Tomb KV47, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Siptah of the Nineteenth Dynasty, though Siptah's mummy was found in KV35. KV47 was discovered on December 1905 by Edward R. Ayrton. Theodore M. Davis, Ayrton's sponsor, published an account of the site's discovery and excavation in 1908. Ayrton stopped his excavation in 1907 due to safety fears, Harry Burton returned in 1912 to dig further; the cutting of Chamber J1 was halted after the workmen cut into Side Chamber Ja of the tomb of Tia'a, KV32. The workmen were forced to abandon the chamber and create a second burial chamber, Chamber J2 Davis, Theodore M; the Tomb of Siphtah: With the Tomb of Queen Tîyi. London: Duckworth Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7156-3073-3 Theban Mapping Project: KV47 - Includes detailed maps of most of the tombs
Tomb KV21 is located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. It contains the mummies of two women, thought to be Eighteenth Dynasty queens. In 2010, a team headed by Zahi Hawass and including geneticist Carsten Pusch among others used DNA evidence to identify one mummy as the biological mother of the two fetuses preserved in the tomb of King Tutankhamun; the tomb was discovered by Giovanni Belzoni in 1817. Belzoni described how the hair came out of one of the mummies when he tugged at it; the tomb has a small low chamber next to the burial chamber where large white washed jars were located. James Burton, who mapped it in 1825, called it a "clean new tomb." However, when the tomb was re-investigated in 1989 by Donald Ryan, the mummies had been torn to pieces, the jars stored next to the burial chamber were smashed, a large graffito on one of the tombs walls proclaimed "ME 1826." Announcing the DNA results in 2010, Carsten Pusch stated, "The data obtained from KV21A points to this mummy as the mother of the fetuses.
We are not yet able to identify her as Ankhesenamun, Nefertiti's daughter." Belzoni, Giovanni Narrative of the operations and recent discoveries in Egypt and Nubia. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV21 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
Tomb KV57 is an ancient Egyptian tomb. Located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, it was used for the burial of Horemheb, the last Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty; the tomb was located by Edward Ayrton in February 1908, working for Theodore Davis. Due to its location in the valley floor, the tomb was filled with debris, washed down in the occasional flash-flooding; the tomb is markedly different from the other major Eighteenth dynasty royal tombs. It does away with the dog-legged construction, has painted bas-reliefs, rather than simple painted walls. Passages from the Book of Gates appear for the first time; the decoration was not completed through this king's fourteen years rule. The sarcophagus of the king was constructed from carved, red quartzite, was found with its lid broken. In it were contained bones and remains from several burials, none of them conclusively from Horemheb. Davis, Theodore M; the Tombs of Harmhabi and Touatânkhamanou. London: Duckworth Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7156-3072-5 Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R.
H. The Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV57 - Includes detailed maps of the tomb
Located in the Valley of the Kings, Tomb KV12 is an unusual tomb, used in the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, again in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties. It was used for multiple burials of royal family members, rather like KV5; the builders of KV9 broke into KV12 whilst excavating that tomb. During the excavation, rumors of the second tomb had circulated throughout the camp, leading scientists dismissed the idea and continued on. Little did they realize the mistake, about to be made; the tomb diggers broke through the ground into the tomb only to find the remains of multiple family members in the new tomb. Researchers are still working on identifying the family members and collecting the other artifacts in the tomb. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV12 - Includes description and plans of the tomb.
Images showing KV12 and KV9
Tomb KV5 is a subterranean, rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings. It belonged to the sons of Ramesses II. Though KV5 was excavated as early as 1825, its true extent was discovered in 1995 by Kent R. Weeks and his exploration team; the tomb is now known to be the largest in the Valley of the Kings. Weeks' discovery is considered the most dramatic in the valley since the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922. Standing near the entrance to the Valley, KV5 was robbed in antiquity. In addition, over the centuries, it suffered the fate of other low-lying tombs, to be filled with rubble washed down in the flash floods that accompany thunderstorms over the Valley; the tomb was examined several times once exploration of the Valley in modern times started, first in 1825, in 1902. However, they were not able to penetrate past the first few rooms, thus saw nothing unusual about the tomb, it was not until the Theban Mapping Project, under Kent R. Weeks, decided to clear the tomb that the stage was set for the discovery of its true extent and nature.
Although the works had begun in 1987, the first substantial finding came in 1995, after extensive clearing in the outer chambers of the tomb: 70 rooms, lined along long corridors, running back into the hillside. The number of the rooms corresponds to the number of sons the Pharaoh sired; this discovery caused reignited popular interest in Egyptology. Findings so far include thousands of potshards, faience beads, hieratic ostraca, glass vials, inlays and a large statue of Osiris, the god of the afterlife. Further excavations have revealed that the tomb is larger than was first thought, as it contains more corridors, with more rooms, running off from other parts of the tomb. At least 130 rooms or chambers have been discovered as of 2006, work is still continuing on clearing the rest of the tomb. In the proximity to the tomb of Ramesses II, this tomb contained most of his children, both male and female, including those who died in his lifetime in particular; the skull fragments of Amun-her-khepeshef, among others, were reconstituted.
Kent R. Weeks, The Lost Tomb. New York: William Morrow, 1998. Includes a description of the discovery and excavation of KV5. ISBN 0-688-17224-5 Kent R. Weeks, KV 5: A Preliminary Report on the Excavation of the Tomb of the Sons of Ramesses II in the Valley of the Kings. Cairo: American University Press, 2000 ISBN 977-424-574-1 Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo, Dr M. Swales, Theban Mapping Project – Plan of the tomb and other details. KV5 Progress Reports – Considerable detail of the work performed each year
Tomb KV1, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Ramesses VII of the Twentieth Dynasty. Although it has been open since antiquity, it was only properly investigated and cleared by Edwin Brock in 1984 and 1985; the single corridor tomb itself is located in Luxor's West Bank, is small in comparison to other tombs of the twentieth dynasty. Typical of tombs from this period, KV1 is laid out along a straight axis; the successors of Ramesses III constructed tombs that had followed this pattern and were all decorated in much the same manner as each other. It consists of four major parts: the entrance, a passageway, the burial chamber containing the sarcophagus, a final smaller room at the end. Ramesses VII was in the seventh year of his reign. There is evidence that the room that ended up being the burial chamber was expanded from its original design as a corridor, work on a subsequent room at the end of the tomb was halted; the decoration within the passageway of the tomb contains illustrations from the Book of Gates, the Book of Caverns as well as the Book of the Earth.
The walls of the burial chamber are decorated with extracts from the Book of the Earth. In terms of style and themes it follows that of its immediate predecessor, Ramesses VI's KV9, though the ceiling within the burial chamber contain a double image of the sky goddess Nut, reflecting a style used in tomb paintings used by pharaohs of the previous dynasty. Within the burial chamber a depression has been cut into the rock, with an inverted box of stone shaped like a cartouche placed over it; this is the last known example of a sarcophagus placed in a royal tomb, all subsequent burial consisting of deeper pits which were covered by a lid. The tomb was robbed in antiquity, the mummy lost, though four cups inscribed with the pharaoh's name were found in the "royal cache" in DB320 along with the remains of other pharaohs; the tomb was one of at least eleven tombs. As evidence of this, 132 individual graffitis left by Ancient Greek and Roman visitors have been counted throughout KV1; the tomb was used as a dwelling by Coptic monks.
Early European visitors to the area included Richard Pococke, who visited KV1 and designated it "Tomb A" in his Observations of Egypt, published in 1743. The savants accompanying Napoleon's campaign in Egypt surveyed the Valley of the Kings and designated KV1 as "1er Tombeau" in their list. Though not documented, the tomb was cleared in the 1950s. Starting in 1983, funded by the Royal Ontario Museum, Edwin Brock did a thorough excavation of the burial chamber floor, followed a decade by an excavation of the tomb's entrance. In 1994, the Supreme Council of Antiquities repaired cracks with plaster. In doing so, they covered over graffiti, left there in ancient times; some of Brock's findings included fragments of wood and faience shabtis, ostraca decorated with sketches by the tomb's artists, a floral garland and numerous contemporaneous pottery shards. Hornung, E. et al. Zwei Ramessidische Königsgräber: Ramses IV. und Ramses VII, 1990, Mainz am Rhein, P. von Zabern. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A.
Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV1 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
Tomb KV3, located in Egypt's Valley of the Kings, was intended for the burial of an unidentified son of Pharaoh Ramesses III during the early part of the Twentieth Dynasty. It is similar in design to the "straight axis" tombs typical of this dynasty, an ostracon written in hieratic script from the time of Ramesses III mentions the founding of a tomb for a royal prince this tomb; the unfinished state of a couple of rooms in the tomb along with scant archeological evidence suggests that the tomb was never used. Some have suggested that it was intended for use by the prince regent who would succeed as Ramesses IV, who started building his own tomb soon after he came to the throne. In terms of its design it follows that used for tombs in the Valley of the Queens, its size reflects the effort that would have gone into burying a member of the royal family. Past the entrance to the tomb KV3 descends any further, a particular feature for other tombs built for other sons of Ramesses III in the Valley of the Queens.
There are two corridors which lead from the opening to the tomb, with the second passage flanked near the end by two chambers. Of these two chambers, only the one facing south was finished, the other one being only just begun when work on the tomb was abandoned. Past the second corridor is a larger room containing four pillars, flanked by two smaller rooms; the tomb is located on the main path, close to the entrance to the Valley. Only the side chamber to the north was finished, with work on the second one only just begun when work stopped. Past this room and running along the same axis as the corridor are three further rooms, the first two of which have vaulted ceilings. One of these two final vaulted chambers was intended as a burial chamber; the tomb is located on the main path, close to the entrance to the Valley. What tomb decoration that survives can be found only along the length and flanking gates on either end of corridor B; these show Rameses III attended by various gods and goddesses.
It is thought that more decoration once existed, since Karl Lepsius noted traces of paint on the vaulted chambers and mentions cartouches and images of Ramesses III in the first corridor when he visited the tomb in the 1840s. There is evidence. Though open since Ancient times, the tomb was only properly excavated in 1912 by archeologist Harry Burton, funded by the wealthy American lawyer Theodore M. Davis, it was one of the last excavations funded by Davis, no report of this excavation work was published. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV3 - Includes description and plan of the tomb