Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is referred to as frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, for example, if a newborn babys heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as vibrations, audio signals, radio waves. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, in physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν. For a simple motion, the relation between the frequency and the period T is given by f =1 T. The SI unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz, a previous name for this unit was cycles per second. The SI unit for period is the second, a traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm.
As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves and fast waves, like audio and radio, are usually described by their frequency instead of period. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. Y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, in the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has a relationship to the wavelength. Even in dispersive media, the frequency f of a wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum, v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, and this expression becomes, f = c λ. When waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their remains the same—only their wavelength. For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is, the latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count.
This is called gating error and causes an error in the calculated frequency of Δf = 1/, or a fractional error of Δf / f = 1/ where Tm is the timing interval. This error decreases with frequency, so it is a problem at low frequencies where the number of counts N is small, an older method of measuring the frequency of rotating or vibrating objects is to use a stroboscope
Jazz is a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime. Since the 1920s jazz age, jazz has become recognized as a form of musical expression. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals, Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the Black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience, intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as one of Americas original art forms. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national and local musical cultures, New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging musicians music which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments. In the early 1980s, a form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin, the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a term dating back to 1860 meaning pep. The use of the word in a context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Its first documented use in a context in New Orleans was in a November 14,1916 Times-Picayune article about jas bands. In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, When Broadway picked it up. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, the American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz has proved to be difficult to define, since it encompasses such a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, in the opinion of Robert Christgau, most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz. As Duke Ellington, one of jazzs most famous figures, although jazz is considered highly difficult to define, at least in part because it contains so many varied subgenres, improvisation is consistently regarded as being one of its key elements
KNEW is an American business talk radio station licensed to Oakland, which serves the San Francisco Bay Area. The station is owned by iHeartMedia, the stations studios are located in SoMa district of San Francisco, and the transmitter is located in Oakland at the eastern end of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. KNEW can be heard in the HD format, KABL began in Oakland as KFWM under the ownership of the Oakland Educational Society on July 8,1925. The Oakland Post-Enquirer wanted a station to compete with the Oakland Tribunes KLX. This station became KROW, in June 1930, and used call letters until 1959. It was a station known for launching the career of comedian Phyllis Diller and for helping the career of the worlds greatest disc jockey Don Sherwood. In 1947, the built an new transmitter on a 20-acre island leased from the Port of Oakland. The new transmitter was accompanied by an increase in power from 1 KW to 5 KW full-time. This station is best known as the home of KABL. The new calls were to be KABL, as in San Franciscos legendary cable cars, in early May 1959, KROW began stunting with a continuous loop of a song called Gila Monster, the theme song from a horror film that Gordon McLendon had co-produced that year.
As KABL, the station combined a mixture of easy listening string and orchestra music with light classics, KABL was known for presenting poetic vignettes about San Francisco life, a harp interlude between songs, and a cable car bell to announce the news. Licensed to Oakland, with a transmitter near the east end of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, while KABL could have legally identified as Oakland/San Francisco, it instead deliberately tried to identify with San Francisco rather than Oakland. It was notorious for using such as KABL Oakland, serving San Francisco on your San Francisco radio dial, in the air. In 1997, the station switched to a pop and big band format. This program didnt last for very long and they carried the syndicated When Radio Was Old-Time Radio anthology series, tending to move its time slot around. In 2000, they switched to a 1960s-1970s soft rock format. On September 28,2004,960 AM dropped the adult standards programming, KABL subsequently reemerged at co-owned 92.1 FM in Walnut Creek, California.
The station had a limited signal beyond its immediate broadcast area, however
Effective radiated power
Effective radiated power, synonymous with equivalent radiated power, is an IEEE standardized definition of directional radio frequency power transmitted from a theoretical half-wave dipole antenna. It is differentiated from effective isotropic radiated power mainly by use of antenna gain instead of absolute gain in the calculation. The term antenna gain is assumed to be absolute unless specifically stated to be relative, the gain is multiplied by the power actually accepted by the antenna to result in the actual ERP value. Power losses which occur prior to the antenna, e. g. in the line or from inefficiency in the generator itself are therefore not included in the calculation of ERP or EIRP. Antenna gain is closely related to directivity and often used interchangeably. However, gain is less than directivity by a factor called radiation efficiency. Whereas directivity is entirely a function of wavelength and the geometry and type of antenna, accelerating charge causes electromagnetic radiation per Maxwells equations.
Therefore, antennas use a current distribution on radiating elements to generate electromagnetic energy that propagates away from the antenna and this coupling is never 100% efficient, and therefore antenna gain will always be less than directivity by this efficiency factor. The receiver would not be able to determine a difference, maximum directivity of an ideal half-wave dipole is a constant, i. e.0 dBd =2.15 dBi. Therefore, ERP is always 2.15 dB less than EIRP, the ideal dipole antenna could be further replaced by an isotropic radiator, and the receiver cannot know the difference so long as the input power is increased by 2.15 dB. Unfortunately, the distinction between dBd and dBi is often left unstated and the reader is forced to infer which was used. For example, a Yagi-Uda antenna is constructed from several dipoles arranged at intervals to create better energy focusing than a simple dipole. Since it is constructed from dipoles, often its antenna gain is expressed in dBd, obviously this ambiguity is undesirable with respect to engineering specifications.
A Yagi-Uda antennas maximum directivity is 8.77 dBd =10.92 dBi and its gain necessarily must be less than this by the factor η, which must be negative in units of dB. Neither ERP nor EIRP can be calculated without knowledge of the power accepted by the antenna, let us assume a 100 Watt transmitter with losses of 6 dB prior to the antenna. ERP <22. 77dBW and EIRP <24. 92dBW, polarization has not been taken into account so far, but properly it must be. When considering the dipole radiator previously we assumed that it was aligned with the receiver. Now assume, that the antenna is circularly polarized
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. The term denotes the modern music of Jamaica and its diaspora. A1968 single by Toots and the Maytals Do the Reggay was the first popular song to use the word reggae, effectively naming the genre, Reggae usually relates news, social gossip, and political comment. Reggae spread into a commercialized jazz field, being known first as ‘Rudie Blues’, ‘Ska’, ‘Blue Beat’ and it is instantly recognizable from the counterpoint between the bass and drum downbeat, and the offbeat rhythm section. The immediate origins of reggae were in ska and rock steady, from the latter, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues, mento, African music, as well as other genres. One of the most easily recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms, staccato chords played by a guitar or piano on the offbeats of the measure, the tempo of reggae is usually slower than ska but faster than rocksteady. The concept of call and response can be found throughout reggae music, the genre of reggae music is led by the drum and bass.
The bass guitar often plays the dominant role in reggae, the bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, and equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized. The guitar in reggae usually plays on the off beat of the rhythm and it is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, and Iyaric dialects. Reggae is noted for its tradition of criticism and religion in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love. Reggae has spread to countries across the world, often incorporating local instruments. Reggae en Español spread from the mainland South America countries of Venezuela, Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, and has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, and there have been a number of European artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica, Reggae in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe in 1980.
In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income, the 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as a recently estab. Sp. for rege, as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either rags, ragged clothing or a quarrel, a row. Reggae as a term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit Do the Reggay by The Maytals which named the genre of Reggae for the world. Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae into reggae, Toots Hibbert said, Theres a word we used to use in Jamaica called streggae. If a girl is walking and the look at her and say Man, shes streggae it means she dont dress well
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
KNBR is an AM radio station licensed to San Francisco, broadcasting on a clear channel at 680 kHz from transmitting facilities near Belmont, California. KNBRs non-directional 50, 000-watt class-A signal can be heard much of the western United States. For several decades, KNBR enjoyed a history as the flagship station of NBCs West Coast radio operations. A second station uses the KNBR brand, KTCT is licensed to San Mateo, with a transmitter located near Hayward, California. It carried a sports format known as The Ticket. The Sports Leader is the branding used by both stations. The KNBR re-branding took place in 2003, both stations studios are located at 750 Battery Street in San Franciscos Financial District. Between the two stations, games of the San Francisco Giants, San Francisco 49ers, Stanford Cardinal, KTCT is available in the HD format on 1050 kHz. KNBR began broadcasting on April 17,1922 as KPO, a 100-watt station owned by the Hale Brothers department store, in 1925, the San Francisco Chronicle newspaper bought half-interest in the operation.
Originally located in the department store at Market and 5th, its horizontal wire antenna on the roof was so efficient, in 1927, KPO became an affiliate of the new NBC radio network. In 1933, KPO was sold to NBCs parent company, the Radio Corporation of America, from there, NBC operated its West Coast network, feeding dozens of stations and operating a news bureau to serve NBC. As NBCs flagship station on the West Coast, it had an orchestra, five studios. During the rise of Hollywood, NBCs radio operation was moved to Los Angeles, in 1941, just before World War II, NBC constructed Radio City at 420 Taylor Street, considered one of the best radio facilities built during radios golden age. However, with the network control having been moved to Los Angeles, during World War II, KPOs news bureau was the major source of NBC of news about the war in the Pacific, and operated shortwave radio stations serving the world. It was at the KPO shortwave facility that the message was received that Japanese emperor Hirohito had surrendered, on November 12,1947, the Federal Communications Commission approved NBCs application to change the call sign from KPO to KNBC, to strengthen its identity as an NBC station.
This change lasted until 1962, when the network moved the call sign to its station in Los Angeles. In November 1949, NBC television affiliate KRON-TV went on the air, only before the TV stations first airdate did NBC fight for the construction permit for the TV station until it lost the bid to the de Young family, the owners of the San Francisco Chronicle. KNBR evolved into a Middle of the music format mixing in Adult Standards with Soft Rock cuts by the early 1960s
Salsa music is a popular dance music that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s. Salsa is the product of various genres including the Cuban son montuno, cha cha chá, and to a certain extent bolero. Latin jazz, which was developed in New York City, has had a significant influence on salsa arrangers, piano guajeos. Salsa is primarily Cuban son, itself a fusion of Spanish canción and guitar and Afro-Cuban percussion, Salsa occasionally incorporates elements of rock, R&B, and funk. All of these elements are grafted onto the basic Cuban son montuno template when performed within the context of salsa. The first salsa bands were predominantly Cubans and Puerto Ricans who moved to New York since 1930’s, the music eventually spread throughout Colombia and the rest of the Americas. Ultimately, it became a global phenomenon, some of the founding salsa artists were Johnny Pacheco, Celia Cruz, Ray Barretto, Rubén Blades, Willie Colón, Larry Harlow, Roberto Roena, Bobby Valentín, Eddie Palmieri, and Héctor Lavoe.
Salsa means sauce in the Spanish language, and carries connotations of the common in Latin. In the 20th century, salsa acquired a meaning in both English and Spanish. In this sense salsa has been described as a word with vivid associations, Cuban immigrants and Puerto Rican in New York have used the term analogously to swing or soul music. In this usage salsa connotes a frenzied and wild musical experience that draws upon or reflects elements of Latin culture, various music writers and historians have traced the use of salsa to different periods of the 20th century. Max Salazar traces the word back to the early 1930s, when Ignacio Piñeiro composed Échale salsita, World music author Sue Steward claims salsa was originally used in music as a cry of appreciation for a particularly piquant or flashy solo. I was using salsa, but the music wasnt defined by that, the music was still defined as Latin music. And that was a very, very broad category, because it even includes mariachi music, so salsa defined this particular type of music.
Its a name that everyone could pronounce, Sanabrias Latin New York magazine was an English language publication. Consequently, his promoted events were covered in The New York Times, as well as Time and they reported on this new phenomenon taking New York by storm—salsa. But promotion certainly wasnt the factor in the musics success, as Sanabria makes clear, Musicians were busy creating the music. Johnny Pacheco, the director and producer of Fania Records, molded New York salsa into a tight, polished
West Coast of the United States
The West Coast or Pacific Coast is the coastline along which the contiguous Western United States meets the North Pacific Ocean. As a region, this term most often refers to the states of California. More specifically, it refers to an area defined on the east by the Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada and Mojave Desert, the U. S. Census groups the five states of California, Washington and Hawaii together as the Pacific States division. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the Census Bureaus Pacific Region was approximately 47.8 million – about 15. 3% of US population. The largest city on the west coast of the United States is Los Angeles, small isolated groups of hunter-gatherers migrated alongside herds of large herbivores far into Alaska. Between 16,500 BCE and 13,500 BCE, ice-free corridors developed along the Pacific coast and valleys of North America, Alaska Natives, indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, and California indigenous peoples eventually descended from the Paleo-Indians.
They developed various languages and established trade routes, Spanish, French and American explorers and settlers began colonizing the area. The West Coast of the United States has a climate in its Northern edge towards the Canada–US border. The coastline sees significantly mild temperatures when compared to the areas during summer. In far Northern California there is a difference of 17 °C between Eurekas and Willow Creek in spite of only 25 miles separating the locations and Willow Creek being located at a 500 metres elevation, coastal fog is prevalent in keeping shoreline temperatures cool. Since the West Coast has been populated by more recently than the East Coast. Additionally, its demographic composition underlies its cultural difference from the rest of the United States. Californias history first as a major Spanish colony, and Mexican territory, has given the lower West Coast a distinctive Hispanic tone, which it shares with the rest of the Southwest. Similarly, two of the three cities in which Asian Americans have concentrated, San Francisco and Los Angeles, are located on the West Coast, San Franciscos Chinatown, the oldest in North America, is a vibrant cultural center.
The West Coast has a large share of green cities within the United States. Other writers, like Jean Baudrillard, Mike Davis, and Umberto Eco, have made related statements on Californian culture, in the Northwest and Seattle are both considered among the coffee capitals of the world. While Starbucks originated in Seattle, both towns are known for coffee roasters and independent coffeeshops. In the Pacific Northwest at large, which includes the Canadian west coast, the culture has significantly shaped by the environment, especially by its forests, mountains
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, it is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio, FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies, the term FM band describes the frequency band in a given country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. Usually 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions, In the former Soviet republics, and some former Eastern Bloc countries, assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz. This band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many countries, in those countries the 87. 5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used, the frequency of an FM broadcast station is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz.
In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines, in some parts of Europe and Africa, only even multiples are used. In the UK odd or even are used, in Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in countries, including 1,10,30,74,500. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system and this can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise. These processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, the amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used, in the Americas and South Korea,75 µs is used. This applies to both mono and stereo transmissions, for stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing.
They cannot be pre-emphasized as much because it would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier, systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis, e. g. dbx in the BTSC TV sound system, or none at all. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing and these original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated
KIQI is a Spanish-language radio station in San Francisco, United States. It is owned by Multicultural Broadcasting, KIQI1010 AM is repeated on KATD990 AM in the Sacramento Valley. KIQI1010 AM is now partnered with the Oakland Athletics and broadcasts night, on September 14,2016 KIQI was granted an U. S. Federal Communications Commission construction permit to increase night power from 500 watts to 15,000 watts. Query the FCCs AM station database for KIQI Radio-Locator Information on KIQI Query Nielsen Audios AM station database for KIQI FCC History Cards for KIQI
KGO is a commercial AM radio station licensed to San Francisco, California. It is one of two Talk radio stations in the San Francisco Bay Area owned by Cumulus Media, while KSFO airs mostly nationally syndicated talk hosts, KGO runs mostly local hosts on weekdays. KGO operates with 50,000 watts, the highest power permitted AM radio stations by the Federal Communications Commission, but it uses a directional antenna to protect the other Class A station on 810 kHz, WGY in Schenectady, New York. Most nights, using a radio, KGO can be heard throughout the Western United States east to the Rocky Mountains, and in Northern Mexico, Western Canada. KGO operated as the West Coast flagship radio station of the American Broadcasting Company until the group was purchased by Citadel Broadcasting in 2007. The station became part of Cumulus Media, following its 2011 merger with Citadel, KGO has its studios in the SoMa portion of San Franciscos Financial District. Before Cumulus took over the station, it was based in the building as its former television partner KGO-TV Channel 7 at the ABC Broadcast Center.
Its transmitter site is based in Newark near the Dumbarton Bridge, two of KGOs three towers partially collapsed during the Loma Prieta earthquake on October 17,1989. KGO was first known as the Sunset Station, at time it operated with a then-impressive 1000 watts. The stations music, which was performed by other local orchestras and vocalists. Due to GEs involvement in RCA and RCAs launch of the NBC radio network, see the KNBR entry for a fuller discussion of NBCs San Francisco radio operations. In order to obtain a clear channel in Schenectady, New York, for what would become the present-day WGY, WGY would assume the maximum permissible power, and KGO would be lowered in power to 7.5 kW. That was lower than the minimum power for a clear channel station. Therefore, GE effectively removed from the West one of its eight clear channels and added another clear channel to the East, thereby giving the East nine cleared channels, the other regions in the Band Plan all retained their allotted eight cleared channels.
In 1941, stations on 790 kHz, including WGY and KGO, were moved to 810 kHz to comply with the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement known as NARBA. On December 1,1947, KGO was directionalized and its power was increased to 50 kW, an article in Broadcasting magazine noted that the increase retired the nations oldest regularly operating transmitter—a 7, 500-watter. in use since Jan. When the Federal Communications Commission forced NBC to sell one of its two networks, KGOs license switched from Radio Corporation of America to the Blue Network, Inc. effective January 23,1942. The NBC Blue Network simply dropped NBC from its name to become the Blue Network, KGO would become a founding station of the nascent ABC Radio Network as a result