Tomb KV1, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Ramesses VII of the Twentieth Dynasty. Although it has been open since antiquity, it was only properly investigated and cleared by Edwin Brock in 1984 and 1985; the single corridor tomb itself is located in Luxor's West Bank, is small in comparison to other tombs of the twentieth dynasty. Typical of tombs from this period, KV1 is laid out along a straight axis; the successors of Ramesses III constructed tombs that had followed this pattern and were all decorated in much the same manner as each other. It consists of four major parts: the entrance, a passageway, the burial chamber containing the sarcophagus, a final smaller room at the end. Ramesses VII was in the seventh year of his reign. There is evidence that the room that ended up being the burial chamber was expanded from its original design as a corridor, work on a subsequent room at the end of the tomb was halted; the decoration within the passageway of the tomb contains illustrations from the Book of Gates, the Book of Caverns as well as the Book of the Earth.
The walls of the burial chamber are decorated with extracts from the Book of the Earth. In terms of style and themes it follows that of its immediate predecessor, Ramesses VI's KV9, though the ceiling within the burial chamber contain a double image of the sky goddess Nut, reflecting a style used in tomb paintings used by pharaohs of the previous dynasty. Within the burial chamber a depression has been cut into the rock, with an inverted box of stone shaped like a cartouche placed over it; this is the last known example of a sarcophagus placed in a royal tomb, all subsequent burial consisting of deeper pits which were covered by a lid. The tomb was robbed in antiquity, the mummy lost, though four cups inscribed with the pharaoh's name were found in the "royal cache" in DB320 along with the remains of other pharaohs; the tomb was one of at least eleven tombs. As evidence of this, 132 individual graffitis left by Ancient Greek and Roman visitors have been counted throughout KV1; the tomb was used as a dwelling by Coptic monks.
Early European visitors to the area included Richard Pococke, who visited KV1 and designated it "Tomb A" in his Observations of Egypt, published in 1743. The savants accompanying Napoleon's campaign in Egypt surveyed the Valley of the Kings and designated KV1 as "1er Tombeau" in their list. Though not documented, the tomb was cleared in the 1950s. Starting in 1983, funded by the Royal Ontario Museum, Edwin Brock did a thorough excavation of the burial chamber floor, followed a decade by an excavation of the tomb's entrance. In 1994, the Supreme Council of Antiquities repaired cracks with plaster. In doing so, they covered over graffiti, left there in ancient times; some of Brock's findings included fragments of wood and faience shabtis, ostraca decorated with sketches by the tomb's artists, a floral garland and numerous contemporaneous pottery shards. Hornung, E. et al. Zwei Ramessidische Königsgräber: Ramses IV. und Ramses VII, 1990, Mainz am Rhein, P. von Zabern. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A.
Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV1 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
Tomb KV28 is an ancient Egyptian tomb located in the Valley of the Kings in the Theban Necropolis in Upper Egypt. It was first excavated by persons unknown, the recent excavations by Donald P. Ryan have found a large number of damaged items from two individuals nobles of the nearby tomb of Thutmose IV. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV28 - Includes detailed maps of most of the tombs
Tomb KV2, found in the Valley of the Kings, is the tomb of Ramesses IV, is located low down in the main valley, between KV7 and KV1. It contains a large amount of graffiti. There are two known plans of the tomb's layout contemporary to its construction. One on papyrus provides a detailed depiction of the tomb at 1:28 scale. All of the passages and chambers are present, with measurements written in hieratic script; the papyrus plan depicts the pharaoh's sarcophagus surrounded by four concentric sets of shrines, the same layout of shrines that were found intact within Tutankhamun's tomb. The other plan of the tomb was found inscribed on a slab of limestone not far from the tomb's entrance, is a rough layout of the tomb depicting the location of its doors; the latter plan may have just been a "workman's doodle" but the papyrus plan certainly had a deeper ritual meaning, may have been used to consecrate the tomb after it was built. A hieratic ostracon has been discovered mentioning the founding of the tomb, its place selected by the local Governor and two of the pharaoh's chief attendants in the second year of his reign.
Ramesses IV ascended the throne late in life, to ensure that he would have a sizable tomb, he doubled the size of the existing work gangs at Deir el-Medina to a total of 120 men. Though sizable, KV2 has been described as being "simplistic" in its decoration; the tomb was excavated at the base of a hill on the northwest side of the Valley of the Kings. Like other tombs of the 20th Dynasty, KV2 is laid out along a straight axis; the successors of Ramesses III from this dynasty constructed tombs that follow this pattern and most were decorated in a similar manner to each other. The tomb has a maximum length of 88.66 m and consists of three descending corridors labeled B, C, D. This is followed by an enlarged chamber, the burial chamber. Past the burial chamber lies a narrow corridor flanked by three side chambers; the tomb is intact and is decorated with scenes from the Litany of Ra, Book of Caverns, Book of the Dead, Book of Amduat and the Book of the Heavens. The sarcophagus is broken, the mummy was relocated to the mummy cache in KV35.
The tomb was one of about eleven tombs open to early travelers. KV2 contains the second-highest number of ancient graffiti within it, with 656 individual griffitos left by both Ancient Greek and Roman visitors; this tomb contains around 50 or so examples of Coptic graffiti sketched onto the right wall by the entranceway, The tomb was used as a dwelling by Coptic monks, there are depictions of Coptic saints and crosses on the tomb's walls. Early European visitors to the area included Richard Pococke, who visited KV2 and designated it "Tomb B" in his Observations of Egypt, published in 1743; the savants accompanying Napoleon's campaign in Egypt surveyed the Valley of the Kings and designated KV2 as "IIe Tombeau" in their list. Other visitors of note included James Burton who mapped out the tomb in 1825, the Franco-Tuscan Expedition of 1828-1829 did an epigraphic survey of the tomb's inscriptions. Archeologist Edward Ayrton excavated the entranceway to the tomb during 1905/1906, followed by Howard Carter in 1920.
Both of them found remnants of the materials which had come from inside the tomb, such as shabtis, numerous ostraca and fragments of wood and Faience. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV2 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
Tomb KV11 is the tomb of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III. Located in the main valley of the Valley of the Kings, the tomb was started by Setnakhte, but abandoned when it broke into the earlier tomb of Amenmesse. Setnakhte was buried in KV14; the tomb KV11 was restarted and extended and on a different axis for Ramesses III. The tomb has been open since antiquity, has been known variously as Bruce's Tomb and The Harper's Tomb; the 188-metre-long tomb is beautifully decorated. The second corridor is decorated with the Litany of Re. At the end of this corridor the axis of the tomb shifts; this third corridor is decorated with the Book of Gates and the Book of Amduat, leads over a ritual shaft, into a four-pillared hall. This hall is again decorated with the Book of Gates. A fourth corridor (decorated with scenes of the opening of the mouth ceremony and leads into a vestibule, with scenes of the Book of the Dead, into the burial chamber proper; the burial chamber is an eight-pillared hall in. This chamber is decorated with Book of divine scenes and the Book of the Earth.
Beyond this is a further set of annexes, decorated with the Book of Gates. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV11 - Includes description and plans of the tomb. Images taken from 3d models showing the breakthrough into KV10 from KV11
University of Basel
The University of Basel is located in Basel, Switzerland. Founded on 4 April 1460, it is Switzerland's oldest university and among the world's oldest surviving universities; the university is traditionally counted among the leading institutions of higher learning in the country. The associated Basel University Library is the largest and among the most important libraries in the country; the university hosts the faculties of theology, medicine and social sciences, science and business and economics, as well as numerous cross-disciplinary subjects and institutes, such as the Biozentrum for biomedical research and the Institute for European Global Studies. In 2016, the University boasted 377 professors. International students accounted for 24 percent of the student body. In its over 500-year history the university has been home to Erasmus of Rotterdam, Daniel Bernoulli, Leonhard Euler, Jacob Burckhardt, Friedrich Nietzsche, Tadeusz Reichstein, Karl Jaspers, Carl Gustav Jung, Karl Barth and Jeanne Hersch.
The institution is associated with nine Nobel prize winners and two Presidents of the Swiss Confederation. The University of Basel was founded in connection with the Council of Basel; the deed of foundation given in the form of a Papal bull by Pope Pius II on November 12, 1459, the official opening ceremony was held on April 4, 1460. The University of Basel was decreed to have four faculties—arts, medicine and jurisprudence; the faculty of arts served until 1818 as the foundation for the other three academic subjects. In the eighteenth century as Basel became more commercial, the university, one of the centres of learning in the Renaissance, slipped into insignificance. Enrollment, over a thousand around 1600, dropped to sixty in 1785 with eighteen professors; the professors themselves were sons of the elite. Over the course of centuries as many scholars came to the city, Basel became an early centre of book printing and humanism. Around the same time as the university itself, the Basel University Library was founded.
Today it is the largest library in Switzerland. Located in what was once a politically volatile area, the University's fate ebbed and flowed with regional political developments, including the Reformation, the Kantonstrennung, both World Wars; these factors affected student attendance, university-government relations. In 1833 the Canton of Basel split in two with the Federal Diet requiring that the canton's assets, including the books at the University library, be divided—two-thirds going to the new half canton of Basel-Landschaft; the city, Basel-Stadt, had to buy back this share and the university became so impoverished that it drastically reduced its course offerings. Students were expected to continue their education after two years or so at a German university. Student enrollment surged after the University shed its medieval curriculum and began to add more faculties those in the humanities and sciences. Liberal Arts became a faculty in 1818, from which the Philosophy and History and Natural History faculties were derived in 1937.
The University subsequently established the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Business and Economics, the Faculty of Psychology. During the 20th century, the University grew from one thousand students in 1918 to eight thousand in 1994; the first woman, admitted to the University, Emilie Frey, began her medical studies in 1890. After the seizure of power in the year 1933 by the Nazis, numerous renowned German professors decided to emigrate to Basel and started to work at the University of Basel. Several Swiss scholars returned, inter alia the Law Professor Arthur Baumgarten, the Theologians Karl Barth and Fritz Lieb and after World War II the Philosopher Karl Jaspers from Heidelberg University, as well as the surgeon Rudolf Nissen. On January 1, 1996, the University of Basel became independent from the cantonal government and thus earned its right to self-government. In 2007, the Canton of Basel-Landschaft voted in favor to share the sponsorship of the University in parity with the Canton Basel-Stadt.
Well-respected rankings attest to the University of Basel's international academic performance: Times Higher Education World University Ranking: 95 Leiden Ranking: 45 Academic Ranking of World Universities: 96 Since January 1, 1996, the University of Basel has been independent. The University Law of 1995 stipulates that, “The University of Basel is an institution established under public law, it has its own legal personality and right to self-government.” As the entity that formally receives the Performance Mandate for the University from both supporting cantons, the University Council is the supreme decision-making body of the University. The Council consists of eleven voting members and three non-voting members, including the President, the Executive Director, the Secretary of the Council. Beneath the University Council are the President's Board; the 80-member Senate consists of the senior members of the President's Board, faculty deans, professors and research assistants, assistants and administrative and technical employees.
The President's Office is tasked with leading the overall university business. It consists of the President and her staff, a General Secretariat, an Administrative Directorate, the Communications and Marketing Office, two respective Vice-Presidents for Research and Education
Tomb KV14 is a joint tomb, used by Twosret and reused and extended by Setnakhte. It has been open since antiquity, but was not properly recorded until Hartwig Altenmüller excavated it from 1983 to 1987. Located in the main body of the Valley of the Kings, it has two burial chambers, the extensions making the tomb one of the largest of the Royal Tombs, at over 112 metres; the original decoration showing the female Twosret was replaced with those of the male Setnakhte. The name of Setnakte was replaced by those of Seti II. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV14 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
Tomb KV18, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was intended for the burial of Pharaoh Ramesses X of the Twentieth Dynasty. The tomb consists of two sections of corridor separated by gates; the entryway was used by Howard Carter in the early 20th century as the site of the Valley's first electricity generator. After penetrating the hillside for a distance of some 43 metres, it ends at the rock face into which a series of rough steps have been carved. Little is known about this tomb, the final section of corridor was properly cleared of the voluminous flood débris filling it only recently. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV18 - Includes description and plans of the tomb