Tomb KV14 is a joint tomb, used by Twosret and reused and extended by Setnakhte. It has been open since antiquity, but was not properly recorded until Hartwig Altenmüller excavated it from 1983 to 1987. Located in the main body of the Valley of the Kings, it has two burial chambers, the extensions making the tomb one of the largest of the Royal Tombs, at over 112 metres; the original decoration showing the female Twosret was replaced with those of the male Setnakhte. The name of Setnakte was replaced by those of Seti II. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV14 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
Tomb KV13, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was cut and decorated for the burial of the noble Bay of the Nineteenth Dynasty. An ostraca published in the French Egyptological journal BIFAO in 2000 records that Chancellor Bay was executed by pharaoh Siptah. Bay was never buried in his tomb. Moreover, no funerary goods were found in the tomb belonging to Bay, it was reused by two princes of the Twentieth Dynasty, Mentuherkhepsef, a son of Ramesses III, his nephew, Amenherkhepshef, a son of Ramesses VI. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV13 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
Usermaatre Ramesses III was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt. He is thought to have reigned from 1186 to 1155 BC and is considered to be the last great monarch of the New Kingdom to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, his long reign saw the decline of Egyptian political and economic power, linked to a series of invasions and internal economic problems that plagued pharaohs before him. He has been described as "warrior Pharaoh" due to his strong military strategies, he has lead the way by defeating the invaders known as "the Sea People" who have caused destruction in other civilizations and empires. He was able to save Egypt from collapsing at the time when many other Empires fell during the Late Bronze Age, however the damage of the invasions took a toll on Egypt. Ramesses III was the son of Queen Tiy-Merenese, he was assassinated in the Harem conspiracy led by one of his secondary wives, her son Pentawer, a group of high officials. Ramesses' two main names transliterate as wsr-mꜢʿt-rʿ–mry-ỉmn rʿ-ms-s–ḥḳꜢ-ỉwnw.
They are realised as Usermaatre-Meryamun Rameses-Heqaiunu, meaning "The Ma'at of Ra is strong, Beloved of Amun, Born of Ra, Ruler of Heliopolis". Ramesses III is believed to have reigned from March 1186 to April 1155 BC; this is based on his known accession date of I Shemu day 26 and his death on Year 32 III Shemu day 15, for a reign of 31 years, 1 month and 19 days. Alternative dates for his reign are 1187–1156 BC. In a description of his coronation from Medinet Habu, four doves were said to be "dispatched to the four corners of the horizon to confirm that the living Horus, Ramses III, is in possession of his throne, that the order of Maat prevails in the cosmos and society". During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Greek Dark Ages, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders and experienced the beginnings of increasing economic difficulties and internal strife which would lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea.
Ramesses III defeated them in two great sea battles. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen, they fought tenaciously. Rameses lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up a continuous volley of arrows into the enemy ships when they attempted to land on the banks of the Nile; the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. In the brutal hand-to-hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated; the Harris Papyrus states: As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever. As for those who came forward together on the seas, the full flame was in front of them at the Nile mouths, while a stockade of lances surrounded them on the shore, prostrated on the beach and made into heaps from head to tail. Ramesses III settled them in Southern Canaan, their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia.
Ramesses III was compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 5 and Year 11 respectively. The heavy cost of these battles exhausted Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia; the severity of these difficulties is stressed by the fact that the first known labour strike in recorded history occurred during Year 29 of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for the favoured and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Set Maat her imenty Waset, could not be provisioned. Something in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and arrested global tree growth for two full decades until 1140 BC; the result in Egypt was a substantial increase in grain prices under the reigns of Ramesses VI–VII, whereas the prices for fowl and slaves remained constant. Thus the cooldown affected Ramesses III's final years and impaired his ability to provide a constant supply of grain rations to the workmen of the Deir el-Medina community.
These difficult realities are ignored in Ramesses' official monuments, many of which seek to emulate those of his famous predecessor, Ramesses II, which present an image of continuity and stability. He built important additions to the temples at Luxor and Karnak, his funerary temple and administrative complex at Medinet-Habu is amongst the largest and best-preserved in Egypt. No temple in the heart of Egypt prior to Ramesses' reign had needed to be protected in such a manner. Thanks to the discovery of papyrus trial transcripts, it is now known that there was a plot against his life as a result of a royal harem conspiracy during a celebration at Medinet Habu; the conspiracy was instigated by Tiye, one of his three known wives, over whose son would inherit the throne. Tyti's son, Ramesses Amenherkhepshef, was the eldest and the successor chosen by Ramesses III in preference to Tiye's son Pentaweret; the trial documents show. Chief among them were Queen Tiye and her son Pentaweret, Ramesses' chief of the chamber, seven royal butlers, two Treasury overseers
Hieratic is a cursive writing system used for Ancient Egyptian, the principal script used to write that language from its development in the 3rd millennium BCE until the rise of Demotic in the mid 1st millennium BCE. It was written in ink with a reed pen on papyrus. In the second century, the term hieratic was first used by Clement of Alexandria, it derives from the Greek for "priestly writing", as at that time, hieratic was used only for religious texts and literature, as had been the case for the previous eight and a half centuries. Hieratic can be an adjective meaning "f or associated with sacred persons or offices. Hieratic developed as a cursive form of hieroglyphic script in the Naqada III period 3200–3000 BCE. Although handwritten printed hieroglyphs continued to be used in some formal situations, such as manuscripts of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, noncursive hieroglyphic script became restricted to monumental inscriptions. Hieratic was used into the Hellenistic period. Around 660 BCE, the more-cursive Demotic script arose in northern Egypt and replaced hieratic and the southern shorthand known as abnormal hieratic for most mundane writing, such as personal letters and mercantile documents.
Hieratic continued to be used by the priestly class for religious texts and literature into the third century BCE. Through most of its long history, hieratic was used for writing administrative documents, legal texts, letters, as well as mathematical, medical and religious texts. During the Græco-Roman period, when Demotic had become the chief administrative script, hieratic was limited to religious texts. In general, hieratic was much more important than hieroglyphs throughout Egypt's history, being the script used in daily life, it was the writing system first taught to students, knowledge of hieroglyphs being limited to a small minority who were given additional training. In fact, it is possible to detect errors in hieroglyphic texts that came about due to a misunderstanding of an original hieratic text. Most hieratic script was written in ink with a reed brush on papyrus, stone or pottery ostraca. Thousands of limestone ostraca have been found at the site of Deir al-Madinah, revealing an intimate picture of the lives of common Egyptian workmen.
Besides papyrus, ceramic shards, wood, there are hieratic texts on leather rolls, though few have survived. There are hieratic texts written on cloth on linen used in mummification. There are some hieratic texts inscribed on a variety known as lapidary hieratic. During the late 6th Dynasty, hieratic was sometimes incised into mud tablets with a stylus, similar to cuneiform. About five hundred of these tablets have been discovered in the governor's palace at Ayn Asil, a single example was discovered from the site of Ayn al-Gazzarin, both in the Dakhla Oasis. At the time the tablets were made, Dakhla was located far from centers of papyrus production; these tablets record inventories, name lists and fifty letters. Of the letters, many are internal letters that were circulated within the palace and the local settlement, but others were sent from other villages in the oasis to the governor. Hieratic script, unlike manuscript hieroglyphs, reads from right to left. Hieratic could be written in either columns or horizontal lines, but after the 12th Dynasty, horizontal writing became the standard.
Hieratic is noted for its cursive use of ligatures for a number of characters. Hieratic script uses a much more standardized orthography than hieroglyphs. There are some signs that are unique to hieratic, though Egyptologists have invented equivalent hieroglyphic forms for hieroglyphic transcriptions and typesetting. Several hieratic characters have diacritical additions so that similar signs could be distinguished. Hieratic is present in any given period in two forms, a ligatured, cursive script used for administrative documents, a broad uncial bookhand used for literary and religious texts; these two forms can be different from one another. Letters, in particular, used cursive forms for quick writing with large numbers of abbreviations for formulaic phrases, similar to shorthand. A cursive form of hieratic known as "Abnormal Hieratic" was used in the Theban area from the second half of the 20th dynasty until the beginning of the 26th Dynasty, it derives from the script of Upper Egyptian administrative documents and was used for legal texts, land leases and other texts.
This type of writing was superseded by Demotic—a Lower Egyptian scribal tradition—during the 26th Dynasty, when Demotic was established as a standard administrative script throughout a re-unified Egypt. Hieratic has had influence on a number of other writing systems; the most obvious is that on its direct descendant. Related to this are the Demotic signs of the Meroitic script and the borrowed Demotic characters used in the Coptic alphabet and Old Nubian. Outside of the Nile Valley, many of the signs used in the Byblos syllabary were borrowed from Old Kingdom hieratic signs, it is known that early Hebrew used hieratic numerals. The Unicode standard considers hieratic characters to be font variants of the Egyptian hieroglyphs, the two scripts
Tomb KV9 in Egypt's Valley of the Kings was constructed by Pharaoh Ramesses V. He was interred here, but his uncle, Ramesses VI reused the tomb as his own; the layout is typical of the 20th dynasty – the Ramesside period – and is much simpler than that of Ramesses III's tomb. The workmen accidentally broke into KV12; the entrance is decorated with a disk containing a scarab and an image of the ram-headed Ra between Isis and Nephthys who are kneeling. The jambs and thicknesses, mentions the name of Ramesses VI; the jambs are usurped from Ramesses V. On both sides are images of Ramesses VI before Osiris; the scenes depicted Ramesses V but were usurped. On the south wall of the corridor are scenes from the Book of Gates, while the North wall is decorated with scenes from the Book of Caverns; the corridor ends in a hall, decorated with an intricate astronomical ceiling. On the left wall the Book of Gates is continued; the decorations show divisions 10 and 11 including Nun holding up the bark of Ra with Nut above the scene.
On the right side of the hall the Book of Caverns scenes continue. Above the entrance to the next corridor the king is shown libating before Osiris. Ramesses Vi is shown is a variety of scenes before gods and goddesses such as Meretseger, Khonsu and Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. In the descent to the second corridor the decorations show scenes from the Book of the Imi-Duat; the ceiling depicts the barks of Ra and the Books of the Night. Ramesses VI is shown before Hekau, Maat; the last hall contains scenes from the Book of Aker. In the Graeco-Roman period, the tomb was identified as that of Memnon, the mythological king of the Ethiopians who fought in the Trojan War; as a result, it was visited. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV9 - Includes description and plans of the tomb. Views of KV9 & KV12
Tomb KV35 is an ancient Egyptian tomb located in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt. It was discovered by Victor Loret in March 1898 and contains the tomb of Amenhotep II, it was used as a cache for others. It has a dog's leg shape, typical of the layout of early Eighteenth Dynasty tombs, but several features make this tomb stand out; the burial chamber is a rectangular shape and divided into upper and lower pillared sections, with the lower part holding the sarcophagus of the king. This style of burial chamber became'standard' for royal burials in the New Kingdom; the tomb was used as a mummy cache. Mummies belonging to the following individuals were relocated here during the Third Intermediate Period and were identified by inscriptions on their burial wrappings: Amenhotep II Side Chamber: Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Merneptah Seti II Siptah Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Queen Tiye, identified as the so-called Elder Lady in February 2010 via DNA testing. A prince, identified by some as Webensenu son of Amenhotep II whose canopic jars were found in the tomb or Thutmose, elder son of Amenhotep III and Tiye The Younger Lady who, in June 2003, was controversially claimed to be Nefertiti by British Egyptologist Joann Fletcher, whereas Egyptologist Zahi Hawass believed it to be Kiya, another wife of Akhenaten, believed by some to be the birth mother of Tutankhamun.
Some believed this mummy to be a male. However, with DNA testing, this mummy was shown in February 2010 to be a woman, the mother of Tutankhamun, the daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye, her name, remains unknown, leaving open the possibility that she is either Nebetiah or Beketaten. An unknown woman D in an upturned lid of a coffin inscribed for Setnakhte. Two skulls were found in the well and an anonymous arm was found with the above "Younger Lady". A body on a boat was destroyed at the start of the twentieth century. William Max Miller's Theban Royal Mummy Project
Valley of the Kings
The Valley of the Kings known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings, is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, rock cut tombs were excavated for the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom. The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes, within the heart of the Theban Necropolis; the wadi consists of East Valley and West Valley. With the 2005 discovery of a new chamber and the 2008 discovery of two further tomb entrances, the valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers, it was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, as well as a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues as to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. All of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the pharaohs; this area has been a focus of archaeological and egyptological exploration since the end of the eighteenth century, its tombs and burials continue to stimulate research and interest.
In modern times the valley has become famous for the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun, is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis. Exploration and conservation continues in the valley, a new tourist centre has been opened; the Valley of the Kings is situated over 1,000 feet of limestone and other sedimentary rock, which form the cliffs in the valley and the nearby Deir el-Bahri, interspersed with soft layers of marl. The sedimentary rock was deposited between 35–56 million years ago during a time when the Mediterranean Sea sometimes extended as far south as Aswan. During the Pleistocene the valley was carved out of the plateau by steady rains. There is little year-round rain in this part of Egypt, but there are occasional flash floods that hit the valley, dumping tons of debris into the open tombs; the quality of the rock in the Valley is inconsistent, ranging from finely-grained to coarse stone, the latter with the potential to be structurally unsound.
The occasional layer of shale caused construction and conservation difficulties, as this rock expands in the presence of water, forcing apart the stone surrounding it. It is thought that some tombs were altered in shape and size depending on the types of rock the builders encountered. Builders took advantage of available geological features; some tombs were quarried out of existing limestone clefts, others behind slopes of scree, or were at the edge of rock spurs created by ancient flood channels. The problems of tomb construction can be seen with tombs of his father Setnakhte. Setnakhte started to excavate KV11 but broke into the tomb of Amenmesse, so construction was abandoned and he instead usurped the tomb of Twosret, KV14; when looking for a tomb, Ramesses III extended. The tomb of Ramesses II returned to an early style, with a bent axis due to the quality of the rock being excavated. Between 1998 and 2002 the Amarna Royal Tombs Project investigated the valley floor using ground-penetrating radar and found that, below the modern surface, the Valley's cliffs descend beneath the scree in a series of abrupt, natural "shelves", arranged one below the other, descending several metres down to the bedrock in the valley floor.
The area of the Theban hills is subject to infrequent violent thunderstorms, causing flash floods in the valley. Recent studies have shown that there are at least seven active flood stream beds leading down into the central area of the valley; this central area appears to have been flooded at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty, with several tombs buried under metres of debris. The tombs KV63, KV62, KV55 are dug into the actual wadi bedrock rather than the debris, showing that the level of the valley was five meters below its present level. After this event dynasties leveled the floor of the valley, making the floods deposit their load further down the valley, the buried tombs were forgotten and only discovered in the early 20th century; this was the area, the subject of the Amarna Royal Tombs Project ground scanning radar investigation, which showed several anomalies, one of, proved to be KV63. The Theban Hills are dominated by the peak of al-Qurn, known to the Ancient Egyptians as ta dehent, or "The Peak".
It has a pyramid-shaped appearance, it is probable that this echoed the pyramids of the Old Kingdom, more than a thousand years prior to the first royal burials carved here. Its isolated position resulted in reduced access, special tomb police were able to guard the necropolis. While the iconic pyramid complexes of the Giza plateau have come to symbolize ancient Egypt, the majority of tombs were cut into rock. Most pyramids and mastabas contain sections which are cut into ground level, there are full rock-cut tombs in Egypt that date back to the Old Kingdom. After the defeat of the Hyksos and the reunification of Egypt under Ahmose I, the Theban rulers began to construct elaborate tombs that reflected their newfound power; the tombs of Ahmose and his son Amenhotep I were in the Seventeenth Dyna