Tomb KV49, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt is a typical Eighteenth Dynasty corridor tomb. It was used as a mummy-restoration area in the New Kingdom; the tomb was abandoned before it was completed, the work was halted as the stairwell in Chamber C was being cut. Theban Mapping Project: kv49 - Includes detailed maps of most of the tombs
Tomb KV11 is the tomb of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III. Located in the main valley of the Valley of the Kings, the tomb was started by Setnakhte, but abandoned when it broke into the earlier tomb of Amenmesse. Setnakhte was buried in KV14; the tomb KV11 was restarted and extended and on a different axis for Ramesses III. The tomb has been open since antiquity, has been known variously as Bruce's Tomb and The Harper's Tomb; the 188-metre-long tomb is beautifully decorated. The second corridor is decorated with the Litany of Re. At the end of this corridor the axis of the tomb shifts; this third corridor is decorated with the Book of Gates and the Book of Amduat, leads over a ritual shaft, into a four-pillared hall. This hall is again decorated with the Book of Gates. A fourth corridor (decorated with scenes of the opening of the mouth ceremony and leads into a vestibule, with scenes of the Book of the Dead, into the burial chamber proper; the burial chamber is an eight-pillared hall in. This chamber is decorated with Book of divine scenes and the Book of the Earth.
Beyond this is a further set of annexes, decorated with the Book of Gates. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV11 - Includes description and plans of the tomb. Images taken from 3d models showing the breakthrough into KV10 from KV11
Tomb KV7 in the Valley of the Kings was the final resting place of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II of the Nineteenth Dynasty. It is located in the main valley, opposite the tomb of his sons, KV5, near to the tomb of his son and successor, Merenptah, KV8. Unlike other tombs in the area, Tomb KV7 was placed in an unusual location and has been badly damaged by the flash floods that periodically sweep through the valley. KV7 follows the bent-axis plan of tombs of the earlier Eighteenth Dynasty; the burial chamber has a vaulted ceiling. Much of the decoration has been damaged beyond repair – its section of the Valley is susceptible to flash floods – but it would have been decorated with the standard Book of Gates and Litany of Ra; the mummy was relocated to the mummy cache in DB320, the tomb was reused in the Third Intermediate and Roman periods for burials and by early tourists. Reeves, N. & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings. London: Thames and Hudson, 1996. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples.
Cairo: A. A. Gaddis, 1996. Leblanc, Christian. "The Tomb of Ramesses II and Remains of his Funerary Treasure." Egyptian Archaeology. Theban Mapping Project: KV7 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
Amenhotep II was the seventh Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. Amenhotep inherited a vast kingdom from his father Thutmose III, held it by means of a few military campaigns in Syria, his reign is dated from 1427 to 1401 BC. Amenhotep II was born to a minor wife of the king: Merytre-Hatshepsut, he was not, the firstborn son of this pharaoh. However, between Years 24 and 35 of Thutmose III, both queen Satiah and prince Amenemhat died, which prompted the pharaoh to marry the non-royal Merytre-Hatshepsut, she would bear Thutmose III a number of children including the future Amenhotep II. Amenhotep II was born and raised in Memphis in the north, instead of in Thebes, the traditional capital. While a prince, he oversaw deliveries of wood sent to the dockyard of Peru-nūfe in Memphis, was made the Setem, the high priest over Lower Egypt. Amenhotep has left several inscriptions touting his athletic skills while he was a leader of the army before his crowning. Amenhotep was no less athletic than his powerful father.
He claims to have been able to shoot an arrow through a copper target one palm thick, that he was able to row his ship faster and farther than two hundred members of the navy could row theirs. Accordingly, some skepticism concerning the truth of his claims has been expressed among Egyptologists. Amenhotep acceded to the throne on the first day of the fourth month of Akhet, but his father died on the thirtieth day of the third month of Peret. If an Egyptian crown prince was proclaimed king but did not take the throne on the day after his father's death, it meant that he served as the junior coregent during his father's reign. A coregency with Thutmose III and Amenhotep II is believed to have lasted for two years and four months; when he assumed power, Amenhotep II was 18 years old according to an inscription from his great Sphinx stela: "Now his Majesty appeared as king as a fine youth after he had become'well developed', had completed eighteen years in his strength and bravery."After becoming pharaoh, Amenhotep married a woman of uncertain parentage named Tiaa.
As many as ten sons and one daughter have been attributed to him. Amenhotep's most important son was Thutmose IV. Princes Amenhotep, Webensenu and Nedjem are all attested, Amenemhat and Aakheperure as well as a daughter, are possible children. Papyrus B. M. 10056, which dates to sometime after Amenhotep II's tenth year, refers to a king's son and setem-priest Amenhotep. This Amenhotep might be attested in a stele from Amenhotep II's temple at Giza, however the stele's name has been defaced so that positive identification is impossible. Stele B may belong to Webensenu. Webensenu's name is otherwise attested on a statue of Amenhotep's chief architect and his canopic jars and a funerary statue have been found in Amenhotep II's tomb. Another Giza stele, stele C, records the name of a Prince Amenemopet, whose name is otherwise unattested; the same statue with the name Webensenu on it is inscribed with the name of prince Nedjem, otherwise unattested. There are other references to king's sons from this period who may or may not be sons of Amenhotep II.
Two graffiti from Sahel mention a king's son and stable master named Khaemwaset, but which king is his father is unknown. A figure with the name Amenemhet is recorded behind a prince Amenhotep in Theban tomb 64, assuming this Amenhotep is indeed the king's son from B. M. 10056, Amenemhat would be Amenhotep II's son. Additionally, a prince Aakheperure is mentioned in a Konosso graffito alongside a prince Amenhotep, if one again assumes that this Amenhotep was the same person as the one in B. M. 10056, Aakheperure would have been Amenhotep II's son. However, in both these cases the figure identified as Amenhotep has been identified by some as possible references to the King Amenhotep III, which would make these two princes sons Thutmose IV. In addition to sons, Amenhotep II may have had a daughter named Iaret, but she could have been the daughter of Thutmose IV. Two more sons had been attributed to Amenhotep II in the past. Gauthier catalogued one Usersatet, the "King's son of Kush," as a son of Amenhotep II, as well as one Re.
Usersatet served as Amenhotep's chief official in Nubia and was not a blood relative of the king. Amenhotep's coronation can be dated without much difficulty because of a number of lunar dates in the reign of his father, Thutmose III; these sightings limit the date of Thutmose's accession to either 1504 or 1479 BC. Thutmose died after 54 years of reign. Amenhotep's short coregency with his father would move his accession two years and four months earlier, dating his accession to either 1427 BC in the low chronology, or in 1454 BC in the high chronology; the length of his reign is indicated by a wine jar inscribed with the king's prenomen found in Amenhotep II's funerary temple at Thebes. Mortu
Tomb KV3, located in Egypt's Valley of the Kings, was intended for the burial of an unidentified son of Pharaoh Ramesses III during the early part of the Twentieth Dynasty. It is similar in design to the "straight axis" tombs typical of this dynasty, an ostracon written in hieratic script from the time of Ramesses III mentions the founding of a tomb for a royal prince this tomb; the unfinished state of a couple of rooms in the tomb along with scant archeological evidence suggests that the tomb was never used. Some have suggested that it was intended for use by the prince regent who would succeed as Ramesses IV, who started building his own tomb soon after he came to the throne. In terms of its design it follows that used for tombs in the Valley of the Queens, its size reflects the effort that would have gone into burying a member of the royal family. Past the entrance to the tomb KV3 descends any further, a particular feature for other tombs built for other sons of Ramesses III in the Valley of the Queens.
There are two corridors which lead from the opening to the tomb, with the second passage flanked near the end by two chambers. Of these two chambers, only the one facing south was finished, the other one being only just begun when work on the tomb was abandoned. Past the second corridor is a larger room containing four pillars, flanked by two smaller rooms; the tomb is located on the main path, close to the entrance to the Valley. Only the side chamber to the north was finished, with work on the second one only just begun when work stopped. Past this room and running along the same axis as the corridor are three further rooms, the first two of which have vaulted ceilings. One of these two final vaulted chambers was intended as a burial chamber; the tomb is located on the main path, close to the entrance to the Valley. What tomb decoration that survives can be found only along the length and flanking gates on either end of corridor B; these show Rameses III attended by various gods and goddesses.
It is thought that more decoration once existed, since Karl Lepsius noted traces of paint on the vaulted chambers and mentions cartouches and images of Ramesses III in the first corridor when he visited the tomb in the 1840s. There is evidence. Though open since Ancient times, the tomb was only properly excavated in 1912 by archeologist Harry Burton, funded by the wealthy American lawyer Theodore M. Davis, it was one of the last excavations funded by Davis, no report of this excavation work was published. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV3 - Includes description and plan of the tomb
Tomb KV57 is an ancient Egyptian tomb. Located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, it was used for the burial of Horemheb, the last Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty; the tomb was located by Edward Ayrton in February 1908, working for Theodore Davis. Due to its location in the valley floor, the tomb was filled with debris, washed down in the occasional flash-flooding; the tomb is markedly different from the other major Eighteenth dynasty royal tombs. It does away with the dog-legged construction, has painted bas-reliefs, rather than simple painted walls. Passages from the Book of Gates appear for the first time; the decoration was not completed through this king's fourteen years rule. The sarcophagus of the king was constructed from carved, red quartzite, was found with its lid broken. In it were contained bones and remains from several burials, none of them conclusively from Horemheb. Davis, Theodore M; the Tombs of Harmhabi and Touatânkhamanou. London: Duckworth Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7156-3072-5 Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R.
H. The Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV57 - Includes detailed maps of the tomb
KV4 is a tomb in the Valley of the Kings. The tomb was initiated for the burial of Ramesses XI but it is that its construction was abandoned and that it was never used for Ramesses's interment, it seems that Pinedjem I intended to usurp this tomb for his own burial, but that he too abandoned the plan. KV4 is notable for being the last royal tomb, quarried in the Valley and because it has been interpreted as being a workshop used during the official dismantling of the royal necropolis in the early Third Intermediate Period. Although KV4 has been open since antiquity and graffito from various ages attest to its popularity as an early tourist attraction it received little scholarly attention until John Romer's clearance in 1978-1980. KV4 is located in one of the valley's side wadis, next to KV46. Running back over 100 metres into the mountainside, it consists of a series of three sloping corridors leading towards the tomb's well chamber and two unfinished, pillared chambers; the latter of these chambers, the burial chamber, features a deep shaft cut into the centre of its floor, foundation deposits of Ramesses XI associated with it might indicate that its cutting was contemporary with the original plan of the tomb.
Decoration was only present on the lintel and jambs of the outer doorway and in the first corridor which has preliminary sketches in red ink on the plastered walls. Part of the decoration in the corridor was damaged in antiquity and was restored by Pinedjem I who replaced the king's names with his own in these restored scenes. Romer's excavation of KV4 brought to light five groups of objects Items originating from KV62: fragmentary items discovered amongst the rubble fill in the corridor of KV62 and sections of the blockings from the inner and outer doorways of that corridor; these include the Head of Nefertem. The presence of these items in KV4 date from the time of Howard Carter's clearance of KV62. Evidence of Coptic activities in the tomb: the remains of a beaten mud floor and a rough stone wall, together with shards of decorated pottery and a Byzantine copper mint. Remains of an intrusive 22nd dynasty burial: found in the shaft of the burial chamber and consisting of bones, fragments of cartonnage and a partial coffin.
This material showed signs of burning and it is that this burial was desecrated during the time of the Coptic presence in the tomb. Fragmentary remains of several New Kingdom royal burials: found in the burial chamber and in the lower levels of the shaft which seems to have been undisturbed since the late New Kingdom; these include fragments of gilded gesso, fragments of wooden panels that are linked stylistically with objects found in KV20 and KV35, fragments of at least one anthropoid coffin from a mid-18th dynasty female ruler, a faience vessel bearing the Horus name shared by Thutmose I and Ramesses II, wooden statue bases, fragments of a foot which matches with a wooden goose found in KV34 and shabtis belonging to Ramesses IV. Foundation deposits of Ramesses XI: these were associated with the shaft in the burial chamber That KV4 was quarried for the burial of Ramesses XI is evident from the decoration in the corridor and the foundation deposits associated with the shaft, it appears however that this plan was abandoned in favour of a burial elsewhere The most explanation for Pinudjem's restoration and the insertion of his cartouche would be that he intended to usurp the tomb at the beginning of his kingship, but this plan too was abandoned for an interment elsewhere in the tomb of Inhapi a tomb, subsequently used to rebury royal mummies from the seventeenth dynasty and the New Kingdom.
These abandoned burial plans are to be associated with the apparent general abandonment of the valley as a royal necropolis and the start of the restoration and reburial of earlier pharaohs during the Wehem Mesut period. After Pinudjem's abandoned usurpation of KV4 it appears the tomb was used as a workshop to process funerary equipment from other royal tombs, most notably the burials of Thutmose I, Thutmose III and Hatshepsut. In this context a link is made between the gilded gesso fragments found in KV4 and the coffin of Thutmose III, found in the DB320 cache; this coffin had been stripped of the major portions of its gilded surface in antiquity and it has been suggested that this stripping was done in KV4. The fact that the individuals involved in these activities went through the time consuming procedure of scraping of the coffin's surface without impairing its basic function as a container for the king's mummy, suggests this was not the work of common tomb robbers; the material recovered from KV4 has therefore been interpreted as evidence for a changed official policy towards the burials in the valley in which they were stripped of valuable commodities in an attempt to safeguard them from tomb robbers by making them less attractive, while at the same time the recovered valuables were used to refill the depleted treasuries of the period.
During the Byzantine period the open tomb was used by Copts as a residence and stable, while during the clearance of KV62 by Howard Carter in the 1920s it was used as a dining area and a storeroom, the latter during the early stages of that clearance before KV15 was made available for that purpose. Theban Mapping Project: KV4 - Includes description and plans of the tomb