Tomb KV6 in Egypt's Valley of the Kings was the final resting place of the 20th-dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses IX. However, the archaeological evidence and the quality of decoration it contains indicates that the tomb was not finished in time for Ramesses's death but was hastily rushed through to completion, many corners being cut, following his demise, it is located in the central part of the Valley. Its unusually wide entrance stands between, above, those of two other interesting tombs: KV5 and KV55. Running a total distance of 105 metres into the hillside, the tomb begins with a gate and a shallow descending ramp. Following on from the ramp come three successive stretches of corridor; the first of these has four side chambers – two on each side – but none of these are decorated or finished. At the end of the corridors come three chambers; the first of these is decorated with the Opening of the Mouth ritual, it is possible that a well shaft would have been dug here had the builders been afforded more time.
The second chamber contains four large columns, but neither the stonecutting nor the decoration work were completed. At the far end of this chamber, a ramp slopes down to the actual burial chamber, where the pharaoh's sarcophagus was placed; the ceiling is vaulted, is decorated with splendid pictures of the goddess Nut. The side walls show scenes from the Book of the Earth; the far wall depicts Ramses on his barque, surrounded by a host of gods. The yellows, dark blues, blacks used to decorate this chamber are visually striking and unusual among the tomb decorations in the Valley. While the sarcophagus itself has long since vanished, Ramesses IX's mummy was one of those found in the Deir el-Bahri cache in 1881. KV6 has been open since antiquity, as can be seen by the graffiti left on its walls by Roman and Coptic visitors. Ramesses IX Tomb-plan Ostracon Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A.
A. Gaddis, Cairo KV6
Tomb KV3, located in Egypt's Valley of the Kings, was intended for the burial of an unidentified son of Pharaoh Ramesses III during the early part of the Twentieth Dynasty. It is similar in design to the "straight axis" tombs typical of this dynasty, an ostracon written in hieratic script from the time of Ramesses III mentions the founding of a tomb for a royal prince this tomb; the unfinished state of a couple of rooms in the tomb along with scant archeological evidence suggests that the tomb was never used. Some have suggested that it was intended for use by the prince regent who would succeed as Ramesses IV, who started building his own tomb soon after he came to the throne. In terms of its design it follows that used for tombs in the Valley of the Queens, its size reflects the effort that would have gone into burying a member of the royal family. Past the entrance to the tomb KV3 descends any further, a particular feature for other tombs built for other sons of Ramesses III in the Valley of the Queens.
There are two corridors which lead from the opening to the tomb, with the second passage flanked near the end by two chambers. Of these two chambers, only the one facing south was finished, the other one being only just begun when work on the tomb was abandoned. Past the second corridor is a larger room containing four pillars, flanked by two smaller rooms; the tomb is located on the main path, close to the entrance to the Valley. Only the side chamber to the north was finished, with work on the second one only just begun when work stopped. Past this room and running along the same axis as the corridor are three further rooms, the first two of which have vaulted ceilings. One of these two final vaulted chambers was intended as a burial chamber; the tomb is located on the main path, close to the entrance to the Valley. What tomb decoration that survives can be found only along the length and flanking gates on either end of corridor B; these show Rameses III attended by various gods and goddesses.
It is thought that more decoration once existed, since Karl Lepsius noted traces of paint on the vaulted chambers and mentions cartouches and images of Ramesses III in the first corridor when he visited the tomb in the 1840s. There is evidence. Though open since Ancient times, the tomb was only properly excavated in 1912 by archeologist Harry Burton, funded by the wealthy American lawyer Theodore M. Davis, it was one of the last excavations funded by Davis, no report of this excavation work was published. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV3 - Includes description and plan of the tomb
Tiye was the daughter of Yuya and Tjuyu. She became the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III, she was grandmother of Tutankhamun. Her mummy was identified as "The Elder Lady" found in the tomb of Amenhotep II in 2010. Tiye's father, was a non-royal, wealthy landowner from the Upper Egyptian town of Akhmim, where he served as a priest and superintendent of oxen or commander of the chariotry. Tiye's mother, was involved in many religious cults, as her different titles attested, which suggests that she was a member of the royal family. Egyptologists have suggested that Tiye's father, was of foreign origin due to the features of his mummy and the many different spellings of his name, which might imply it was a non-Egyptian name in origin; some suggest that the queen's strong political and unconventional religious views might have been due not just to a strong character, but to foreign descent. Tiye had a brother, Second Prophet of Amun. Ay, a successor of Tutankhamun as pharaoh after the latter's death, is believed to be yet another brother of Tiye.
Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of his reign. He had been needed a stronger tie to the royal lineage, he appears to have been crowned while still a child between the ages of six to twelve. They had at least seven more children: Sitamun – The eldest daughter, elevated to the position of Great Royal Wife around year 30 of her father's reign. Isis – Also elevated to the position of Great Royal Wife. Henuttaneb – Not known to have been elevated to Queenship, though her name does appear in a Cartouche at least once. Nebetah – Sometimes thought to have been renamed Baketaten during her brother's reign. Crown Prince Thutmose – Crown Prince and High Priest of Ptah, pre-deceasing his father. Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten – Succeeded his father as pharaoh, husband of Queen Nefertiti, father of Ankhesenamun, who married Tutankhamun. Smenkhkare – traditionally seen as one of Akhenaten's immediate successors, today some Egyptologists such as Aidan Dodson believe he was the immediate predecessor of Neferneferuaten and a junior co-regent of Akhenaten who did not have an independent reign.
Sometimes identified with the mummy from KV55, therefore Tutankhamun's father. The Younger Lady from KV35 – A daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye, mother of Tutankhamun and sister-wife of KV55. One of the already-known daughters of Amenhotep III and Tiye. Beketaten – Sometimes thought to be Queen Tiye's daughter based on a stelae with Baketaten seated next to Tiye at dinner with Akhenaten and Nefertiti, her husband devoted a number of shrines to her and constructed a temple dedicated to her in Sedeinga in Nubia where she was worshipped as a form of the goddess Hathor-Tefnut. He had an artificial lake built for her in his Year 12. On the colossal statue now in the Egyptian Museum she is of equal height with her husband; as the American Egyptologists David O'Connor and Eric Cline note: Tiye wielded a great deal of power during both her husband’s and son’s reigns. Amenhotep III became a fine sportsman, a lover of outdoor life, a great statesman, he had to consider claims for Egypt's gold and requests for his royal daughters in marriage from foreign kings such as Tushratta of Mitanni and Kadashman-Enlil I of Babylon.
The royal lineage was carried by the women of Ancient Egypt and marriage to one would have been a path to the throne for their progeny. Tiye became confidant. Being wise, intelligent and fierce, she was able to gain the respect of foreign dignitaries. Foreign leaders were willing to deal directly through her, she continued to play an active role in foreign relations and was the first Egyptian queen to have her name recorded on official acts. Tiye may have continued to advise her son, when he took the throne, her son’s correspondence with Tushratta, the king of Mitanni, speaks of the political influence she wielded at court. In Amarna letter EA 26, king to Mitanni, corresponded directly with Tiye to reminisce about the good relations he enjoyed with her deceased husband and extended his wish to continue on friendly terms with her son, Akhenaten. Amenhotep III died in Year 38 or Year 39 of his reign and was buried in the Valley of the Kings in WV22. Tiye continued to be mentioned in the Amarna letters and in inscriptions as queen and beloved of the king.
Amarna letter EA 26, addressed to Tiye, dates to the reign of Akhenaten. She is known to have had a house at Akhetaten, Akhenaten's new capital and is shown on the walls of the tomb of Huya – a "steward in the house of the king's mother, the great royal wife Tiyi" – depicted at a dinner table with Akhenaten and their family and being escorted by the king to her sunshade. In an inscription dated to November 21 of Year 12 of Akhenaten's reign, both she and her granddaughter Meketaten are mentioned for the last time, they are thought to have died shortly after that date. This information is corrorborated by the fact that the shrine which Akhenaten created for her—which was found transported from Amarna to tomb KV55 in Thebes—bore th
Tomb KV35 is an ancient Egyptian tomb located in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt. It was discovered by Victor Loret in March 1898 and contains the tomb of Amenhotep II, it was used as a cache for others. It has a dog's leg shape, typical of the layout of early Eighteenth Dynasty tombs, but several features make this tomb stand out; the burial chamber is a rectangular shape and divided into upper and lower pillared sections, with the lower part holding the sarcophagus of the king. This style of burial chamber became'standard' for royal burials in the New Kingdom; the tomb was used as a mummy cache. Mummies belonging to the following individuals were relocated here during the Third Intermediate Period and were identified by inscriptions on their burial wrappings: Amenhotep II Side Chamber: Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Merneptah Seti II Siptah Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Queen Tiye, identified as the so-called Elder Lady in February 2010 via DNA testing. A prince, identified by some as Webensenu son of Amenhotep II whose canopic jars were found in the tomb or Thutmose, elder son of Amenhotep III and Tiye The Younger Lady who, in June 2003, was controversially claimed to be Nefertiti by British Egyptologist Joann Fletcher, whereas Egyptologist Zahi Hawass believed it to be Kiya, another wife of Akhenaten, believed by some to be the birth mother of Tutankhamun.
Some believed this mummy to be a male. However, with DNA testing, this mummy was shown in February 2010 to be a woman, the mother of Tutankhamun, the daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye, her name, remains unknown, leaving open the possibility that she is either Nebetiah or Beketaten. An unknown woman D in an upturned lid of a coffin inscribed for Setnakhte. Two skulls were found in the well and an anonymous arm was found with the above "Younger Lady". A body on a boat was destroyed at the start of the twentieth century. William Max Miller's Theban Royal Mummy Project
Valley of the Kings
The Valley of the Kings known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings, is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, rock cut tombs were excavated for the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom. The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes, within the heart of the Theban Necropolis; the wadi consists of East Valley and West Valley. With the 2005 discovery of a new chamber and the 2008 discovery of two further tomb entrances, the valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers, it was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, as well as a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues as to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. All of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the pharaohs; this area has been a focus of archaeological and egyptological exploration since the end of the eighteenth century, its tombs and burials continue to stimulate research and interest.
In modern times the valley has become famous for the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun, is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis. Exploration and conservation continues in the valley, a new tourist centre has been opened; the Valley of the Kings is situated over 1,000 feet of limestone and other sedimentary rock, which form the cliffs in the valley and the nearby Deir el-Bahri, interspersed with soft layers of marl. The sedimentary rock was deposited between 35–56 million years ago during a time when the Mediterranean Sea sometimes extended as far south as Aswan. During the Pleistocene the valley was carved out of the plateau by steady rains. There is little year-round rain in this part of Egypt, but there are occasional flash floods that hit the valley, dumping tons of debris into the open tombs; the quality of the rock in the Valley is inconsistent, ranging from finely-grained to coarse stone, the latter with the potential to be structurally unsound.
The occasional layer of shale caused construction and conservation difficulties, as this rock expands in the presence of water, forcing apart the stone surrounding it. It is thought that some tombs were altered in shape and size depending on the types of rock the builders encountered. Builders took advantage of available geological features; some tombs were quarried out of existing limestone clefts, others behind slopes of scree, or were at the edge of rock spurs created by ancient flood channels. The problems of tomb construction can be seen with tombs of his father Setnakhte. Setnakhte started to excavate KV11 but broke into the tomb of Amenmesse, so construction was abandoned and he instead usurped the tomb of Twosret, KV14; when looking for a tomb, Ramesses III extended. The tomb of Ramesses II returned to an early style, with a bent axis due to the quality of the rock being excavated. Between 1998 and 2002 the Amarna Royal Tombs Project investigated the valley floor using ground-penetrating radar and found that, below the modern surface, the Valley's cliffs descend beneath the scree in a series of abrupt, natural "shelves", arranged one below the other, descending several metres down to the bedrock in the valley floor.
The area of the Theban hills is subject to infrequent violent thunderstorms, causing flash floods in the valley. Recent studies have shown that there are at least seven active flood stream beds leading down into the central area of the valley; this central area appears to have been flooded at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty, with several tombs buried under metres of debris. The tombs KV63, KV62, KV55 are dug into the actual wadi bedrock rather than the debris, showing that the level of the valley was five meters below its present level. After this event dynasties leveled the floor of the valley, making the floods deposit their load further down the valley, the buried tombs were forgotten and only discovered in the early 20th century; this was the area, the subject of the Amarna Royal Tombs Project ground scanning radar investigation, which showed several anomalies, one of, proved to be KV63. The Theban Hills are dominated by the peak of al-Qurn, known to the Ancient Egyptians as ta dehent, or "The Peak".
It has a pyramid-shaped appearance, it is probable that this echoed the pyramids of the Old Kingdom, more than a thousand years prior to the first royal burials carved here. Its isolated position resulted in reduced access, special tomb police were able to guard the necropolis. While the iconic pyramid complexes of the Giza plateau have come to symbolize ancient Egypt, the majority of tombs were cut into rock. Most pyramids and mastabas contain sections which are cut into ground level, there are full rock-cut tombs in Egypt that date back to the Old Kingdom. After the defeat of the Hyksos and the reunification of Egypt under Ahmose I, the Theban rulers began to construct elaborate tombs that reflected their newfound power; the tombs of Ahmose and his son Amenhotep I were in the Seventeenth Dyna
Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the era in which ancient Egypt achieved the peak of its power. The Eighteenth Dynasty spanned the period from 1549/1550 to 1292 BC; this dynasty is known as the Thutmosid Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmose. Several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs were from the Eighteenth Dynasty, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter in 1922. Other famous pharaohs of the dynasty include Hatshepsut, the longest-reigning woman pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, Akhenaten, the "heretic pharaoh", with his Great Royal Wife, Nefertiti; the Eighteenth Dynasty is unique among Egyptian dynasties in that it had two women who ruled as sole pharaoh: Hatshepsut, regarded as one of the most innovative rulers of ancient Egypt, Neferneferuaten identified as the iconic Nefertiti. Dynasty XVIII was founded by Ahmose I, the brother or son of Kamose, the last ruler of the 17th Dynasty. Ahmose finished the campaign to expel the Hyksos rulers.
His reign is seen as the start of the New Kingdom. Ahmose was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep I, whose reign was uneventful. Amenhotep I left no male heir and the next pharaoh, Thutmose I, seems to have been related to the royal family through marriage. During his reign the borders of Egypt's empire reached their greatest expanse, extending in the north to Carchemish on the Euphrates and in the south up to Kurgus beyond the fourth cataract of the Nile. Thutmose I was succeeded by Thutmose II and his queen, the daughter of Thutmose I. After her husband's death and a period of regency for her minor stepson Hatshepsut became pharaoh in her own right and ruled for over twenty years. Thutmose III, who became known as the greatest military pharaoh also had a lengthy reign after becoming pharaoh, he had a second co-regency in his old age with his son Amenhotep II. Amenhotep II was succeeded by Thutmose IV, who in his turn was followed by his son Amenhotep III, whose reign is seen as a high point in this dynasty.
Amenhotep III undertook large scale building programmes, the extent of which can only be compared with those of the much longer reign of Ramesses II during Dynasty XIX. Amenhotep III may have shared the throne for up to twelve years with his son Amenhotep IV. There is much debate about this proposed co-regency, with different experts considering that there was a lengthy co-regency, a short one, or none at all. In the fifth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and moved his capital to Amarna, which he named Akhetaten. During the reign of Akhenaten, the Aten became, the most prominent deity, came to be considered the only god. Whether this amounted to true monotheism continues to be the subject of debate within the academic community; some state that Akhenaten created a monotheism, while others point out that he suppressed a dominant solar cult by the assertion of another, while he never abandoned several other traditional deities. Egyptians considered this "Amarna Period" an unfortunate aberration.
The events following Akhenaten's death are unclear. Individuals named Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten are known but their relative placement and role in history is still much debated. Tutankhamun took the throne but died young; the last two members of the Eighteenth Dynasty—Ay and Horemheb—became rulers from the ranks of officials in the royal court, although Ay might have been the maternal uncle of Akhenaten as a fellow descendant of Yuya and Tjuyu. Ay may have married the widowed Great Royal Wife and young half-sister of Tutankhamun, Ankhesenamun, in order to obtain power. Ay married Tey, Nefertiti's wet-nurse. Ay's reign was short, his successor was Horemheb, a general during Tutankhamun's reign whom the childless pharaoh may have intended as his successor. Horemheb may have taken the throne away from Ay in a coup. Horemheb died childless, having appointed his successor, Ramesses I, who ascended the throne in 1292 BC and was the first pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty; this example to the right depicts a man named Ay who achieved the exalted religious positions of Second Prophet of Amun and High Priest of Mut at Thebes.
His career flourished during the reign of Tutankhamun. The cartouches of King Ay, Tutankhamun's successor appearing on the statue, were an attempt by an artisan to "update" the sculpture. Radiocarbon dating suggests that Dynasty XVIII may have started a few years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 BC; the radiocarbon date range for its beginning is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of, 1557 BC. The pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII ruled for two hundred and fifty years; the dates and names in the table are taken from Hilton. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes. More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website. Several diplomatic marriages are known for the New Kingdom; these daughters of foreign kings are only mentioned in cuneiform texts and are not known from other sources. The marriages were to have been a way to confirm good relations between these states. Egyptian chronology Kuhrt, Amélie; the Ancient Near East: c. 3000–330 BC. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415013536.
Hatshepsut: from Queen to Pharaoh, an exhibition catalog from The
Tomb KV48 is an ancient Egyptian tomb located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. It contained; the tomb lay near KV35, the tomb of Amenhotep II, was entered by a shaft that leads to a small chamber containing a destroyed burial of the eighteenth dynasty. The floor was covered in limestone chips and broken objects which included a mud seal from a papyrus and shattered coffin fragments; the unwrapped and broken mummy of the owner of the tomb was found with three inscribed mud bricks and a number of ushabti giving the name of the tomb owner as Amenemopet. Theban Mapping Project: KV48 - Includes detailed maps of most of the tombs