Mississippi County, Arkansas
Mississippi County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,480. There are two county seats and Osceola; the county was formed on November 1, 1833, named for the Mississippi River which borders the county to the east. Mississippi County is part of the First Congressional District in Arkansas; the Mississippi County Judge is John Alan Nelson. The Blytheville, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Mississippi County. Jefferson W. Speck, a Mississippi County planter, was the Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1950 and 1952. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 920 square miles, of which 901 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water. Big Lake National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 census, there were 46,480 people residing in the county; the racial makeup of the county was 60.5% White, 33.9% Black, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, <0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race and 1.2% from two or more races.
3.6% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the 2000 census, there were 51,979 people, 19,349 households, 13,911 families residing in the county; the population density was 58 people per square mile. There were 22,310 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.45% White, 32.70% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.07% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. 2.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,349 households out of which 36.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.00% were married couples living together, 17.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 24.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.60% under the age of 18, 9.90% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 20.80% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,479, the median income for a family was $32,648. Males had a median income of $29,645 versus $19,782 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,978. About 19.00% of families and 23.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.10% of those under age 18 and 19.80% of those age 65 or over. While a traditionally Democratic area, Mississippi County has voted Republican in the past three presidential elections. Mississippi County is home to the following public school districts, listed in order of student population: Blytheville School District Osceola School District Gosnell School District Southern Mississippi County School District Manila School District Buffalo Island Central School District Armorel School DistrictThe following school districts are based outside of the county but serve portions: East Poinsett County School District KIPP: Delta Public Schools Nettleton School District Mississippi County is served by the Mississippi–Crittenden Regional Library System, which includes the Mississippi County Library System and 13 branch libraries in communities throughout the county.
FM FM 88.3 KBCM Blytheville FM 93.9 KAMJ Gosnell FM 96.3 KHLS Blytheville FM 103.7 KAIA K279BJ Blytheville FM 107.3 KQXF OsceolaAM AM 860 KOSE Wilson NEA Town Courier, Blytheville, Arkansas The Osceola Times, Osceola, Arkansas There are no television stations in Mississippi County, Arkansas. Mississippi County, Arkansas is placed in TN Television Market; those stations include: ABC- WATN 24 NBC- WMC 5 CBS- WREG 3 Fox- WHBQ 13 PBS- WKNO 10 CW- WLMT 30 Ion WPXX 50However some residents in county may watch stations from the Jackson, TN, Jonesboro, AR, or Little Rock, AR Television Markets. Blytheville Gosnell Joiner Keiser Leachville Manila Osceola Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications.
The townships of Mississippi County are listed below. Island 35 Mastodon List of lakes in Mississippi County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Mississippi County, Arkansas "Mississippi. I. A N. E. county of Arkansas". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
Height above average terrain
Height above average terrain, or effective height above average terrain, is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio and television, as it is more important than effective radiated power in determining the range of broadcasts. For international coordination, it is measured in meters by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States, as Canada and Mexico have extensive border zones where stations can be received on either side of the international boundaries. Stations that want to increase above a certain HAAT must reduce their power accordingly, based on the maximum distance their station class is allowed to cover; the FCC procedure to calculate HAAT is: from the proposed or actual antenna site, either 12 or 16 radials were drawn, points at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 miles radius along each radial were used. The entire radial graph could be rotated to achieve the best effect for the station; the altitude of the antenna site, minus the average altitude of all the specified points, is the HAAT.
This can create some unusual cases in mountainous regions—it is possible to have a negative number for HAAT. The FCC has divided the Contiguous United States into three zones for the determination of spacing between FM and TV stations using the same frequencies. FM and TV stations are assigned maximum ERP and HAAT values, depending on their assigned zones, to prevent co-channel interference; the FCC regulations for ERP and HAAT are listed under Title 47, Part 73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Maximum HAAT: 150 metres Maximum ERP: 50 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 241 km Maximum HAAT: 600 metres Maximum ERP: 100 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 290 km. In all zones, maximum ERP for analog TV transmitters is. In addition, Zone I-A consists of all of California south of 40° north latitude, Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. Zones I and I-A have the most "grandfathered" overpowered stations, which are allowed the same extended coverage areas that they had before the zones were established.
One of the most powerful of these stations is WBCT in Grand Rapids, which operates at 320,000 watts and 238 meters HAAT. Zone III consists of all of Florida and the areas of Alabama, Louisiana and Texas within 241.4 kilometers of the Gulf of Mexico. Zone II is all the rest of the Continental United States and Hawaii. Above mean sea level Above ground level Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission List of broadcast station classes United States Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Part 73 Index FCC: Mass Media Calculated Contours FCC: HAAT Calculator "Superpower" Grandfathered FM stations
Tipton County, Tennessee
Tipton County is a county located on the western end of the U. S. state of Tennessee, in the Mississippi Delta region. As of the 2010 census, the population was 61,081, its county seat is Covington. Tipton County is part of TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. From about 10,000 BCE, Paleo-Indians and Archaic-Indians lived as communities of hunter-gatherers in the area that covers the modern day southern United States. From 800 CE to 1600 CE, the Mississippi Delta was populated by tribes of the Mississippian culture, a mound-building Native American people who had developed in the late Woodland Indian period. While there were chiefdoms and centers along the Mississippi and its tributaries, their major center was at Cahokia, in present-day Illinois east of St. Louis, Missouri; the Tipton Phase people were a local expression of the Mississippian culture. They still inhabited the region of modern-day Tipton County during the time of first contact with Europeans, at the arrival of the Spanish Hernando de Soto Expedition.
By the end of the Mississippian period, the land was populated by the Chickasaw tribe. The exact origins of the Chickasaw are uncertain. Around 1800, Europeans began settling the Chickasaw-inhabited lands east of the Mississippi River. Chickasaw land in what became known as West Tennessee and southwestern Kentucky was ceded in the Jackson Purchase. Both states grew as a result of this purchase. In 1818, both sides agreed to the transfer by signing the Treaty of Tuscaloosa; the Chickasaw were to be paid annuities for 15 years, but the United States was late with payment, or forced the people to take the value in goods. These were delayed or were of poor quality. Due to topographic changes caused by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes, part of what is now Tipton County was cut off from the state of Tennessee by a change in the course of the Mississippi River; the earthquake changed the course of the river near the settlement of Tennessee. The old riverbed is west of Reverie; the river now runs east of Reverie, putting Reverie on the Arkansas side, while most of the area of Tipton County is located east of the river, on the Tennessee side.
Tipton County attracted European-American settlers who established cotton plantations on its fertile soils and either brought or purchased enslaved African Americans as field labor and house servants. This area was part of the cotton culture associated with the Mississippi Delta, that extended down to the Yazoo River in Mississippi. With the increase in population, the county was established on October 29, 1823 from parts of Shelby County, which borders Tipton County in the south; the land was former Chickasaw Indian territory. The county was named for Jacob Tipton, whose direct ancestor was Sir Anthony de Tipton, who in 1282, is said to have slaid the Prince of Wales at the Battle of Snowdon. Jacob's father, from Armistead Blevins, supervised the organization of Shelby County. Tipton was killed by Native Americans in 1791 in a conflict over the Northwest Territory. Jacob Tipton was the son of John Tipton, a rival of John Sevier during Tennessee's State of Franklin period. Early Mississippi River steamboat commerce flourished in Tipton County.
In 1830, the community of Randolph, one of the earliest settlements in Tipton County, was the most important shipping point in Tennessee and an early rival of Memphis for commercial supremacy. But its fortunes declined in years. Riverboat traffic yielded to freight being shipped by railroad; the first rail service in Tipton County was established in December 1855, when the Memphis and Ohio Railroad completed the route from Memphis to Nashville, running through what is now Mason. Two Civil War forts, Fort Randolph and Fort Wright, were built near the settlement because of its strategic location on the second Chickasaw Bluff of the Mississippi River. Following the Civil War, investment in infrastructure was renewed, the Memphis and Paducah Railroad completed the tracks to Covington in July 1873. A telegraph line between Memphis and Covington was opened in 1882. In 1894, Covington was connected to electricity. Forced water mains have provided residents of Covington with water since 1898. In 1922, street paving began in the county seat.
Since 1929, residents of Covington have had access to natural gas. In the South Main Historic District in Covington, about 50 residences from the late 19th century and the early 20th century are still intact; the district is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 473 square miles, of which 458 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water; the major north-south route, U. S. Highway bisects Tipton County and passes through Covington; the western boundary of Tipton County is the Mississippi River, separating Arkansas. As the river's course was altered in several places by the 1812 New Madrid earthquake, the official boundary still follows the old alignment of the river; as a result, a few of Tipton County's communities — including Reverie and Corona — became stranded on the Arkansas mainland side of the river, rather than the Tennessee side. Tipton County is situated on the southeastern edge of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, an area with a high earthquake risk.
Lauderdale County Haywood County Fayette County Shelby County Crittenden County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas As of the census of 2000, there were 51,271 people, 18,106 households, 14,176 families residing in the county. The population density was 112 people per square mile. There were 19,064 housing units at an average density of 42 per square mile; the racial makeup of the
KOKR 96.7 FM is a radio station licensed to Newport, Arkansas. The station is owned by Newport Broadcasting Company. KOKR's official website Query the FCC's FM station database for KOKR Radio-Locator information on KOKR Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KOKR
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
Facebook, Inc. is an American online social media and social networking service company. It is based in California, it was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon and Google; the founders limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia and Yale students. Membership was expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, higher education institutions in the Boston area. Facebook added support for students at various other universities, to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws; the name comes from the face book directories given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
It began selling stock to the public three months later. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements; the Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. Users can post text and multimedia of their own devising and share it with other users as "friends". Users can use various embedded apps, receive notifications of their friends' activities. Users may join common-interest groups. Facebook had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018. It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies such as user privacy and psychological effects; the company has faced intense pressure over censorship and over content that some users find objectionable. Facebook offers other services, it independently developed Facebook Messenger. Zuckerberg built; the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".
Facemash attracted 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. The site was sent to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy; the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam, he uploaded all art images to a website, each of, accompanied by a comments section shared the site with his classmates. A "face book" is a student directory featuring personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told the Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard.... I think. I can do it better than they can, I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is available... the benefits are many."
Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook" located at thefacebook.com. Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed; the three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia and Yale. and to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, Washington and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to California, it received its first investment that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000. The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Eligibility expanded to include employees including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced th
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but one using the electromagnetic spectrum, in a one-to-many model. Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers. Before this, all forms of electronic communication were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient; the term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about. It was adopted for describing the widespread distribution of information by printed materials or by telegraph. Examples applying it to "one-to-many" radio transmissions of an individual station to multiple listeners appeared as early as 1898. Over the air broadcasting is associated with radio and television, though in recent years, both radio and television transmissions have begun to be distributed by cable; the receiving parties may include the general public or a small subset.
The field of broadcasting includes both government-managed services such as public radio, community radio and public television, private commercial radio and commercial television. The U. S. Code of Federal Regulations, title 47, part 97 defines "broadcasting" as "transmissions intended for reception by the general public, either direct or relayed". Private or two-way telecommunications transmissions do not qualify under this definition. For example and citizens band radio operators are not allowed to broadcast; as defined, "transmitting" and "broadcasting" are not the same. Transmission of radio and television programs from a radio or television station to home receivers by radio waves is referred to as "over the air" or terrestrial broadcasting and in most countries requires a broadcasting license. Transmissions using a wire or cable, like cable television, are considered broadcasts but do not require a license. In the 2000s, transmissions of television and radio programs via streaming digital technology have been referred to as broadcasting as well.
The earliest broadcasting consisted of sending telegraph signals over the airwaves, using Morse code, a system developed in the 1830s by Samuel F. B. Morse, physicist Joseph Henry and Alfred Vail, they developed an electrical telegraph system which sent pulses of electric current along wires which controlled an electromagnet, located at the receiving end of the telegraph system. A code was needed to transmit natural language using only these pulses, the silence between them. Morse therefore developed the forerunner to modern International Morse code; this was important for ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication, but it became important for business and general news reporting, as an arena for personal communication by radio amateurs. Audio broadcasting began experimentally in the first decade of the 20th century. By the early 1920s radio broadcasting became a household medium, at first on the AM band and on FM. Television broadcasting started experimentally in the 1920s and became widespread after World War II, using VHF and UHF spectrum.
Satellite broadcasting was initiated in the 1960s and moved into general industry usage in the 1970s, with DBS emerging in the 1980s. All broadcasting was composed of analog signals using analog transmission techniques but in the 2000s, broadcasters have switched to digital signals using digital transmission. In general usage, broadcasting most refers to the transmission of information and entertainment programming from various sources to the general public. Analog audio vs. HD Radio Analog television vs. Digital television WirelessThe world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks more than quadrupled during the two decades from 1986 to 2007, from 432 exabytes of information, to 1.9 zettabytes. This is the information equivalent of 55 newspapers per person per day in 1986, 175 newspapers per person per day by 2007. There have been several methods used for broadcasting electronic media audio and video to the general public: Telephone broadcasting: the earliest form of electronic broadcasting.
Telephone broadcasting began with the advent of Théâtrophone systems, which were telephone-based distribution systems allowing subscribers to listen to live opera and theatre performances over telephone lines, created by French inventor Clément Ader in 1881. Telephone broadcasting grew to include telephone newspaper services for news and entertainment programming which were introduced in the 1890s located in large European cities; these telephone-based subscription services were the first examples of electrical/electronic broadcasting and offered a wide variety of programming. Radio broadcasting. Radio stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast common radio programs, either in broadcast syndication, simulcast or subchannels. Television broadcasting, experimentally from 1925, commercially from t