Spanish Broadcasting System
Spanish Broadcasting System, Inc. is one of the largest owners and operators of radio stations in the United States. SBS is invested in television and internet properties, deriving the majority of its income from advertising through its media products. SBS owns the internet portal LaMusica.com. It acquired WSBS-TV in Miami, Florida, KTBU in Houston, Texas and WTCV in San Juan, Puerto Rico, the group of owned and operated TV stations for its Mega TV network. SBS targets the U. S. Hispanic audience in six geographic regions: the Los Angeles, New York, Chicago and San Francisco metropolitan areas, Puerto Rico. Spanish Broadcasting System was founded by Pablo Raúl Alarcón Sr. who started in Spanish-language radio broadcasting in the early 1950s when he started his first radio station in Camagüey, his son, Raúl Alarcón Jr. Alarcón Sr. had acquired 14 radio stations by the time he fled Cuba with his family to the United States in 1960. In the U. S. he continued his career as an on-air personality at a New York radio station after arriving in the United States before being promoted to programming director.
He subsequently owned a recording studio and advertising agency before borrowing $3.5 million USD to purchase the first SBS radio station, WSKQ-AM in 1983 with his son, Raúl Alarcón Jr. Alarcón Sr. would serve as SBS Chairman of the board of directors, while his son would serve as an account executive in the sales department. SBS generated sales of about $20 million in its first year, confirming the influence of the growing Spanish-speaking audience. Raúl Alarcón Jr. became President of SBS and a director in October 1985. In 1988 SBS purchased regional Mexican KLAX 97.9 FM in Los Angeles. The company went public in the fall of 1991, raising $435.8 million by selling 21.8 million shares at $20 per share. SBS bought its third station, New York's WSKQ-FM, in 1989 and reformatted it as Mega 97.9, La Mega, surpassing the market's longtime leader, the light rock station WLTW-FM, by 1998. A major turning point for Spanish radio occurred that year when media researchers at Arbitron rated La Mega's morning show number one over that of the radio personality Howard Stern.
In 2002 the company created a concert production arm. It diversified by purchasing 80 percent of JuJu Media, the operator of the Spanish-English Web site LaMusica.com, which offered Latin music, entertainment and culture. That year, at the insistence of Alarcón Jr. SBS launched KZAB-FM, targeting the Central American population in Los Angeles. In 2003, WSKQ was the most listened-to Spanish-language radio station in the United States; that year Alarcón Jr. told Billboard magazine, "My opinion is that radio programming continues to be an art. It is not a science. I will not argue with the fact that research gives you a good indication, a good road map."Raúl Alarcón Jr. is the current Chief Executive Officer of SBS, a position he has held since June 1994. He succeeded his father as Chairman of the board of directors on November 2, 1999. Alarcón Sr. would continue to serve as Chairman Emeritus. Alarcón Jr. is responsible for the company's long-range strategic planning and operational matters, according to SBS's website, is instrumental in the acquisition and related financing of each SBS station.
In 2009, Raúl Alarcón Sr. was posthumously inducted into Billboard's Latin Music Hall of Fame. On June 3, 2011, the Cuban-American community of Union City, New Jersey honored Alarcon Sr. with a star on the Walk of Fame at Celia Cruz Plaza. Alacron Jr. was present to accept the honors for his father. SBS radio stations use one of six programming formats: Spanish tropical: salsa music, bachata, reggaetón dance music Regional Mexican: ranchera, norteña, cumbia music originating from regions of Mexico Spanish adult contemporary: soft romantic ballads, Spanish pop music Spanish oldies: Latin/English music classics from the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s American top 40: current pop music hits Hurban: reggaetón dance music KLAX-FM 97.9 La Raza HD1 /Raza Clásicos 97.9 HD2 KXOL-FM La Mega 96.3 HD1 /El Zol 96.3 HD2 WSKQ-FM La Mega 97.9 HD1 WPAT-FM 93.1 Amor HD1 /La Nueva 93.1 HD2 WMEG La Mega 106.9 WEGM La Mega 95.1 WRXD Play 96.5 WZNT Zeta 93.7 WZMT Zeta 93.3 WIOB Zeta 97.5 WODA La Nueva 94.7 WNOD La Nueva 94.1 WLEY-FM La Ley 107.9 WXDJ El Zol 106.7 WCMQ-FM Zeta 92.3 WRMA Ritmo 95.7 WRAZ La Nueva 106.3 WMFM El Zol 107.9 KRZZ 93.3 La Raza SBS launched AIRE Radio Networks in 2014.
In addition to individual radio station websites, SBS operates www.lamusica.com and www.mega.tv, all providing bilingual Spanish-English content about Latin music and news. MEGA TV was launched on March 1, 2006 and operates as a Spanish-language entertainment station in South Florida, Puerto Rico and Las Vegas; the station's programming targets a young, U. S. Hispanic audience through general entertainment programs. Seventy percent of MEGA TV's programming is in-house created. MEGA TV is available nationwide on DirecTV and AT&T U-Verse. Stations are arranged alphabetically by city of license. Arbitron sued SBS in order to force it to reinstall encoders used for the Portable People Meter system of audience measurement. SBS and other members of
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
Andrew Hozier-Byrne, known professionally as Hozier, is an Irish musician and songwriter from County Wicklow. He had his international breakthrough after releasing his debut single "Take Me to Church", certified multi-platinum in several countries, including the US, the UK, Canada. In 2013, he released his debut EP, featuring the single "Take Me to Church", his debut studio album, released in 2014, topped the chart in Ireland and scored top ten positions on global charts. It has been certified 6 × platinum in multi-platinum in several countries, he embarked on a European tour to support the album. In September 2018, Hozier released an EP, titled Nina Cried Power, featuring the title track as a single, he released his second album, Baby!, in March 2019. It debuted atop the US Billboard 200, he is scheduled to support the album. Hozier was born in County Wicklow, Ireland. Hozier's father, John Byrne, is a local blues drummer whose day job was working at a bank, while his mother, Raine Hozier-Byrne, is an artist.
Hozier and his brother, were raised in the minority Protestant Quaker faith. He has been writing songs since the age of 15, he attended Delgany National School and St. Gerard's School before he began studying music in Trinity College, Dublin, he dropped out midway through his first year to record demos for Universal Music. While in Trinity, Hozier became involved with the Trinity Orchestra, he was a member of the choral ensemble Anúna from 2009 to 2012 and appears as a soloist on their 2014 release Illuminations singing "La Chanson de Mardi Gras". He toured and sang with the group internationally including performances in Norway and the Netherlands. Hozier played at Oxegen Festival in 2009 and 2010. In July 2013, Hozier released the EP Take Me to Church; the title track was a blues-gospel pop song with lyrics about finding solace in a lover, its video was directed by Brendan Canty and depicts anti-gay violence in Russia. Released in September, the video was shared by Stephen Fry, appeared on the front page of Reddit, went viral.
The single achieved global success, scoring top five positions around the world and gaining multi-platinum certifications. In 2014, Hozier released his second EP, From Eden. One of the tracks, "Cherry Wine", appeared in Zach Braff's movie "Wish I Was Here", chosen for its "heartbreaking lyrics and poetry", it was performed on the Late Late Show. Hozier released his self-titled album, Hozier, in September 2014, it featured five singles, including "Take Me to Church", "Someone New", "Work Song", "From Eden". He embarked on an American and a European tour to support the album."Take Me to Church" was nominated at the 57th Annual Grammy Awards for Song of the Year in 2015. At the awards show, he performed the song with Annie Lennox, at the 2015 Billboard Music Awards. On 12 November 2015, he won the VH1 Artist of the Year, based on fan votes, he performed "Take Me to Church" and The Beatles' "Blackbird" with singer Tori Kelly. In June 2016, Hozier released the song "Better Love" as part of the Legend of Tarzan soundtrack.
In September 2018, Hozier returned with the release of the EP Nina Cried Power. The record features a collaboration with Mavis Staples on the title track, as well as three other songs, titled "NFWMB", "Moment's Silence", "Shrike"; the singer stated that he was recording his second studio album. The title track, "Nina Cried Power" opposes xenophobia and references various musicians, acknowledging their contributions. Hozier's second album, Baby!, was released on 1 March 2019 and debuted atop the US Billboard 200 chart. The album's cover was painted by Hozier's mother who created the artwork covers for some of his previous releases, he is scheduled to embark on a worldwide tour, visiting venues across North America, New Zealand, Europe, beginning on 10 March 2019 to support the album. He released the album’s lead single, "Movement", on 14 November 2018 along with the music video which featured Ukrainian Ballet dancer Sergei Polunin. Polunin had performed on Hozier's "Take Me to Church" video. Subsequently, he released "Almost" on 16 January 2019 and "Dinner and Diatribes" on 15 February 2019.
He released the music video for "Dinner and Diatribes" on 6 March 2019, featuring Anya Taylor-Joy and directed by Anthony Byrne who directed the video for "Someone New". Two songs from the Nina Cried Power EP, the title track and "Shrike", are included on the album; the song "No Plan" is influenced by a lecture delivered by astrophysicist Katie Mack about the end of the universe. He is one of the headliners for the Electric Picnic 2019, a three-day festival held in Ireland on 30 August to 1 September, he is scheduled to perform at the Glastonbury Festival 2019, a five-day festival held in June in England. He is scheduled to perform at the Lollapalooza 2019, a four-day music festival held in Chicago in August; the "Take Me to Church" music video features two men in a same sex relationship, highlights the injustices and violence perpetrated against members of the LGBT community. The video was inspired by videos of violent crimes against gay men in Russia; the music video for the song "Cherry Wine" was released to raise awareness of domestic violence."Nina Cried Power" is a song that highlights artists such as Nina Simone, Bob Dylan, Mavis Staples whose work takes a political or social justice stance.
The song itself has been said to be a "thank you to the spirit and legacy of protest." The music video features Irish activists alongside protest footage."Be" contains many allusions to sea level rise and refugee crises. Byrne sings "When the man who give
San Antonio the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731; the area was still part of the Spanish Empire, of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality; the city's deep history is contrasted with its rapid recent growth during the past few decades. It was the fastest-growing of the top ten largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the second from 1990 to 2000. Straddling the regional divide between South and Central Texas, San Antonio anchors the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion colloquially known as the "Texas Triangle". San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County. Since San Antonio was founded during the Spanish Colonial Era, it has a church in its center, on the main civic plaza in front, a characteristic of many Spanish-founded cities and villages in Spain and Latin America.
As with many other urban centers in the Southwestern United States, areas outside the city limits are sparsely populated. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels metropolitan statistical area. Called Greater San Antonio, the metro area has a population of 2,473,974 based on the 2017 U. S. census estimate, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and third-largest in Texas. Growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named by a 1691 Spanish expedition for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is June 13; the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which together were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2015. Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, SeaWorld, the Alamo Bowl, Marriage Island. Commercial entertainment includes Morgan's Wonderland amusement parks.
According to the San Antonio Convention and Visitors Bureau, the city is visited by about 32 million tourists a year. It is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs, hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the U. S; the U. S. Armed Forces have numerous facilities around San Antonio. Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air Force Base, Lackland AFB/Kelly Field Annex, Camp Bullis, Camp Stanley are outside the city limits. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, when the airfield was transferred to Lackland AFB; the remaining parts of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, the only medical research and care provider in the South Texas region. At the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, they called the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning "refreshing waters".
In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13, the feast day of St. Anthony of Padua, they named the river "San Antonio" in his honor. It was years. Father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there; the viceroy gave formal approval for a combined mission and presidio in late 1716, as he wanted to forestall any French expansion into the area from their colony of La Louisiane to the east, as well as prevent illegal trading with the Payaya. He directed the governor of Coahuila y Tejas, to establish the mission complex. Differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, construction did not start until 1718. Olivares built, with the help of the Payaya Indians, the Misión de San Antonio de Valero, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the bridge that connected both, the Acequia Madre de Valero; the families who clustered around the presidio and mission were the start of Villa de Béjar, destined to become the most important town in Spanish Texas.
On May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5, 1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14, 1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas, his plan was approved, notice was given the Canary Islanders to furnish 200 families. By June 1730, 25 families had reached Cuba, 10 families had been sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, where they arrived on March 9, 1731. Due to marriages along the way, the party now included a total of 56 persons, they joined the military community established in 1718. The immigrants f
Awolnation is an American rock band and fronted by Aaron Bruno of Under the Influence of Giants, Home Town Hero, Insurgence. The band is signed to Red Bull Records, their first EP, Back from Earth, was released on iTunes on May 18, 2010, they released their first studio album, Megalithic Symphony, on March 15, 2011. The song has been certified 6× platinum by the RIAA and has sold 6,000,000 copies in the United States; as of February 29, 2016, the album has been certified platinum. The band's second studio album, was released on March 17, 2015. On October 12, 2017, a new single, "Passion", was released on music streaming services; the band's third studio album, Here Come the Runts, was released on February 2, 2018. Aaron Bruno was approached by Red Bull Records in 2009, asking if he wanted free use of the Red Bull recording studio in Los Angeles, he recorded a few songs in the studio and signed with the label, calling it more of a "partnership", was allowed to make the recordings that he wanted.
Bruno has been with numerous bands before he created Awolnation, including Home Town Hero with Drew Stewart and Under the Influence of Giants with Dave Amezcua. Bruno writes all of his songs himself, but confides in close friends and family or respected artists for guidance; the name Awolnation is derived from Aaron Bruno's high school nickname. In an interview with Kristin Houser of the LA Music Blog, he stated that he "would leave without saying goodbye" because it was just easier, so that's where the name AWOL came from." The band released their debut album Megalithic Symphony digitally on March 15, 2011, physically on March 29, 2011 on Red Bull Records. Megalithic Symphony features a total of 14 tracks, including the singles "Sail", "Not Your Fault", "Kill Your Heroes". Bonus tracks are offered with the purchase of the digital album depending on the outlet; these tracks include "Shoestrings", "Swinging from the Castles" and "I've Been Dreaming". The band's first single, "Sail", peaked at number 10 on the U.
S. Billboard Rock has gone platinum in the US and double platinum in Canada. "Sail" was featured in the episode "Whiskey Tango Foxtrot" of CBS's television show The Good Wife, commercials for the Fox television show House, Nokia's commercial for Lumia and PT's commercial for 4G LTE, is the background music for Under Armour's "Are You from Here" commercial, featuring Derrick Williams. "Sail" was covered by DevilDriver. "Sail" was used for a Sonya Tayeh routine in So You Think You Can Dance season 9, episode 6. The track gained greater exposure when it was featured during BMW's Olympic Opening Ceremony and in commercial spots throughout the Olympic broadcasts. "Sail" was used during CBC Hockey Night's opening tease in Canada on February 18, 2012, prior to a game between the Vancouver Canucks and Toronto Maple Leafs. It was used as of March 2013 in commercials for History Channel's new series, Vikings. "Sail" peaked at no. 17 on the US Billboard Hot 100, 27 on the Australian charts, 33 on the New Zealand charts and 17 on the UK Singles Chart.
"Sail" was used on wingsuit flyer Jeb Corliss's YouTube film'Grinding the Crack', which as of June 2017 has had over 31 million views. Another of the band's songs, "Burn It Down", is featured in the Sons of Anarchy episode "To Be, Act 1", is one of the in-game radio songs in Saints Row IV. One of their songs "Guilty Filthy Soul" has been featured in the episode "Break On Through" of The CW television show The Vampire Diaries; the band's songs "Sail" and "All I Need" are featured in the season 1 episode "Gun!" of Common Law. The band's song "Sail" was featured in the season 4 episode "Hot for Teacher" of Pretty Little Liars. "Kill Your Heroes" is featured at the beginning and the end of season 3, episode 2 of the Canadian TV series Rookie Blue, the remix of "Sail" together with Innerpartysystem was played in episode 8 of the same season. It was used in the episode "The Wake-Up Bomb" of Covert Affairs. Furthermore, "All I Need" was used in the season finale of the NBC show Whitney and "Kill Your Heroes" is in Season 4 episode 9 of The 100.
On June 6, 2012, the band released an Extended Play, "I've Been Dreaming", for free download in their official website. The extended play includes 3 unreleased songs, recorded live versions of "Kill Your Heroes", "Not Your Fault", "People" that they played in Toronto, they released two new songs, "Thiskidsnotalright" and "Some Kind of Joke". "Some Kind of Joke" appears as the second song on the Iron Man 3: Heroes Fall – Music Inspired by the Motion Picture soundtrack. The track "Thiskidsnotalright" is featured in the video game Injustice: Gods Among Us. Beacon audio did a Kickstarter for a limited edition speaker, they have released a Deluxe Edition of Megalithic Symphony that includes "Thiskidsnotalright," "Some Kind Of Joke", "Everybody's Got a Secret", songs from their EP I've Been Dreaming, as well as remixes of other songs from Megalithic Symphony. "Megalithic Symphony" and Sail's immediate success exposed the band to fans of all different genres of music. They were starting to gain diehard fans by playing various music festivals
Breaking Benjamin is an American rock band from Wilkes-Barre, founded in 1999 by lead singer and guitarist Benjamin Burnley and drummer Jeremy Hummel. The first lineup of the band included guitarist Aaron Fink and bassist Mark Klepaski; this lineup released two albums, Saturate and We Are Not Alone, before Hummel was replaced by Chad Szeliga in 2005. The band released two more studio albums and Dear Agony, before entering an extended hiatus in early 2010 due to Burnley's recurring illnesses; the release of a compilation album amid the hiatus, Shallow Bay: The Best of Breaking Benjamin, unauthorized by Burnley, brought about legal trouble within the band resulting in the dismissal of Fink and Klepaski. Szeliga announced his departure in 2013 citing creative differences. Burnley remained the sole member of the band until late 2014, when the current lineup was announced, including bassist and backing vocalist Aaron Bruch and backing vocalist Keith Wallen, guitarist Jasen Rauch, drummer Shaun Foist.
The band afterward released Dark Before Ember. Despite significant lineup changes, the band's musical style and lyrical content have remained consistent, with Burnley serving as the primary composer and lead vocalist since the band's inception; the band has been noted for its formulaic hard rock tendencies with angst-heavy lyrics, swelling choruses, "crunching" guitars. In the United States alone, the band has sold more than 7 million units and yielded three RIAA-certified platinum records, two gold records, several certified singles, including two multi-platinum, two platinum, five gold; the band has produced one number one record on the Billboard 200. Benjamin Burnley was in a band named Breaking Benjamin in 1998 that played "softer music" such as Weezer and The Beatles covers, was "nothing like" subsequent lineups; the name originates from an incident in which Burnley broke a borrowed microphone, prompting its owner to retort, "Thanks to Benjamin for breaking my fucking mic." This band included guitarist Aaron Fink, bassist Nick Hoover, drummer Chris Lightcap, but soon broke up when Burnley moved to California.
After returning to Pennsylvania with drummer Jeremy Hummel, Burnley formed Plan 9, which included bassist Jason Davoli. Plan 9, a reference to Plan 9 from Outer Space, was continually misnamed as "Planet 9", therefore the group reclaimed the name Breaking Benjamin from the previous band, as Burnley still had promotional stickers with that name; the three-piece first gained attention when Freddie Fabbri, a DJ for active rock radio station WBSX, put the group's track "Polyamorous" in rotation. After it became the number one requested track on the station, Fabbri financed the recording of the group's eponymous EP, which sold all 2,000 copies that were printed in 2001. Jonathan "Bug" Price was credited on bass. After growing dissatisfied with their previous band, former bandmate Aaron Fink and bassist Mark Klepaski joined Breaking Benjamin. In early 2002, over a dozen record companies visited a two-night showcase where Breaking Benjamin was playing, the group subsequently signed with Hollywood Records.
Shortly afterward, Breaking Benjamin began recording their first full-length major-label record, released on August 7, 2002 and produced by Ulrich Wild. It peaked at No. 136 on the Billboard 200, was certified gold on September 25, 2015. In early 2003, Breaking Benjamin participated in the Jägermeister Music Tour toured as a supporting act for Godsmack. Of the little media coverage received, Saturate garnered positive reception, with Jason Taylor from AllMusic stating that the album "has serious potential to become one of 2002's most successful debuts," feeling that "although it is repetitive and generic, it is undeniably addictive" scoring the album 2.5 out of 5. The disc received a favorable review from Schwegweb's Vin Cherubino, who noted, "The music has just as much quality as any popular artist in the same genre. Influences from bands such as Tool can be heard, making the music seem all so familiar and palatable." Breaking Benjamin returned to the studio in October 2003 with producer David Bendeth for their second album We Are Not Alone.
Burnley worked with The Smashing Pumpkins front man Billy Corgan over the course of six days in December 2003 to write the songs "Rain", "Forget It", "Follow". Despite being nervous, Burnley felt it was one of the highlights of his career; the album was released on June 29, 2004 and sold 48,000 copies in its first week, peaking at No. 20 on the Billboard 200. It was certified gold on October 21, 2004 platinum on June 13, 2005, it was certified gold in New Zealand on August 29, 2005. The record features singles such as "So Cold" and "Sooner or Later", both of which peaked at No. 2 on the Mainstream Rock Songs chart. "So Cold" became a platinum single on September 25, 2015. MTV writer Jon Wiederhorn writes that the initial commercial success of the album can be attributed to a tour two weeks prior to the album's debut which "generated prerelease buzz", they co-headlined a tour with Evanescence and Three Days Grace. We Are Not Alone garnered mixed reviews, it was met with high acclaim from IGN's Colin Moriarty, who felt "extremely satisfied," saying "safely and confidently" that it "might be my personal favorite album of the year," giving it a score of 9.3 out of 10.
Conversely, Exclaim! Writer Amber Authier felt that, "On first listen its generic sound did nothing for me," though admitted, "I listened to Breaking Benjamin several times over a week and several elements of the disc started to grow on me appeal to me." The writer concluded, "Breaking Benjamin created a
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T