc in one direction, assuming xm is limited to the range ±1.
While most of the energy of the signal is contained within fc ± fΔ, it can be shown by Fourier analysis that a wider range of frequencies is required to represent an FM signal. The frequency spectrum of an actual FM signal has components extending infinitely, although their amplitude decreases and higher-order components are neglected in practical design problems. Mathematically, a baseband modulating signal may be approximated by a sinusoidal continuous wave signal with a frequency fm; this method is named as single-tone modulation. The integral of such a signal is: ∫ 0 t x m d τ = A m sin
Issaquah is a city in King County, United States. The population was 37,487 in a 2017 census estimate. Located in a valley and bisected by Interstate 90, the city is bordered by the Sammamish Plateau to the north and the Issaquah Alps to the south. "Issaquah" is an anglicized word for a local Native American name, meaning either "the sound of birds", "snake", or "little stream". "Squak Valley", an older name for the area derives from this same Native-American name. In 1885, the unincorporated area was the scene of an attack on Chinese laborers who had come to pick hops from local fields; the city itself was incorporated on April 29, 1892. A small mining town, this town has changed noticeably both in its appearance and economic focus. Issaquah was developed to service the mining industry, began as the town of Gilman, Washington; as the mining deposits neared depletion in the late 1890s, other companies started to realize Issaquah's potential to support a lucrative lumber business. These companies exported timber from Issaquah and other small, local towns to Seattle and larger growing communities throughout western Washington.
These early boom industries, faded into a period of relative quiet by the time of the Great Depression. The town remained placid through the succeeding decades, with The Boeing Company providing the majority of employment in the area. Microsoft and other technological industries moved into Redmond and other cities in the area, established operations in Issaquah itself. Both Boeing and Microsoft have affected Issaquah's history, cultural development, diverse population through their active community participation and attraction of outside residents. In June 1996, Costco moved its global headquarters to Issaquah from Washington. Other Issaquah employers include Siemens Medical Solutions' Ultrasound Group, GoldSim Technology Group, Overtime Technologies, Boehm's Candies, Darigold. Issaquah is located 15 miles east-southeast of Seattle at the south end of Lake Sammamish. Neighboring cities include Bellevue, Redmond, both 8 miles away. Issaquah resides within the Mountains to Sound Greenway. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.40 square miles, of which, 11.38 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water.
Issaquah is surrounded on three sides by the Issaquah Alps: Cougar Mountain on the west, Squak Mountain to the south, Tiger Mountain to the east. To the north of Issaquah is Lake Sammamish. Cougar and Squak Mountains are home to sizable neighborhoods, though the bulk of all three mountains are preserved in public ownership as Squak Mountain State Park, Cougar Mountain Regional Wildland Park, West Tiger Mountain NRCA, Tiger Mountain State Forest. Geologists have noted the chemical and geological content of these three mountains to be much different than that of the Cascade Range because they are not volcanic in origin, while the entire Cascade Range is postulated to have formed from volcanic action, they believe that these three mountains are the remains of a much older mountain range long since eroded by earthquakes, volcanic action, shifting plates. Issaquah has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate with chilly wet winters and warm, moderately humid summers. Although there is no dry season in Issaquah, winters are many times wetter than the summers.
According to a 2012 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $87,074, the median income for a family was $115,814. The per capita income for the city was $47,949. According to the Washington State Office of Financial Management, Issaquah ranked 6th of 279 eligible incorporated communities in population growth between 2000 and 2005. Forbes.com ranked Issaquah the 2nd fastest-growing suburb in the state, the 89th in the nation. As of the census of 2010, there were 30,434 people, 12,841 households, 8,018 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,674.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,914 housing units at an average density of 1,222.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.7% White, 1.4% African American, 0.4% Native American, 17.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.8% of the population. There were 12,841 households of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.6% were non-families.
30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age in the city was 36.8 years. 23.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7% male and 52.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 11,212 people, 4,840 households, 2,908 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,330.9 people per square mile. There were 5,195 housing units at an average density of 616.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.95% White, 0.88% African American, 0.63% Native American, 6.04% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 1.46% from other races, 2.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race made up 4.95% of the population. There were 4
Puget Sound is a sound along the northwestern coast of the U. S. state of Washington, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, part of the Salish Sea. It is a complex estuarine system of interconnected marine waterways and basins, with one major and two minor connections to the open Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca—Admiralty Inlet being the major connection and Deception Pass and Swinomish Channel being the minor. Water flow through Deception Pass is equal to 2% of the total tidal exchange between Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Puget Sound extends 100 miles from Deception Pass in the north to Olympia, Washington in the south, its average depth is 450 feet and its maximum depth, off Jefferson Point between Indianola and Kingston, is 930 feet. The depth of the main basin, between the southern tip of Whidbey Island and Tacoma, Washington, is 600 feet. In 2009, the term Salish Sea was established by the United States Board on Geographic Names as the collective waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Strait of Georgia.
Sometimes the terms "Puget Sound" and "Puget Sound and adjacent waters" are used for not only Puget Sound proper but for waters to the north, such as Bellingham Bay and the San Juan Islands region. The term "Puget Sound" is used not just for the body of water but the Puget Sound region centered on the sound. Major cities on the sound include Seattle, Tacoma and Everett, Washington. Puget Sound is the third largest estuary in the United States, after Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Virginia, San Francisco Bay in northern California. In 1792 George Vancouver gave the name "Puget's Sound" to the waters south of the Tacoma Narrows, in honor of Peter Puget, a Huguenot lieutenant accompanying him on the Vancouver Expedition; this name came to be used for the waters north of Tacoma Narrows as well. A different term for Puget Sound, used by a number of Native Americans and environmental groups, is Whulge, an anglicization of the Lushootseed name x̌ʷə́lč, which means "sea, salt water, ocean, or sound".
The USGS defines Puget Sound as all the waters south of three entrances from the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The main entrance at Admiralty Inlet is defined as a line between Point Wilson on the Olympic Peninsula, Point Partridge on Whidbey Island; the second entrance is at Deception Pass along a line from West Point on Whidbey Island, to Deception Island to Rosario Head on Fidalgo Island. The third entrance is at the south end of the Swinomish Channel, which connects Skagit Bay and Padilla Bay. Under this definition, Puget Sound includes the waters of Hood Canal, Admiralty Inlet, Possession Sound, Saratoga Passage, others, it does not include Bellingham Bay, Padilla Bay, the waters of the San Juan Islands or anything farther north. Another definition, given by NOAA, subdivides Puget Sound into regions. Four of these correspond to areas within the USGS definition, but the fifth one, called "Northern Puget Sound" includes a large additional region, it is defined as bounded to the north by the international boundary with Canada, to the west by a line running north from the mouth of the Sekiu River on the Olympic Peninsula.
Under this definition significant parts of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia are included in Puget Sound, with the international boundary marking an abrupt and hydrologically arbitrary limit. According to Arthur Kruckeberg, the term "Puget Sound" is sometimes used for waters north of Admiralty Inlet and Deception Pass for areas along the north coast of Washington and the San Juan Islands equivalent to NOAA's "Northern Puget Sound" subdivision described above. Kruckeberg uses the term "Puget Sound and adjacent waters". Continental ice sheets have advanced and retreated from the Puget Sound region; the most recent glacial period, called the Fraser Glaciation, stades. During the third, or Vashon Glaciation, a lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, called the Puget Lobe, spread south about 15,000 years ago, covering the Puget Sound region with an ice sheet about 3,000 feet thick near Seattle, nearly 6,000 feet at the present Canada-U. S. border. Since each new advance and retreat of ice erodes away much of the evidence of previous ice ages, the most recent Vashon phase has left the clearest imprint on the land.
At its maximum extent the Vashon ice sheet extended south of Olympia to near Tenino, covered the lowlands between the Olympic and Cascade mountain ranges. About 14,000 years ago the ice began to retreat. By 11,000 years ago it survived only north of the Canada–US border; the melting retreat of the Vashon Glaciation eroded the land, creating a drumlin field of hundreds of aligned drumlin hills. Lake Washington and Lake Sammamish, Hood Canal, the main Puget Sound basin were altered by glacial forces; these glacial forces are not "carving", as in cutting into the landscape via the mechanics of ice/glaciers, but rather eroding the landscape from melt water of the Vashon Glacier creating the drumlin field. As the ice retreated, vast amounts of glacial till were deposited throughout the Puget Sound region; the soils of the region, less than ten thousand years old, are still characterized as immature. As the Vashon glacier receded a series of proglacial lakes formed, filling the main trough of Puget Sound and inundating the southern lowlands.
Glacial Lake Russell was the first such large recessional lake. From the vicinity of Seattle in the north the lake extended south to the Black Hills, where it drained south into the Chehalis River. Sediments from Lake Russell form the blue-gray clay identified as the Lawton Clay; the second