Sky News is a British news organisation, which operates a TV network of the same name, a radio news service, distributes news through online channels. It is owned by a division of Comcast. John Ryley is the Head of Sky News, a role he has held since June 2006. Sky News is Royal Television Society News Channel of the Year, the eleventh time it has held the award. A sister channel, Sky News Arabia, is operated as a joint venture with the Abu Dhabi Media Investment Corporation. Another sister channel, Sky News Australia, was part owned by Sky News parent Sky plc until December 2016. A channel called Sky News International, simulcasting the UK channel directly but without British adverts, is available in Europe, Middle East, South Asia, Asia Pacific and the Americas. Narrated segments are played in lieu of adverts, there are international weather forecasts at the end of each half-hour newswheel. Sponsored adverts are still broadcast before and/or after weather segments. Sky News Radio provides national and international news to commercial radio and community radio stations in the UK and to other English-language stations around the world.
Sky News provides content to Yahoo! News; the channel is available on Apple TV, Amazon Fire TV, YouTube, Pluto TV. On 8 June 1988, Rupert Murdoch announced plans to start a new television news service in a speech to the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Sky News started broadcasting at 6 pm on 5 February 1989. Visually Sky News looked neat, with slick and classy presentation and John O'Loan's original vocation as an architect showing in the studio set. Sky had gone for the same format as the Nine O'Clock News on the BBC, redesigned to give the impression of activity and immediacy by placing the newsreader against a backdrop of the working newsroom. Sky News, it was universally agreed as staff nodded in vigorous approval, had succeeded rather better at the same thing; the critics were mildly taken aback. Contrary to some of the horror scenarios bandied about by the chattering classes there seemed to be little to grumble about, and as its slogan of'We're there when you need us,' emphasised, it was always on.
In the early days, the channel operated on a £40 million budget, which led Sam Chisholm, chief executive of the newly merged BSkyB to suggest to Murdoch that the station to be closed, but Rupert was "pleased with its achievements... There were overriding reasons of prestige and politics for keeping it... the final hurdle of the Broadcasting Bill had still to be overcome and the case for the acceptability of Sky would collapse if there was no news channel." – former deputy Prime Minister William Whitelaw said in the House of Lords in 1990 that Sky News had "a high reputation... I admire it, as do many other people, it will waken up both the BBC and ITN and ensure that they compete with what is a important news service"; the channel has never been run for a profit, has considered using ITN to supplement the service. By March 1992, Sky News' parent company turned from loss to profit. On the channel's growth, Murdoch said at that time: "Sky News, has if expensively, become the first building block of what we envision will become the premier worldwide electronic news-gathering network anywhere.
Ask anyone in Europe, the BBC and you will be told that Sky News has added a new and better dimension to television journalism." Sky News was the UK's first 24-hour news channel, broadcast on Astra 1A. It had no local competition until November 1997 when BBC News launched a new 24-hour channel, BBC News 24, now known as BBC News. In September 1999 the European Commission ruled against a Sky News complaint which argued that the publicly funded BBC News 24 was unfair and illegal under EU law; the EC ruled that the television licence fee should be considered state aid but that the BBC's public service remit justified the channel. In March 2000 Sky News Active was launched, a 24-hour interactive service providing headlines on demand. In March 2004 it was announced that Sky News had won a five-year contract to supply news bulletins to Channel 5, taking over from ITN in January 2005. On 24 October 2005, Sky News moved to new studios in Isleworth and underwent a major on-screen revamp; the new studio boasted the biggest video wall in Britain.
New music was scored by Adelphoi Music and recorded with a full orchestra at Air Studios and mastered at Metropolis Studios. New on-screen graphics were launched and the channel began broadcasting in widescreen format; the 2005 relaunch saw the introduction of a new schedule designed around "appointment to view" programmes rather than continuous rolling news. James Rubin joined to present a new evening programme called World News Tonight, Julie Etchingham presented another new "hard-hitting" evening show called The Sky Report, Eamonn Holmes joined to present Sunrise, Kay Burley presented a new programme called Lunchtime Live from 12 to 2 pm, the daytime show Sky News Today saw the introduction of a three-presenter format. However, the relaunched schedule was unsuccessful, from October 2005 the BBC News channel overtook Sky News in the ratings. In response to the schedule's unpopularity with viewers, changes took place in July 2006, involving the removal of the evening programmes replaced by rolling news and an interactive programme, Sky News with Martin Stanford, the return to a
Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location. The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter. A satellite receiver decodes the desired television programme for viewing on a television set. Receivers can be a built-in television tuner. Satellite television provides a wide range of services, it is the only television available in many remote geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television service. Modern systems signals are relayed from a communications satellite on the Ku band frequencies requiring only a small dish less than a meter in diameter; the first satellite TV systems were an obsolete type now known as television receive-only. These systems received weaker analog signals transmitted in the C-band from FSS type satellites, requiring the use of large 2–3-meter dishes.
These systems were nicknamed "big dish" systems, were more expensive and less popular. Early systems used analog signals, but modern ones use digital signals which allow transmission of the modern television standard high-definition television, due to the improved spectral efficiency of digital broadcasting; as of 2018, Star One C2 from Brazil is the only remaining satellite broadcasting in analog signals, as well as one channel on AMC-11 from the United States. Different receivers are required for the two types; some transmissions and channels are unencrypted and therefore free-to-air or free-to-view, while many other channels are transmitted with encryption, requiring the viewer to subscribe and pay a monthly fee to receive the programming. The satellites used for broadcasting television are in a geostationary orbit 37,000 km above the earth's equator; the advantage of this orbit is that the satellite's orbital period equals the rotation rate of the Earth, so the satellite appears at a fixed position in the sky.
Thus the satellite dish antenna which receives the signal can be aimed permanently at the location of the satellite, does not have to track a moving satellite. A few systems instead use a elliptical orbit with inclination of +/−63.4 degrees and orbital period of about twelve hours, known as a Molniya orbit. Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are large, as much as 9 to 12 meters in diameter; the increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite; the transponder re-transmits the signals back to Earth at a different frequency in the 10.7-12.7 GHz band, but some still transmit in the C-band, Ku-band, or both.
The leg of the signal path from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called the downlink. A typical satellite has up to 32 Ku-band or 24 C-band transponders, or more for Ku/C hybrid satellites. Typical transponders each have a bandwidth between 50 MHz; each geostationary C-band satellite needs to be spaced 2° longitude from the next satellite to avoid interference. This means that there is an upper limit of 360/2 = 180 geostationary C-band satellites or 360/1 = 360 geostationary Ku-band satellites. C-band transmission is susceptible to terrestrial interference while Ku-band transmission is affected by rain; the latter is more adversely affected by ice crystals in thunder clouds. On occasion, sun outage will occur when the sun lines up directly behind the geostationary satellite to which the receiving antenna is pointed; the downlink satellite signal, quite weak after traveling the great distance, is collected with a parabolic receiving dish, which reflects the weak signal to the dish's focal point.
Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feedhorn or collector. The feedhorn is a section of waveguide with a flared front-end that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and conducts them to a probe or pickup connected to a low-noise block downconverter; the LNB amplifies the signals and downconverts them to a lower block of intermediate frequencies in the L-band. The original C-band satellite television systems used a low-noise amplifier connected to the feedhorn at the focal point of the dish; the amplified signal, still at the higher microwave frequencies, had to be fed via expensive low-loss 50-ohm impedance gas filled hardline coaxial cable with complex N-connectors to an indoor receiver or, in other designs, a downconverter for downconversion to an intermediate frequency. The channel selection was controlled by a voltage tuned oscillator with the tuning voltage being fed via a separate cable to the headend, but this design evolved. Designs for microstrip-based converters for amateur radio frequencies were adapted for the 4 GHz C-band.
Central to these designs was concept of block downconversion of a range of frequencies to a lower, more handled IF. The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable can be used to connect the indoor receiver to the satellite te
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, is a way to uniquely identify that stock; the symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, to make it easy to recognize by traders and investors. The allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible. For example, US-based computer company stock Apple Inc. traded on the NASDAQ exchange has the symbol AAPL, while the motor company Ford's stock, traded on the New York Stock Exchange has the single-letter ticker F.
In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA. While in Asia, numbers are used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts. For example, the bank HSBC's stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005. Symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a phonetic spelling of the company "XON" as its ticker symbol; the symbol of the firm after the merger was "XOM". Symbols are sometimes reused. In the US the single-letter symbols are sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V, used by Vivendi which had delisted and given up the symbol. To qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known. On many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security; this is done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker.
Although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes; the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number. An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO 6166. Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants; the ISIN code is a 12-character alpha-numerical code that does not contain information characterizing financial instruments, but serves for uniform identification of a security at trading and settlement. The ISIN identifies not the exchange on which it trades. For instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, is priced in five different currencies. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, another identifier the three- or four-letter exchange code will have to be specified in addition to the ISIN.
While a stock ticker identifies a security that can be traded, stock market indices are sometimes assigned a symbol though they can not be traded. Symbols for indices are distinguished by adding a symbol in front of the name, such as a caret or a dot. For example, Reuters lists the Nasdaq Composite index under the symbol. IXIC. In Canada the Toronto Stock Exchange TSX and the TSXV use the following special codes after the ticker symbol: In the United Kingdom, prior to 1996, stock codes were known as EPICs, named after the London Stock Exchange's Exchange Price Information Computer. Following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN. In the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poor's to bring a national standard to investing. A single company could have many different ticker symbols as they varied between the dozens of individual stock markets.
The term ticker refers to the noise made by the ticker tape machines once used by stock exchanges. The S&P system was standardized by the securities industry and modified as years passed. Stock symbols for preferred stock have not been standardized; some companies use a well-known product as their ticker symbol. Belgian brewer InBev, the brewer of Budweiser beer, uses "BUD" as its three-letter ticker for American Depository Receipts, symbolizing its premier product in the United States, its rival, Molson Coors Brewing Company, uses a beer-related symbol, "TAP". Southwest Airlines pays tribute to its headquarters at Love Field in Dallas through its "LUV" symbol. Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, which operates large amusement parks in the United States, uses "FUN" as its symbol. Harley-Davidson uses "HOG" for its Harley Owners Group. Yamana Gold uses "AUY", because on the periodic table of elements. Sotheby's uses the symbol "BID". While most symbols come from the company's name, sometimes it happens the other way around.
Tricon Global, owner of KFC, Pi
Dolby Digital is the name for audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. Named Dolby Stereo Digital until 1994, except for Dolby TrueHD, the audio compression is lossy; the first use of Dolby Digital was to provide digital sound in cinemas from 35mm film prints. Batman Returns was the first film to use Dolby Digital technology when it premiered in theaters in the summer of 1992. Dolby Digital cinema soundtracks are optically recorded on a 35 mm release print using sequential data blocks placed between every perforation hole on the sound track side of the film. A constant bit rate of 320 kbit/s is used. A charge-coupled device scanner in the image projector picks up a scanned video image of this area, a processor correlates the image area and extracts the digital data as an AC-3 bitstream; the data is decoded into a 5.1 channel audio source. All film prints with Dolby Digital data have Dolby Stereo analogue soundtracks using Dolby SR noise reduction and such prints are known as Dolby SR-D prints.
The analogue soundtrack provides a fall-back option in case of damage to the data area or failure of the digital decoding. All current release cinema prints are of this type and may include SDDS data and a timecode track to synchronize CD-ROMs carrying DTS soundtracks; the simplest way of converting existing projectors is to add a so-called penthouse digital soundhead above the projector head. However, for new projectors it made sense to use dual analogue/digital soundheads in the normal optical soundhead position under the projector head. To allow for the dual-soundhead arrangement the data is recorded 26 frames ahead of the picture. If a penthouse soundhead is used, the data must be delayed in the processor for the required amount of time, around 2 seconds; this delay can be adjusted in steps of the time between perforations. As of 2015, Dolby Digital in film sound mixing is being replaced with Dolby Surround 7.1, with the more advanced Dolby Atmos technology gaining in popularity. While majority of movie theaters utilize Dolby Digital all films released today are mixed in Dolby Surround 7.1 and Dolby Atmos.
Dolby Digital has similar technologies, included in Dolby Digital EX, Dolby Digital Live, Dolby Digital Plus, Dolby Digital Surround EX, Dolby Digital Recording, Dolby Digital Cinema, Dolby Digital Stereo Creator and Dolby Digital 5.1 Creator. Dolby Digital is the common version containing up to six discrete channels of sound; the most elaborate mode in common use involves five channels for normal-range speakers and one channel for the subwoofer driven low-frequency effects. Mono and stereo modes are supported. AC-3 supports audio sample-rates up to 48 kHz; this format has different names: Dolby Digital DD AC-3 ATSC A/52 Before 1996, was marketed as Dolby Surround AC-3, Dolby Stereo Digital, Dolby SRD. In 1991, a limited experimental release of Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country in Dolby Digital played in 3 US theatres. In 1992, Batman Returns is the first movie to be released in Dolby Digital. In 1995, the LaserDisc version of Clear and Present Danger featured the first home theater Dolby Digital mix followed by True Lies, Forrest Gump, Interview with the Vampire among others.
Dolby Digital EX is similar in practice to Dolby's earlier Pro-Logic format, which utilized matrix technology to add a center surround channel and single rear surround channel to stereo soundtracks. EX adds an extension to the standard 5.1 channel Dolby Digital codec in the form of matrixed rear channels, creating 6.1 or 7.1 channel output. It provides an economical and backwards-compatible means for 5.1 soundtracks to carry a sixth, center back surround channel for improved localization of effects. The extra surround channel is matrix encoded onto the discrete left surround and right surround channels of the 5.1 mix, much like the front center channel on Dolby Pro Logic encoded stereo soundtracks. The result can be played without loss of information on standard 5.1 systems, or played in 6.1 or 7.1 on systems with Surround EX decoding and added speakers. Dolby Digital Surround EX has since been used for the Star Wars prequels on the DVD versions and the remastered original Star Wars trilogy.
A number of DVDs have a Dolby Digital Surround EX audio option. The cinema version of Dolby Digital EX was introduced in 1999, when Dolby and Skywalker Sound, a division of Lucasfilm Ltd. codeveloped Dolby Digital Surround EX™ for the release of Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace. Dolby Digital Surround EX has since been used for the Star Wars prequels on the DVD versions and the remastered original Star Wars trilogy. Dolby Digital Live is a real-time encoding technology for interactive media such as video games, it converts any audio signals on a PC or game console into a 5.1-channel 16-bit/48 kHz Dolby Digital format at 640 kbit/s and transports it via a single S/PDIF cable. A similar technology known as DTS Connect is available from competitor DTS. An important benefit of this technology is that it enables the use of digital multichannel sound with consumer sound cards, which are otherwise limited to digital PCM stereo or
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
KT Corporation Korea Telecom, is South Korea's largest telephone company. The state-owned firm is South Korea's first telephone company and as such it dominates the local landline and broadband Internet market, serving about 90 percent of the country's fixed-line subscribers and 45 percent of high-speed Internet users. After selling its wireless affiliate Korea Mobile Telecom in 1994, KT returned to the wireless market with the creation of PCS carrier KTF in January 1997; the company's 2009 merger with KTF, its wireless subsidiary, made it the country's ninth largest chaebol with nearly 24 trillion won in assets. In January 2011, KT launched unified brand "Olleh" for both fixed-line and cellular broadband services. In late 2015 former KT president Suk-Jae Lee was charged of breach of trust and embezzlement, allegations which he denies. Founded in 1981 as a public utility, KT led Korea's transition to the information era and played a key role in transforming Korea into a major information technology hub.
As a state-owned firm, KT had the clout to influence changes to itself and Korean telecommunications industry as a whole. In 2001 KT acquired struggling broadband provider Thrunet the largest broadband company in Korea, which paved the way for KT to dominate the broadband market. In 2009, KT merged with its wireless subsidiary KTF, paving the way to the integration of landline and cellular services. Since KT introduced the Apple iPhone to South Korea, it has been seeking new business area, such as media, e-commerce, global business partnerships; the company has a well-distributed shareholder structure under which the National Pension Service is the largest shareholder, but NPS holds no managerial rights over the company. Under the current shareholder structure, no controlling shareholder exists. September 28, 1885: Telephone facilities set up between the cities Seoul and Incheon 1981: Company incorporated on December 10 as KTA 1984: Tenth in the world to develop the electronic switch TDX-1 1987: Nationwide automated long-distance network completed 1991: Company renamed Korea Telecom 1993: Total of 20 million telephone lines installed, laying groundwork for the emerging information society 1995: Mugunghwa Satellite No. 1 launched 1996: Mugunghwa Satellite No. 2 launched 1996: PCS and CT-2 license acquired.
KT Freetel founded. 1997:Status changed from organization which has 50%+ state funding to one with a state funding of smaller scale October 1, 1997: The new Public Corporation Business Structure Improvement & Privatization Act applied to KT 1998: Headquarters relocated from Jongno-gu, Seoul, to Bundang-gu, Gyeonggi Province December 1998: Newly listed on stock exchange 1999: Mugunghwa Satellite No. 3 launched June 2000: Managerial rights of Hansol M.com acquired December 2000: IMT-2000 license acquired April 2001: Caller ID service launched May 2001: Plans for privatization announced. Celebrated 20th anniversary and changed name from Korea Telecom to KT. KT's telephone exchanges restructured into regional branch offices. "Let's" launched as the new company slogan. 2002: Privatization of company finalized. 2005: According to Fair Trade Commission data, KT as a corporate group that holds 12 subsidiaries and total assets of 29.315 trillion won, ranked 8th among Korea's conglomerates. December 28, 2005: Launched inter-Korean telecommunication services and opened KT branch office in North Korea's Gaesung industrial complex January 2009: Six days after inauguration as the new Chairman of KT, Suk-Chae Lee announced plans for KT-KTF merger at press conference March 2009: Received conditional approval from Korea Communications Commission on KT-KTF merger April 2009: Debut of Qook, a service bundle brand.
“Ann” landline phone, “Megapass” broadband and “Mega TV” IPTV services were renamed “Qook Phone,” “Qook Internet” and “Qook TV,” respectively. June 1, 2009: KT and its wireless subsidiary KTF merged to form a new unified KT July 2009: Previous company slogan "All New" replaced with "Olleh Management,"and "Olleh KT" launched as the new CI November 2009: Launch of Qook and Show broadband services. Forecasted the advent of the smartphone era November 2009: Became first local carrier to launch Apple's iPhone in Korean market December 2009: Launched the first 3W smartphone "Show Omnia" in Korean market June 2010: Launched “uCloud,” a cloud-based storage service August 2010: Company's Internet services relaunched under the name "Olleh" in alignment with company slogan August 31, 2010: KT included as Dow Jones Sustainability World Index company September 10, 2010: Launched Apple's iPhone 4 in Korean market and unlimited 3G data plan November 11–12, 2010: As the official telecommunications service provider for the G20 Seoul summit provided the heads of states with powerful IT communication services.
January 25, 2011: Fixed-line "Qook" and cellular "Show" broadband services were unified under the "Olleh" brand. They were renamed "Olleh Home" and "Olleh Mobile," respectively. February 10, 2011: Acquired 20.05% of BC Card shares, emerging as the second-largest shareholder. January 3, 2012: KT launched its LTE service. September 2012: kt was awarded the Global Supersector Leader for Telecommunications by Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes for 2 consecutive years. KT's Board of Directors consists of three non-independent directors and eight outside directors, totaling eleven directors as of March