San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bay estuaries in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. Although the exact boundaries of the region vary depending on the source, the Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano and San Francisco. Other sources may exclude parts of or entire counties, or expand the definition to include neighboring counties that don't border the bay such as San Benito, San Joaquin, Santa Cruz. Home to 7.68 million people, Northern California's nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns and associated regional and national parks, connected by a complex multimodal transportation network. The larger combined statistical area of the region, which includes twelve counties, is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the 41st-largest urban area in the world with 8.75 million people.
The Bay Area's population is ethnically diverse: for example half of the region's residents are Hispanic, African American, or Pacific Islander, all of whom have a significant presence throughout the region. The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlements in the Bay Area dates back to 3000 BC. In 1769, the Bay Area was inhabited by the Ohlone people when a Spanish exploration party led by Gaspar de Portolà entered the Bay – the first documented European visit to the Bay Area. After Mexico established independence from Spain in 1821, the region was controlled by the Mexican government until the United States purchased the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War. Soon after, discovery of gold in California attracted a flood of treasure seekers, many using ports in the Bay Area as an entry point. During the early years of California's statehood, state legislative business rotated between three locations in the Bay Area before a permanent state capital was established in Sacramento.
A major earthquake leveled the city of San Francisco and environs in 1906, but the region rebuilt in time to host the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. During World War II, the Bay Area played a major role in America's war effort in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, with San Francisco's Fort Mason acting as a primary embarkation point for American forces. In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, establishing the United Nations, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco ended the U. S.'s war with Japan. Since the Bay Area has experienced numerous political and artistic movements, developing unique local genres in music and art and establishing itself as a hotbed of progressive politics. Economically, the post-war Bay Area saw huge growth in the financial and technology industries, creating a vibrant and diverse economy with a gross domestic product of over $800 billion, home to the second highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the United States. Despite its urban character, the San Francisco Bay is one of California's most ecologically important habitats, providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers, supporting a number of endangered species.
The region is known for the complexity of its landforms, the result of millions of years of tectonic plate movements. Because the Bay Area is crossed by six major earthquake faults, the region is exposed to hazards presented by large earthquakes; the climate is temperate and very mild, is ideal for outdoor recreational and athletic activities such as hiking. The Bay Area is host to seven professional sports teams and is a cultural center for music and the arts, it is host to several institutions of higher education, ranging from primary schools to major research universities. Home to 101 municipalities and nine counties, governance in the Bay Area is multifaceted and involves numerous local and regional actors, each with wide-ranging and overlapping responsibilities; the borders of the San Francisco Bay Area are not delineated, the unique development patterns influenced by the region's topography, as well as unusual commute patterns caused by the presence of three central cities and employment centers located in various suburban locales, has led to considerable disagreement between local and federal definitions of the area.
Because of this, professor of geography at the University of California, Berkeley Richard Walker claimed that "no other U. S. city-region is as definitionally challenged."When the region began to develop during and after World War II, local planners settled on a nine-county definition for the Bay Area, consisting of the counties that directly border the San Francisco, San Pablo, Suisun estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma counties. Today, this definition is accepted by most local governmental agencies including San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Restoration Authority, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the Association of Bay Area Governments, the latter two of which partner to deliver a Bay Area Census using the nine-county definition. Various U. S. Federal government agencies use definitions that differ from their local counterparts' nine-county definition.
For example, the Federal Communications Commission which regulates broadcast and satellite transmissions, includes nearby Colusa and Mendocino counties in their "San Francisco-Oaklan
Sutro Tower is a 977 ft three-pronged TV and radio antenna tower in San Francisco, California. Rising from a hill between Twin Peaks and Mount Sutro near Clarendon Heights, it is a prominent feature of the city skyline and a landmark for city residents and visitors; the tower was the tallest structure in San Francisco from the time of its completion until 2017, when it was surpassed by the Salesforce Tower. Named after the family of Adolph Sutro, a businessman and former mayor of San Francisco whose grandson, Adolph Gilbert Sutro, built a mansion, La Avanzada, on their property in the highest peaks of San Francisco. In 1948, the mansion and property was sold to the American Broadcasting Company, where it became the original home of their San Francisco operation as KGO Television; the tower stands 552 m above sea level. It is the second tallest structure in the city by ground-to-tip height, though its mountain location overlooks the city's downtown skyscrapers. Before the construction of Sutro Tower in 1973, television reception in San Francisco was spotty because the many hills of the city blocked the line-of-sight television signal.
The great height of the new tower helped to resolve that problem. Transmitters had been scattered throughout the Bay Area, including at San Bruno Mountain, Mt. Allison, Monument Peak, Mt. Diablo. By having all the main Bay Area television station transmitters in one location, reception was improved by allowing a receiving antenna pointed in a single direction to receive all those stations rather than a subset. Local residents opposed the tower before it was completed, including criticism of the aesthetic effect the tower would have on the rest of San Francisco. San Francisco writer Herb Caen once wrote, "I keep waiting for it to stalk down the hill and attack the Golden Gate Bridge." Acknowledging both displeasure and affection for its undeniable prominence on the city's skyline, it is sometimes referred to light-heartedly as the Sutro Monster or Space Claw. When first built, the long legs of the tower were illuminated at night with long tubes of white light that looked like long fluorescent tubes.
However, public outcry resulted in the lights being removed soon. Despite the initial revulsion of some residents, Sutro Tower is now recognized by many as a Bay Area icon, it appears in local art, television shows, movies as one of the architectural symbols of the city; the tower is featured in video games, business logos, on clothing, as furniture and tattoos. A local entertainment guide, SF Station, uses it as a logo, as does the collaborative art game SFZero and the Expose SF art competition. Construction commenced in 1971 by Kline Towers of Columbia, South Carolina, the tower was completed in 1973, with the first transmissions on July 4, 1973. 3,750 m3 of concrete were used to make the foundation of the 3.7 million pound tower. Earthquake proofing includes ballasting two-thirds of the weight of the structure below ground, resulting in a center of gravity at sixteen feet below ground level, it is used to transmit the signals of eleven television stations and four FM radio stations and for various other communications services.
The tower is owned by Sutro Tower Inc. which in turn is owned by a consortium of the four major television broadcasters in San Francisco at the time of its construction: KTVU. Sutro Tower leases space to other Bay Area radio and television stations, including PBS outlet KQED. With the advent of channel sharing agreements after the 2016 FCC spectrum auction, San Jose's KQEH began to transmit from Sutro with sister station KQED on January 17, 2018, moving from its former Monument Peak transmitter. Three other major Bay Area TV stations are unable to be located at Sutro Tower—the NBC-owned duopoly of KNTV and KSTS. KNTV, which assumed the area's NBC affiliation from KRON-TV in 2002, relocated its transmitter from Loma Prieta Peak to San Bruno Mountain, five miles south of Sutro Tower; those locations allow these stations to maintain primary coverage over San Jose and the South Bay—San Jose is the city of license for all three stations. The facility is accessible only by authorized vehicles; the area near the site offers beautiful panoramic viewpoints of San Francisco.
There is a platform near 232 m above ground and 486.2 m above sea level. Only authorized maintenance workers can access the tower via a small two-person elevator that runs inside the west tower enclosed leg. There is no public access within the Sutro Tower property lines. On a clear day, the tower can be seen from the East Bay peak of Mount Diablo and is sometimes the only part of San Francisco seen above the coastal fog when it is blown inland on summer mornings and evenings. TV stations that transmit from Sutro Tower include the following; as most of these stations carry additional subchannels on their frequencies, only their main affiliations on the.1 subchannel are listed here. Subchannel affiliations are shown via the Digital channels link. FM stations that transmit from Sutro Tower include the following: The tower is an important presence in the 1977 San Francisco horror novel Our Lady of Darkness by Fritz Leiber; the video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, set in a fictionalized San Francisco, contai
Father Knows Best
Father Knows Best is an American sitcom starring Robert Young, Jane Wyatt, Elinor Donahue, Billy Gray, Lauren Chapin. The series, which first began on radio in 1949, aired for six seasons with a total of 203 episodes; the series debuted on CBS in October 1954. It was canceled the following year; the series was picked up by NBC. After a second cancellation in 1958, the series was picked up yet again, by CBS, where it aired until May 1960. Created by Ed James, Father Knows Best follows the lives of the Andersons, a middle-class family living in the Midwestern town of Springfield; the series began August 1949, on NBC Radio. Set in the Midwest, it starred Robert Young as the General Insurance agent Jim Anderson, his wife Margaret was first portrayed by June Whitley and by Jean Vander Pyl. The Anderson children were Betty and Kathy. Others in the cast were Eleanor Audley, Herb Vigran, Sam Edwards. Sponsored through most of its run by General Foods, the series was heard Thursday evenings on NBC until March 25, 1954.
On the radio program, the character of Jim differs from the television character. The radio Jim is far more sarcastic and shows he rules over his family. Jim calls his children names, something common on radio but lost in the TV series. For example, Jim says, "What a bunch of stupid children I have." Margaret is portrayed as a paragon of solid reason and patience, unless the plot calls for her to act a bit off. But, a rare exception. Betty, on radio, is portrayed as a boy-crazy teenage girl. To her, every little thing is "the worst thing that could happen." Bud, on radio, is portrayed as an "all-American" boy who always seems to need "just a bit more" money, though he gets $1.25 per week in allowance. Bud is in charge of always having to answer the phone, he is shown as a somewhat dim boy who takes everything literally. He uses the phrase "Holy Cow" to express displeasure. On radio, Kathy is portrayed as a source of irritation, she whines and complains about her status in the family as being overlooked.
She is the source of money to her brother and sister, although she is in hock several years on her own allowance. In an interview published in the magazine Films of the Golden Age, Young revealed about the radio program: "I never quite liked it because it had to have laughs, and I wanted a warm relationship show.... When we moved to TV I suggested an new cast and different perspective." The May 27, 1954, episode of The Ford Television Theatre show was called "Keep It in the Family." This 26-minute episode stars Robert Young as head of the Warren family. With him was wife Grace, older daughter Peggy, younger daughter Patty, son Jeff. Developed by Young and his partner Eugene Rodney, it was intended as a pilot for a Father Knows Best television series. In the episode Peggy dreams of making it as an actress, but a talent scout who has raised her hopes just wants people for his acting school. Only Robert Young remained of the radio cast when the series moved to CBS Television: James "Jim" Anderson Sr.: Robert Young Margaret Anderson: Jane Wyatt Betty "Princess" Anderson: Elinor Donahue James "Bud" Anderson Jr.: Billy Gray Kathy "Kitten" Anderson: Lauren Chapin The series premiered October 3, 1954, on CBS where it aired Sundays at 10:00 pm.
Sponsored by Lorillard's Kent cigarettes in its first season, Scott Paper Company became the primary sponsor when in the fall of 1955 the series moved to NBC, where it aired Wednesdays at 8:30 pm for the next three seasons. Scott Paper remained as sponsor after it moved in September 1958 back to CBS, where it aired Mondays at 8:30 pm for the last two seasons, with Lever Brothers as an alternate sponsor from 1957 through 1960. A total of 203 episodes were produced, running until September 17, 1960, appearing on all three of the television networks of the time, including prime-time repeats from September 1960 through April 1963; as before, the character of Margaret was portrayed as a "voice of reason," but Jim's character was softened to that of a thoughtful milquetoast father who offered sage advice whenever one of his children had a problem. Jim was a salesman and manager of the General Insurance Company in Springfield, while Margaret was a housewife. One history of the series characterized the Andersons as "truly an idealized family, the sort that viewers could relate to and emulate."
As the two eldest children aged from teen-ager to young adult and Bud graduated from high school and attended Springfield Junior College. Other actors had recurring roles on Father Knows Best. Vivi Janiss played the part of Myrtle Davis in eleven sporadic episodes from 1954 to 1959. Father Knows Best had become so ingrained in American pop culture as its idyllic presentation of family life that in 1959, the U. S. Treasury Department commissioned a special 30-minute episode of the show called "24 Hours in Tyrant Land." Never aired on television, the episode—distributed to schools and civic groups—promoted the buying of savings bonds. The episode was included in the Season One DVD. Young left the series in 1960 at the height of the show's popularity to work on other projects, but reruns continued to air in prime time for another three years, on CBS from 1960 to 1962 and on ABC from 1962 to 1963. Following that, reruns were shown on A
Hour of Power
Hour of Power is a weekly American Christian television program broadcast from the Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove, California, a cathedral, now a Catholic church. The program is broadcast from Shepherd's Grove; the program first hosted by Robert H. Schuller, it is hosted by Bobby Schuller, Robert H. Schuller's grandson and the son of Robert A. Schuller, himself a former host, it was once hosted by Sheila Schuller Coleman, a daughter of Robert H. Schuller; the program is one hour long, but some networks broadcast an edited 30-minute program. It features a large congregation Christian music with a choir and guests who speak about how God and their Christian faith have changed their lives for the better; the program first aired in 1970 as a church service of the Garden Grove Community Church. It was hosted by the elder Schuller. On July 9, 2008, the presidency of the church was shifted from the Robert H. Schuller to his son-in-law Jim Coleman. On October 26, 2008, it was announced that Schuller had removed his son, Robert A. Schuller, as teaching pastor, but allowed him to remain as the Crystal Cathedral's senior pastor.
Robert H. Schuller said that he wanted to take the ministry in a different direction and for the foreseeable future would use guest speakers for the weekly services rather than his son. Well-known speakers who were used in the early stages of the new format included Lee Strobel, John C. Maxwell, Bill Hybels. On November 29, 2008, the church announced. On October 18, 2010, the board of the Crystal Cathedral filed for bankruptcy in Santa Ana, California. On March 10, 2012, it was announced that Robert H. Schuller and his wife, would be leaving the church; the following day their elder daughter, Sheila Schuller Coleman, announced at the morning service that she would be leaving the church, therefore cutting all family ties with the Crystal Cathedral and Hour of Power, stating that "This is the last Sunday we will be worshiping in this building." The ministry's successor, the Rev. Bill Bennett, said that the ministry would continue but using a more traditional service. In June 2012, the Rev. Bobby Schuller, the son of Robert A. Schuller, started preaching on a voluntary basis.
In February 2013, Bobby Schuller was named as pastor for the Hour of Power. The Crystal Cathedral congregation was renamed Shepherd's Grove in 2013. Financial considerations dictated a move to a smaller property soon after, as well as a decision to sell the Crystal Cathedral, to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange, CA, for 49 million dollars; the diocese plans to spend over 100 million dollars on structural repairs and alterations necessary to adapt the building for Catholic services. When completed, it is to be rededicated as "Christ Cathedral." Following the move from the Garden Grove Campus, services was held in the former Catholic Church in the fall of 2013. The congregation move to Irvine Presbyterian Church in April 2018 after it was sold to real estate developers. Like the previous location of the Crystal Cathedral and former Catholic Church it is quite mixed with a rooftop Windows; the program airs in the United States using paid programming time on Freeform, the Trinity Broadcasting Network/The Church Channel, Hillsong Channel, Daystar.
Along with about 100 stations through individual contracts. The program airs over the American Forces Network. In Canada it is carried on VisionTV. In Europe it is broadcast on CNBC Europe, VOX in Austria and Switzerland, on RTL in the Netherlands and Sky1 in Ireland and the United Kingdom. In the Middle East it is carried on METV in Israel, Jordan and Syria. In Australia, it is seen on EXPO, Australian Christian Channel, Network Ten and SevenTWO, it is broadcast in New Zealand on the Prime network. It is broadcast in Hong Kong on ATV World, NOW TV Channel 564, TVB Pearl, Fantastic TV; the Hour of Power telecast, filmed in the Crystal Cathedral's main sanctuary, at one point attracted 1.3 million viewers from 156 countries. Under current Pastor Bobby Schuller, the program attracted 2.2 million viewers worldwide each week. Beginning in the late 1990s, the ministry struggled financially after it borrowed money to build a visitors' center. 2008 revenues for the program were nearly $5 million lower than revenues for 2007.
As of early 2009, the church planned to sell more than $65 million worth of its Orange County property to pay off debt: 150 acres in San Juan Capistrano, an office building in Garden Grove, California. Due to their financial situation, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange purchased the Garden Grove campus. Ron Rokhy. "Crystal Cathedral holds last service before relocating". NBC Southern California. NBCUniversal Media, LLC. Retrieved 2013-07-06; the Crystal Cathedral, which sold its campus to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange in 2011 due to financial troubles, held its final service on Sunday before swapping facilities with a nearby Catholic sanctuary. Official website Hour of Power on IMDb YouTube channel
Ultra high frequency
Ultra high frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz and 3 gigahertz known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one tenth of a meter. Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the super-high frequency or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate by line of sight, they are used for television broadcasting, cell phones, satellite communication including GPS, personal radio services including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, walkie-talkies, cordless phones, numerous other applications. The IEEE defines the UHF radar band as frequencies between 1 GHz. Two other IEEE radar bands overlap the ITU UHF band: the L band between 1 and 2 GHz and the S band between 2 and 4 GHz. Radio waves in the UHF band travel entirely by line-of-sight propagation and ground reflection. UHF radio waves are blocked by hills and cannot travel far beyond the horizon, but can penetrate foliage and buildings for indoor reception.
Since the wavelengths of UHF waves are comparable to the size of buildings, trees and other common objects and diffraction from these objects can cause fading due to multipath propagation in built-up urban areas. Atmospheric moisture reduces, or attenuates, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, the attenuation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are more degraded by moisture than lower bands, such as VHF TV signals. Since UHF transmission is limited by the visual horizon to 30–40 miles and to shorter distances by local terrain, it allows the same frequency channels to be reused by other users in neighboring geographic areas. Public safety, business communications and personal radio services such as GMRS, PMR446, UHF CB are found on UHF frequencies as well as IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. The adopted GSM and UMTS cellular networks use UHF cellular frequencies. Radio repeaters are used to retransmit UHF signals when a distance greater than the line of sight is required; when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.
The length of an antenna is related to the length of the radio waves used. Due to the short wavelengths, UHF antennas are conveniently short. UHF wavelengths are short enough that efficient transmitting antennas are small enough to mount on handheld and mobile devices, so these frequencies are used for two way land mobile radio systems, such as walkie-talkies, two way radios in vehicles, for portable wireless devices. Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are short whips, sleeve dipoles, rubber ducky antennas or the planar inverted F antenna used in cellphones. Higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of dipoles and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas; the short wavelengths allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small. High gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are Yagi, log periodic, corner reflectors, or reflective array antennas. At the top end of the band slot antennas and parabolic dishes become practical.
For satellite communication and turnstile antennas are used since satellites employ circular polarization, not sensitive to the relative orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennas. For television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are modifications of the slot antenna or reflective array antenna are used: the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, panel antennas. UHF television broadcasting fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas. Today, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to land mobile, trunked radio and mobile telephone use. UHF channels are still used for digital television. UHF spectrum is used worldwide for land mobile radio systems for commercial, public safety, military purposes. Many personal radio services use frequencies allocated in the UHF band, although exact frequencies in use differ between countries. Major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and data cellular networks in UHF/VHF range; this allows mobile phones and mobile computing devices to be connected to the public switched telephone network and public Internet.
UHF radars are said to be effective at tracking stealth fighters, if not stealth bombers. UHF citizens band: 476–477 MHz Television broadcasting uses UHF channels between 503 and 694 MHz Fixed point-to-point Link 450.4875 - 451.5125 MHz Land mobile service 457.50625 - 459.9875 MHz Mobile satellite service: 406.0000 - 406.1000 MHz Segment and Service examples: Land mobile for private, Australian and Territory Government, Rail industry and Mobile-Satellite 430–450 MHz: Amateur radio 470–806 MHz: Terrestrial television 1452–1492 MHz: Digital Audio Broadcasting Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts 380–399.9 MHz: Terrestrial Trunked Radio service for emergency use 430–440 MHz: Amateur ra
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Secularity is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being allied with or against any particular religion. The word secular was not related or linked to religion, but was a freestanding term in Latin which would relate to any mundane endeavour. However, the term, saecula saeculorum as found in the New Testament in the Vulgate translation of the original Koine Greek phrase "εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων", e.g. at Galatians 1:5, was used in the early Christian church, in the doxologies, to denote the coming and going of the ages, the grant of eternal life, the long duration of created things from their beginning to forever and ever. The idea of a dichotomy between religion and the secular originated in the European Enlightenment. Furthermore, since religion and secular are both Western concepts that were formed under the influence of Christian theology, other cultures do not have words or concepts that resemble or are equivalent to them. In many cultures, "little conceptual or practical distinction is made between'natural' and'supernatural' phenomena" and the notions of religious and nonreligious dissolve into unimportance, nonexistence, or unawareness since people have beliefs in other supernatural or spiritual things irrespective of belief in God or gods.
Conceptions of what is and what is not religion vary in contemporary East Asia as well. The shared term for "irreligion" or "no religion" with which the majority of East Asian populations identify themselves implies non-membership in one of the institutional religions but not non-belief in traditional folk religions collectively represented by Chinese Shendao and Japanese Shinto. In modern Japan, religion has negative connotation since it is associated with foreign belief systems so many identify as "nonreligious", but this does not mean they have a complete rejection or absence of beliefs and rituals relating to supernatural, metaphysical, or spiritual things. In the Meiji era, the Japanese government consciously excluded Shinto from the category of religion in order to enforce State Shinto while asserting their state followed American-mandated requirements for freedom of religion. One can regard eating and bathing as examples of secular activities, because there may not be anything inherently religious about them.
Some religious traditions see both eating and bathing as sacraments, therefore making them religious activities within those world views. Saying a prayer derived from religious text or doctrine, worshipping through the context of a religion, performing corporal and spiritual works of mercy, attending a religious seminary school or monastery are examples of religious activities; the "secular" is experienced in diverse ways ranging from separation of religion and state to being anti-religion or pro-religion, depending on the culture. For example, the United States has both separation of church and state and pro-religiosity in various forms such as protection of religious freedoms. A related term, involves the principle that government institutions and their representatives should remain separate from religious institutions, their beliefs, their dignitaries. Many businesses and corporations, some governments operate on secular lines; this stands in contrast to government with deity as its highest authority.
Secular and secularity derive from the Latin word saeculum which meant "of a generation, belonging to an age" or denoted a period of about one hundred years. In the ancient world, saeculum was not defined in contrast to any sacred concerns and had a freestanding usage in Latin, it was in Christian Latin of medieval times, that saeculum was used for distinguishing this temporal age of the world from the eternal realm of God. The Christian doctrine that God exists outside time led medieval Western culture to use secular to indicate separation from religious affairs and involvement in temporal ones; this does not imply hostility to God or religion, though some use the term this way. According to cultural anthropologists such as Jack David Eller, secularity is best understood, not as being "anti-religious", but as being "religiously neutral" since many activities in religious bodies are secular themselves and most versions of secularity do not lead to irreligiosity. According to the anthropologist Jack David Eller's review of secularity, he observes that secularization is diverse and can vary by degree and kind.
He notes the sociologist Peter Glasner's ten institutional, normative, or cognitive processes for secularization as: Decline – the reduction in quantitative measures of religious identification and participation, such as lower church attendance/membership or dec