County of Peebles (ship)
County of Peebles was the worlds first four-masted, iron-hulled full-rigged ship, built in 1875 by Barclay Curle Shipbuilders in Glasgow, Scotland for the shipping firm R & J Craig of Glasgow. Her rig was in the Scottish style i. e. Royal sails above double top-sails, R & J Craig ordered a further eleven similar four-masted full-rigged ships for the thriving Indian jute trade, forming what was referred to as the Scottish East India Line. In 1898, County of Peebles was sold to the Chilean Navy, renamed Muñoz Gamero, she was used as a coal hulk at Punta Arenas on the Strait of Magellan. In the mid-1960s she was beached as a breakwater in Punta Arenas, where she lies today with cut-down masts
Kathleen and May
The Kathleen and May is the last remaining British built wooden hull three masted top sail schooner. Registered in Bideford, North Devon, but presently based in Liverpool and she was built in 1900 by Ferguson and Baird at their Connahs Quay, Flintshire yard, for local shipping company Coppack Bros. Constructed with a frame of oak, these were covered by 3 inches thick seasoned pitch pine planks, fastened to the frames with treenails. Launched in April 1900 under Captain John Coppack, she was named Lizzie May after the Captain’s daughters, fleming modified her, adding before World War I both a longer lower yard to lengthen the middle sail, and a martingale fitted to the bowsprit. She now plied her trade between Youghal and the ports of the Bristol Channel, as a coal lugger, in 1931 she was sold to Captain Jewell of Appledore, North Devon. On arrival in her new port, she was fitted with an 80 brake horsepower Beardmore diesel engine. After surviving the storms of February 1936, in 1937 she experienced engine trouble in sight of Youghal’s lighthouse, in 1943, her engine was upgraded to a 125 brake horsepower Deutz diesel.
After the death of Captain Jewell in 1945, she passed to his son Tommy, in 1947 he had the martingale removed, but continued to ply her on the Irish Sea coal trade, which was now in severe decline. He sold most of his collection of vintage and veteran motor cars to raise the money to buy her, with a crew of one, Paul sailed her around the coast to Appledore, where she was berthed on the mud in the estuary outside the port. The Duke of Edinburgh in a bid to preserve a number of examples of Britains decaying maritime heritage set up the Maritime Trust in London, the Trust moved her to Gloucester Docks, and began restoring her as a typical West Country schooner. But failed to secure a £2 million National Lottery Heritage Fund grant, businessman Steve Clarke from Bideford, Devon bought her. Towed by sea to Bideford, in February 1999 she was hauled out of the water by two 1,000 tonnes heavy lift mobile cranes, and placed on to the disused Brunswick Wharf at East-the-Water. 70% of the planking was stripped from the frames, enabling most of her internal timbers to be refitted.
While the stern of the ship was stripped down to the keels, once the frames were refitted, the surviving parts of the original frames were steam cleaned at 3000psi, to kill fungal spores. The ship was fitted with a 400 brake horsepower Detroit diesel ex-lifeboat engine, the ship now carries enough fuel to do 2,000 miles under engine power alone. Redecked with new seasoned timbers, she was given a refit, with all masts. On completion, she underwent a rigorous MCA CAT2 inspection, as a result of his efforts in restoring Kathleen and May, Councillor Steve Clarke was awarded the OBE in 2008. Based in Bideford on the River Torridge, since her restoration Kathleen & May now regularly sails across the Bristol Channel and she has returned to Youghal, attended various festivals, and sailed across the Bay of Biscay to Bilbao as the paid guest of the Guggenheim museum
Fram is a ship that was used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912. Fram is said to have sailed north and farther south than any other wooden ship. Fram is preserved at the Fram Museum in Oslo, nansens ambition was to explore the Arctic farther north than anyone else. To do that, he would have to deal with a problem that many sailing on the ocean had encountered before him. Fram is a schooner with a total length of 39 meters. The ship is both wide and unusually shallow in order to better withstand the forces of pressing ice. Nansen commissioned the shipwright Colin Archer from Larvik to construct a vessel with these characteristics, Fram was built with an outer layer of greenheart wood to withstand the ice and with almost no keel to handle the shallow waters Nansen expected to encounter. The rudder and propeller were designed to be retracted, the ship was carefully insulated to allow the crew to live on board for up to five years.
The ship included a windmill, which ran a generator to provide power for lighting by electric arc lamps. Initially, Fram was fitted with a steam engine, prior to Amundsens expedition to the South Pole in 1910, the engine was replaced with a diesel engine, a first for polar exploration vessels. Nansen had Fram built in order to explore this theory and he undertook an expedition that came to last three years. When Nansen realised that Fram would not reach the North Pole directly by the force of the current, he, after reaching 86°14 north, he had to turn back to spend the winter at Franz Joseph Land. Nansen and Johansen survived on walrus and polar bear meat and blubber, finally meeting British explorers, the Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition, they arrived back in Norway only days before the Fram returned there. The ship had spent nearly three years trapped in the ice, reaching 85°57 N, in 1898, Otto Sverdrup, who had brought Fram back on the first Arctic voyage, led a scientific expedition to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Fram was slightly modified for this journey, its freeboard being increased, Fram left harbour on 24 June 1898, with 17 men on board. Their aim was to chart the lands of the Arctic Islands, the expeditions lasted till 1902, leading to charts covering 260,000 km2, more than any other Arctic expedition. Fram was used by Roald Amundsen in his polar expedition from 1910 to 1912. The ship was left to decay in storage from 1912 until the late 1920s, in 1935 the ship was installed in the Fram Museum, where she now stands
Star of India (ship)
Star of India was built in 1863 at Ramsey in the Isle of Man as Euterpe, a full-rigged iron windjammer ship. After a full career sailing from Great Britain to India and New Zealand, retired in 1926, she was not restored until 1962–63 and is now a seaworthy museum ship home-ported at the Maritime Museum of San Diego in San Diego, California. She is the oldest ship still sailing regularly and the oldest iron-hulled merchant ship still floating, the ship is both a California Historical Landmark and United States National Historic Landmark. She was launched on 14 November 1863, and assigned British Registration No.47617, euterpes career had a rough beginning. She sailed for Calcutta from Liverpool on 9 January 1864, under the command of Captain William John Storry, a collision with an unlit Spanish brig off the coast of Wales carried away the jib-boom and damaged other rigging. The crew became mutinous, refusing to continue, and she returned to Anglesey to repair,17 of the crew were confined to the Beaumaris Jail at hard labor.
Then, in 1865, Euterpe was forced to cut away her masts in a gale in the Bay of Bengal off Madras and limped to Trincomalee, Captain Storry died during the return voyage to England and was buried at sea. In late 1871 she began twenty-five years of carrying passengers and freight in the New Zealand emigrant trade, the fastest of her 21 passages to New Zealand took 100 days, the longest 143 days. She made ports of call in Australia, California, a baby was born on one of those trips en route to New Zealand, and was given the middle name Euterpe. Another child, John William Philips Palmer, was born on the 1873 journey to Dunedin, New Zealand and she was registered in the United States on 30 October 1900. In 1906, the Association changed her name to be consistent with the rest of their fleet and she was laid up in 1923 after 22 Alaskan voyages, by that time, steam ruled the seas. In 1926, Star of India was sold to the Zoological Society of San Diego, the Great Depression and World War II caused that plan to be canceled, and it was not until 1957 that restoration began.
Alan Villiers, a captain and author, came to San Diego on a lecture tour. Seeing Star of India decaying in the harbor, he publicized the situation, progress was still slow, but in 1976, Star of India finally put to sea again. She houses exhibits for the Maritime Museum of San Diego, is kept fully seaworthy, unlike many preserved or restored vessels, her hull and equipment are nearly 100% original. This location is slightly west of downtown San Diego, the other ships belonging to the Maritime Museum are always docked to the north of Star of India. Her nearest neighbor – since 2007 – is HMS Surprise, a replica of a British frigate, when she sails, Star of India often remains within sight of the coast of San Diego County, and usually returns to her dock within a day. She is sailed by a volunteer crew of Maritime Museum members
The tall ship Elissa is a three-masted barque. She is currently moored in Galveston, and is one of the oldest ships sailing today, Elissa was built in Aberdeen, Scotland as a merchant vessel in a time when steamships were overtaking sailing ships. She was originally launched on October 27,1877, according to the descendants of Henry Fowler Watt, Elissas builder, she was named for the Queen of Carthage, Aeneas tragic lover in the epic poem The Aeneid. Elissa sailed under Norwegian and Swedish flags, in Norway she was known as the Fjeld of Tønsberg and her master was Captain Herman Andersen. In Sweden her name was Gustav of Gothenburg, in 1918, she was converted into a two-masted brigantine and an engine was installed. She was sold to Finland in 1930 and reconverted into a schooner, in 1959, she was sold to Greece, and successively sailed under the names Christophoros, in 1967 as Achaeos, and in 1969 as Pioneer. In 1970, she was rescued from destruction in Piraeus after being purchased for the San Francisco Maritime Museum, she languished in a salvage yard in Piraeus until she was purchased for $40,000, in 1975, by the Galveston Historical Foundation, her current owners.
In 1979, after a year in Greece having repairs done to her hull, she was prepared for an ocean tow by Captain Jim Currie of the New Orleans surveyors J. K. The restoration process continued until she was ready for tow on June 7,1979, Elissa has an iron hull, and the pin rail and bright work is made of teak. Her masts are Douglas fir from Oregon, and her 19 sails were made in Maine and she has survived numerous modifications including installation of an engine, and the incremental removal of all her rigging and masts. Elissa made her first voyage as a sailing ship in 1985, traveling to Corpus Christi. In Freeport the crew was joined by seventh grader Jerry Diegel and Betty Rusk, his history, a year later, she sailed to New York City to take part in the Statue of Libertys centennial celebrations. When shes not sailing, Elissa is moored at the Texas Seaport Museum in Galveston, public tours are available year-round-provided she is not out sailing. The ship is sailed and maintained by qualified volunteers from around the nation, in July 2011, the U. S.
Coast Guard declared Elissa to be not seaworthy. Officials at the Texas Seaport Museum in Galveston where Elissa is berthed were astonished when a Coast Guard inspection in 2011 revealed a corroded hull, the tall ship is inspected twice every five years, said John Schaumburg, museum assistant director. The 2011 inspection uncovered the worst corrosion since the ship was rebuilt in 1982. Texas Seaport Museum raised the $3 million that paid for hull replacement and other long-overdue maintenance projects, the museum replaced the 22,000 board feet of Douglas fir decking. Including building new quarter deck furniture out of high quality teak, Elissa returned to sailing once again in March 2014
Turbinia was the first steam turbine-powered steamship. The vessel can still be seen at the Discovery Museum in Newcastle upon Tyne, North East England, while her original powerplant can be found at the London Science Museum. Charles Algernon Parsons invented the steam turbine in 1884, having foreseen its potential to power ships. To develop this he had the experimental vessel Turbinia built in a design of steel by the firm of Brown and Hood. The Admiralty was kept informed of developments, and Turbinia was launched on 2 August 1894, despite the success of the turbine engine, initial trials with one propeller were disappointing. In trials this achieved a top speed of over 34 knots, the turbines were directly driven, as geared turbines were not introduced until 1910. Even after the introduction of geared turbines, efficiency of even the largest axial steam turbines was still below 12 percent, Turbinia was even less efficient, with its direct drive turbine moving with a tip speed of just 30 meters per second.
Despite this, it was an improvement over predecessors. Photographer and cinematographer Alfred J. West took several photographs of Turbinia traveling at speed at the Review. Both vessels were lost but although the loss of these trials ships slowed the introduction of turbines, in 1900 Turbinia steamed to Paris and was shown to French officials and displayed at the Paris Exhibition. The first turbine-powered merchant vessel, the Clyde steamer TS King Edward, the Admiralty confirmed in 1905 that all future Royal Navy vessels were to be turbine-powered, and in 1906 the first turbine-powered battleship, the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought, was launched. On 11 January 1907, Turbinia was struck and nearly cut in two by Crosby – a ship being launched across-river from the bank of the Tyne. She was repaired and steamed alongside RMS Mauretania after the launch of the ocean liner. However, mechanical problems prevented Turbinia from accompanying Mauretania down the River Tyne to the sea, the fore section was presented in 1944 to Newcastle Corporation and placed on display in the citys Exhibition Park.
In 1983 a complete reconstruction was undertaken, on 30 October 1994,100 years after her launch, Turbinia was moved to Newcastles Museum of Science and Engineering and put on display to the public in March 1996. Listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, in 2000, the gallery around Turbinia was the first area to be refurbished, with the main part of the work involving raising the roof by one storey to create viewing galleries on three levels. A detailed Museum originated blog entry by Ian Whitehead, the Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums curator charged with Turbinas care in 2013
Falls of Clyde (ship)
Falls of Clyde is the last surviving iron-hulled, four-masted full-rigged ship, and the only remaining sail-driven oil tanker. Designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1989, she is now a museum ship in Honolulu and she is currently not open to the public. In September 2008, ownership was transferred to a new organization, the Friends of Falls of Clyde. Efforts to raise $1.5 million to get the ship into drydock have not succeeded as of 2015, an additional $30 million may be needed to fully restore the ship. In August,2016, the Harbors Division of the State of Hawaii impounded the ship, efforts are underway to convince the Governor to preserve the ship, including an online petition. Falls of Clyde was built in 1878 by Russell and Company in Port Glasgow, Scotland, launched as the first of nine iron-hulled four-masted ships for Wright and Breakenridges Falls Line. She was named after the Falls of Clyde, a group of waterfalls on the River Clyde and her maiden voyage took her to Karachi, now in Pakistan, and her first six years were spent engaged in the India trade.
She became a tramp pursuing general cargo such as lumber, jute and wheat from ports in Australia, India, New Zealand, and the British Isles. To economize on crew, Matson rigged Falls of Clyde down as a barque, at the same time, he added a deckhouse and rearranged the after quarters to accommodate paying passengers. From 1899 to 1907, she made over sixty voyages between Hilo and San Francisco, carrying general merchandise west, sugar east and she developed a reputation as a handy and commodious vessel, averaging 17 days each way on her voyages. In 1907, the Associated Oil Company bought Falls of Clyde, ten large steel tanks were built into her hull, and a pump room and generator fitted forward of an oil-tight bulkhead. In this configuration she brought kerosene to Hawaii and returned to California with molasses for cattle feed, in 1927, she was sold to the General Petroleum Company, her masts cut down, and converted into a floating fuel depot in Alaska. In 1959 she was purchased by William Mitchell, who towed her to Seattle, Washington, in 1963, the bank holding the mortgage on Falls of Clyde decided to sell her to be sunk as part of a breakwater at Vancouver, British Columbia.
Kortum and Klebingat aroused interest in the ship in Hawaii, at the end of October 1963, Falls of Clyde was taken under tow bound for Honolulu. Falls of Clyde was given to the Bishop Museum and opened to the public in 1968, in 1970 the grandson of original 19th century designer William Lithgow was engaged to assist in her restoration as a full-rigged ship. Support came from Sir William Lithgow, the shipbuilder and industrialist, whose Port Glasgow shipyard donated new steel masts, in 1973 the ship was entered into the National Register of Historic Places, and declared a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1989. The ship is now in poor condition, causes of the deterioration of the ship are multiple. The ship has not been dry docked for a long time, preventive maintenance was not performed, although it would have been relatively inexpensive
Joseph Conrad (ship)
Joseph Conrad is an iron-hulled sailing ship, originally launched as Georg Stage in 1882 and used to train sailors in Denmark. After sailing around the world as a yacht in 1934 she served as a training ship in the United States. Australian sailor and author Alan Villiers saved Georg Stage from the scrappers, Villiers planned a circumnavigation with a crew of mostly boys. Joseph Conrad sailed from Ipswich on 22 October 1934, crossed the Atlantic Ocean to New York City, down to Rio de Janeiro, Cape Town, and across the Indian Ocean and through the East Indies. After stops in Sydney, New Zealand, and Tahiti, Joseph Conrad rounded Cape Horn and returned to New York on 16 October 1936, having traveled a total of some 57,000 miles. Villiers was bankrupted as a result of the expedition, and sold the ship to Huntington Hartford, heir to the A&P supermarket fortune, who added an engine and used her as a yacht. In 1939 Hartford donated the Conrad to the United States Coast Guard for use as a ship for the merchant marine based in Jacksonville.
The Conrad continued to serve as a ship until the wars end in 1945. After being laid up for two years, the ship was transferred to Mystic Seaport in Stonington, Connecticut in 1947 where she has remained ever since as a floating exhibit. In addition to her role as a museum, she is a training vessel and is employed by Mystic Seaport to house campers attending the Joseph Conrad Sailing Camp
Edwin Fox is the worlds second oldest surviving merchant sailing ship and the only surviving ship that transported convicts to Australia. She is unique in that she is the only intact hull of a wooden sailing ship built to British specifications surviving in the world outside the Falkland Islands. Edwin Fox carried settlers to both Australia and New Zealand and carried troops in the Crimean War, the ship is dry-docked at The Edwin Fox Maritime Centre at Picton in New Zealand. She was built of teak in Calcutta in 1853 and her voyage was to London via the Cape of Good Hope. She went into service in the Crimean War as a troop ship, on 14 February 1856 she began her first voyage to Melbourne, carrying passengers, moved to trading between Chinese ports. In 1858 she was chartered by the British Government as a ship bound for Fremantle. Conditions on board for the four to six-month voyage were harsh and luggage strictly limited, on arrival they often found conditions much harsher than expected, and were faced with being cut off from family and friends in distant Europe, sometimes for life.
Edwin Fox was overtaken by the age of steam, and in the 1880s she was refitted as a floating freezer hulk for the sheep industry in New Zealand. She was towed to Picton in the South Island on 12 January 1897 where she continued as a freezer ship. By this time she had long since lost her rigging and masts, and suffered holes cut in her sides, the ship was in use until 1950, abandoned to rot at her moorings. In 1965 she was bought by the Edwin Fox Society for the sum of one shilling. In 1967 she was towed to Shakespeare Bay where she remained for the next 20 years, after much further fundraising the ship was refloated and towed to her final home, a dry dock on the Picton waterfront. She floated in and the dock was drained to begin restoration, initially it was planned to restore the ship completely, replacing rigging and refurbishing the interior. It has since decided that this is not practical, not only for reasons of finance. She is thus preserved as a hull with an adjacent informative museum, the trust are looking for sponsors to continue their work on this unique vessel.
She has been given a category I registration from Heritage New Zealand, the Edwin Fox, New Zealand from H2G2
Albatros is a sailing ketch built in the Netherlands in 1899. Now used as a training vessel, she was the last sailing ship carrying commercial cargo in Europe. Albatros was built at Capelle aan den IJssel in the Netherlands in 1899 as a Noordzee Klipper or Galliot and her first captain was Johannes Muller of Middelharnis, near Rotterdam. In 1920 she was sold to Captain Lolk from Svendborg, in 1941, Lolk sold Albatros to Captain Rasmussen from Hobro. See Rescue of the Danish Jews and her rigging was reduced in 1964 and the rivetted steel below the waterline replaced with welded steel, and a more powerful engine fitted to replace the engine that was fitted in 1933. Rasmussen retired in 1978, and Albatros was laid up in Copenhagen, in 1980, Antonius Ton Brouwer bought Albatros, and made Amsterdam her new home port. She was restored by Germanischer Lloyd between 1983 and 1987 and recommissioned as a cargo ship. Her first cargo after restoration was soya beans to Macduff, between 1987 and 1996, she was often to be seen at Wells next the Sea delivering her cargo of soya beans.
With the closure of Wells as a port in September 1995 her career as a cargo ship was finally over. The final load of 100 tons of beans were delivered on 5 September 1996. During this time, her cargos included corn and timber, Albatros was converted to a passenger ship in 1997-98. In 2001, she returned to Wells, and The Albatros Project was created to support the upkeep of the ship, on 22 August 2004, a passenger on board Albatros died when he fell from the rigging. Albatros was in the Thames Estuary at the time, and an investigation was carried out by the MAIB
Af Chapman (ship)
Af Chapman, formerly Dunboyne and G. D. Kennedy, is a full-rigged steel ship moored on the western shore of the islet Skeppsholmen in central Stockholm, now serving as a youth hostel. The ship was constructed by the Whitehaven Shipbuilding Company, located in Whitehaven and she was originally known as Dunboyne, after a town in County Meath, Ireland. Her maiden voyage was from Maryport, England, to Portland, the Swedish Navy used her as a training ship and as such she made several trips around the world, running aground at Port Aleza, Puerto Rico, on 13 July 1934. Her final voyage was in 1934, but she served as a ship during World War II. In 1947 the Stockholm City Museum saved the ship from being broken up and it serves as a youth hostel with 285 beds. During 2008 the ship underwent a comprehensive restoration, while the ship was being worked on in a drydock, the adjacent youth hostel Skeppsholmen remained open. The ship is docked on the next to the Admiralty House