Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
Nguyễn Cao Kỳ served as the chief of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force in the 1960s, before leading the nation as the prime minister of South Vietnam in a military junta from 1965 to 1967. Until his retirement from politics in 1971, he served as vice president to bitter rival General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, in a nominally civilian administration. Born in northern Vietnam, Kỳ joined the Vietnamese National Army of the French-backed State of Vietnam and started as an infantry officer before the French sent him off for pilot training. After the French withdrew from Vietnam and the nation was partitioned, Kỳ moved up the ranks of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force to become its leader. In November 1963, Kỳ participated in the coup that deposed president Ngô Đình Diệm and resulted in Diệm's assassination. In 1964 Kỳ became prominent in junta politics, regarded as part of a group of young, aggressive officers dubbed the Young Turks. Over the next two years, there were repeated coup attempts, many of which were successful, Kỳ was a key player in supporting or defeating them.
In September 1964, he helped put down a coup attempt by Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức against Nguyễn Khánh, the following February he thwarted another attempt by Phát and Phạm Ngọc Thảo. His favored tactic in such situations was to send fighter jets into the air and threaten large-scale air strikes, given his reputation for impetuosity, he attained the desired backdown. After the latter attempt, he had the weakened Khánh forced into exile and took the leading position in the junta in mid-1965 by becoming prime minister, while General Thiệu was a figurehead chief of state. During his period at the helm, he gained notoriety for his flamboyant manner and risky and brash behavior, which concerned South Vietnam's American allies and angered the Vietnamese public, who regarded him as a "cowboy" and "hooligan", he cared little for public relations, on occasion publicly threatened to kill dissidents and opponents as well as to flatten parts of North Vietnam and South Vietnamese units led by rival officers with bombings, although none of this materialized.
Kỳ and Thiệu were able to end the cycle of coups, the Americans backed their regime. In 1966 Kỳ decided to purge General Nguyễn Chánh Thi, another officer in the junta regarded as his greatest rival, from a command role; this provoked major unrest in South Vietnam, where some units joined with Buddhist activists supportive of Thi and hostile to Kỳ in defying his junta's rule. Three months of large-scale demonstrations and riots paralyzed parts of the country, after much maneuvering and some military battles, Kỳ's forces put down the uprising, Thi was exiled, entrenching the former's grip on power. In 1967, a transition to an elected government was scheduled, after a power struggle within the military, Thiệu ran for the presidency with Kỳ as his running mate—both men had wanted the top job. To allow the two to work together, their fellow officers had agreed to have a military body controlled by Kỳ shape policy behind the scenes; the election was rigged to ensure that Thiệu and Kỳ's military ticket would win, strong executive powers meant that junta, in effect, still ruled.
Leadership tensions persisted, Thiệu prevailed, sidelining Kỳ supporters from key military and cabinet posts. Thiệu passed legislation to restrict candidacy eligibility for the 1971 election, banning all would-be opponents. With the fall of Saigon, Kỳ fled to the United States, he continued to criticize both the communists and Thiệu, the former prevented him from returning. However, in 2004, he became the first South Vietnamese leader to return, calling for reconciliation between communists and anti-communists. A northerner, Kỳ was born in a town west of Hanoi. After completing his secondary schooling in Hanoi, he enlisted in the French-backed Vietnamese National Army of the State of Vietnam and was commissioned in the infantry after attending an officers training school. After a brief period in the field against the communist Việt Minh of Hồ Chí Minh during the First Indochina War, the French military hierarchy sent Kỳ a lieutenant, to Marrakech in Morocco to train as a pilot. Kỳ gained his wings on 15 September 1954.
The French defeat at the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ and the Geneva Conference ended the colonial presence in Indochina, Kỳ came back to the new Republic of Vietnam. The commander of a transport squadron, Kỳ was put in charge of Tân Sơn Nhứt Air Base, the main aerial facility in the capital, Saigon. Kỳ went to the United States to study for six months at the Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell Field, where he learned to speak English, he continued to rise up the ranks. A soldier in the Vietnamese National Army who became commander of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force, prime minister and vice president of the Republic of Vietnam, Kỳ had little political experience or ambition initially. After flight training by the French, he returned to Vietnam in 1954 and held a series of commands in the Republic of Vietnam Air Force. Under the regime of Dương Văn Minh, whose coup Kỳ had supported, he was made an air marshal, replacing Colonel Đỗ Khắc Mai as head of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force. Kỳ began his association with the American covert operations community in 1961.
While still ranked as a major commanding Tân Sơn Nhứt Air Base, he became the first pilot for South Vietnam's presidential liaison officer, organizing to infiltrate military intelligen
Brandenburg is a state of Germany. Brandenburg is located in the northeast of Germany covering an area of 29,478 square kilometres and has a population of 2.5 million residents, the fifth-largest German state by area and tenth-most populous. Potsdam is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Brandenburg an der Havel and Frankfurt. Brandenburg surrounds the national capital and city-state of Berlin, which together form the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, the third-largest metropolitan area in Germany. Brandenburg borders the states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony, the country of Poland. Brandenburg originated in the Northern March in the 900s AD from areas conquered from the Wends, became the Margraviate of Brandenburg, a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire, with Albert the Bear as prince-elector. In the 17th century Brandenburg came under the rule of the House of Hohenzollern, the rulers of Prussia, who established Brandenburg-Prussia to become the core of the Kingdom of Prussia.
Brandenburg became the Province of Brandenburg in 1815, a province within the kingdom and within the Free State of Prussia. Brandenburg was established as a state in 1945 after World War II by the Soviet army administration in Allied-occupied Germany, became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947. Brandenburg was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Potsdam, Frankfurt and Schwerin, but was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states. In late medieval and early modern times, Brandenburg was one of seven electoral states of the Holy Roman Empire, along with Prussia, formed the original core of the German Empire, the first unified German state. Governed by the Hohenzollern dynasty from 1415, it contained the future German capital Berlin. After 1618 the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were combined to form Brandenburg-Prussia, ruled by the same branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
In 1701 the state was elevated as the Kingdom of Prussia. Franconian Nuremberg and Ansbach, Swabian Hohenzollern, the eastern European connections of Berlin, the status of Brandenburg's ruler as prince-elector together were instrumental in the rise of that state. Brandenburg is situated in territory known in antiquity as Magna Germania, which reached to the Vistula river. By the 7th century, Slavic peoples are believed to have settled in the Brandenburg area; the Slavs expanded from the east driven from their homelands in present-day Ukraine and Belarus by the invasions of the Huns and Avars. They relied on river transport; the two principal Slavic groups in the present-day area of Brandenburg were the Hevelli in the west and the Sprevane in the east. Beginning in the early 10th century, Henry the Fowler and his successors conquered territory up to the Oder River. Slavic settlements such as Brenna and Chośebuz came under imperial control through the installation of margraves, their main function was to protect the eastern marches.
In 948 Emperor Otto I established margraves to exert imperial control over the pagan Slavs west of the Oder River. Otto founded the Bishoprics of Havelberg; the Northern March was founded as a northeastern border territory of the Holy Roman Empire. However, a great uprising of Wends drove imperial forces from the territory of present-day Brandenburg in 983; the region returned to the control of Slavic leaders. During the 12th century, the German kings and emperors re-established control over the mixed Slav-inhabited lands of present-day Brandenburg, although some Slavs like the Sorbs in Lusatia adapted to Germanization while retaining their distinctiveness; the Roman Catholic Church brought bishoprics which, with their walled towns, afforded protection from attacks for the townspeople. With the monks and bishops, the history of the town of Brandenburg an der Havel, the first center of the state of Brandenburg, began. In 1134, in the wake of a German crusade against the Wends, the German magnate, Albert the Bear, was granted the Northern March by the Emperor Lothar III.
He formally inherited the town of Brandenburg and the lands of the Hevelli from their last Wendish ruler, Pribislav, in 1150. After crushing a force of Sprevane who occupied the town of Brandenburg in the 1150s, Albert proclaimed himself ruler of the new Margraviate of Brandenburg. Albert, his descendants the Ascanians made considerable progress in conquering, colonizing and cultivating lands as far east as the Oder. Within this region and German residents intermarried. During the 13th century, the Ascanians began acquiring territory east of the Oder known as the Neumark. In 1320, the Brandenburg Ascanian line came to an end, from 1323 up until 1415 Brandenburg was under the control of the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria, followed by the Luxembourg Dynasties. Under the Luxembourgs, the Margrave of Brandenburg gained the status of a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. In the period 1373-1415, Brandenburg was a part of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. In 1415, the Electorate of Brandenburg was granted by Emperor Sigismund to the House of Hohenzollern, which would rule until the end of World War I.
The Hohenzollerns established their capital in Berlin, by the economic center of Brandenburg. Brandenburg converted to Protestantism in 1539 in the wake of the Protestant Reformation, did quite we
Kyritz is a town in the Ostprignitz-Ruppin district, in Brandenburg, Germany. It is situated 28 km southeast of Pritzwalk. There are 9,900 inhabitants; the town is situated near a chain of lakes. The town is nicknamed "Kyritz an der Knatter"; the noise of numerous water mills along a stream parallel to the river Jäglitz was the reason for this nickname. This river channel does not exist anymore; the town includes the districts Berlitt, Drewen, Ganz, Holzhausen, Kötzlin, Mechow and Teetz. In the year 946 Kyritz was first mentioned in writing. In the year 1225 a Franciscan friary was established here In the year 1237 Kyritz received the Stendal town right; the town is situated in Slavic pregynica. In the 14th century Kyritz became a member of the Hanse. At this time the parish church St. Marien and the city wall were built; the church and rests of the city wall are still existing today. In the year 1488 the first Kyritzer Beer named; the Beer is still brewed in Neuzelle. In 1600 count Hans Christoff von Königsmarck was born, a leading Swedish general in the Thirty Years' War, most famous for conquering Prague in 1648.
In the year 1626 800 Kyritzer people died due to the bubonic plague. In the 17th and 18th century half-timbered houses were built. From 1806 to 1814 French occupation. In 1814 the "Peace oak" was planted, still on the market place in front of the town hall. Fountain Media related to Kyritz at Wikimedia Commons
Kunming Airlines is an airline based in Kunming, China established in 2005. In November 2005 it was reported that Sichuan Airlines Group would invest US$4 million to acquire a 40% stake in Kunming Airlines, which would operate passenger and cargo services. Pilots would be provided by Sichuan Airlines and private investors Wang Qingmin and Wang Hui would invest in the remaining 40 and 20% shares respectively. In December 2005 the Civil Aviation Administration of China said it would soon approve operation of the private airline Kunming Airlines, which has a registered capital of RMB80 million, plans to be based at Kunming Wujiaba International Airport; as of January 2009, Kunming Airlines is 80 percent owned by Shenzhen Airlines with the remaining 20% owned by a local businessman, with a total registered capital of RMB 80 million. The new airline will receive two B737-700 and one B737-800 aircraft as well as 30 pilots and 26 flight attendants from Shenzhen Airlines; the airline commenced operations on 15 February 2009 from Kunming to Harbin.
As of November 2008, Kunming Airlines had a 15-year strategic plan called the'3-5-7 Plan', which has three stages. 2008-2010: Assemble a fleet of 30-40 planes and establish an extensive flight network throughout Yunnan. And establish routes to all provincial capitals and developed cities on the east coast. Connecting these cities with top Southeast Asian destinations. 2010-2015: Upgrade fleet to 80-100 planes. Establish hubs in Guangzhou while boosting its trunk and branch routes. 2015-2022: Expand fleet to 150-200 planes. Establish hubs in Hangzhou. Focus on increasing international reach. Kunming Airlines, based in Kunming Changshui International Airport, will operate flights within Yunnan province as well as routes connecting Kunming and other cities, launch flights between Kunming and ASEAN countries. Kunming Airlines operates an all-Boeing fleet consisting of the following aircraft: In 2014 Kunming Airlines agreed to purchase 10 Boeing 737 aircraft in an $897m deal
K-Y Jelly is a water-based, water-soluble personal lubricant, most used as a lubricant for sexual intercourse and masturbation. A variety of different products and formulas are produced under the K-Y banner. Introduced in January 1904 by pharmaceutical company and suture manufacturer Van Horn and Sawtell of New York City, acquired by Johnson & Johnson, K-Y Jelly's original stated purpose was as a surgical lubricant, it was chosen by doctors because of its natural base; the product is now more used as a sexual lubricant to supplement the moisture required for performing sexual acts. Reckitt Benckiser purchased the brand in 2014. Unlike petroleum-based lubricants, K-Y jelly is biologically inert, reacting with neither latex condoms or silicone-based sex toys, contains no added colors or perfumes, it is easy to clean up. Despite having a thick consistency and a tendency to dry out during use, it can be "reactivated" by the addition of saliva or water; the product thus can not be used to prevent pregnancy.
A formulation containing nonoxynol-9 was removed from the market after the spermicide was found to facilitate the spread of HIV. K-Y Jelly has been available over the counter in the United States since 1980. K-Y NG uses glycerin and hydroxyethyl cellulose as the lubricant, with chlorhexidine gluconate, glucono delta-lactone and sodium hydroxide as antiseptic and preservative additives; the liquid form of the product combines glycerin with propylene glycol and Natrosol 250H for lubrication, with benzoic acid and sodium hydroxide as additives. In addition to its use as a personal lubricant, K-Y Jelly is employed by clinicians perform prostate and gynecological examinations and by special effects technicians to create a "slimy" appearance or simulate saliva for animatronic monsters. Most notably the Alien series. Official site
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Kappa Psi Pharmaceutical Fraternity, Incorporated, is the largest professional pharmaceutical fraternity in the world. It was founded on May 30, 1879, by F. Harvey Smith on the campus of Russell Military Academy in New Haven, Connecticut; the Central Office of Kappa Psi is located in Texas. Kappa Psi first chartered a Chapter at a College of Pharmacy in 1898 at Columbia University. At that time Kappa Psi was a medical and pharmaceutical fraternity. In 1924, the fraternity split into Theta Kappa Psi, the medical fraternity. There are 110 active collegiate chapters and 81 graduate chapters across the United States and the Bahamas, over 80,000 people have been initiated into the fraternity since its inception. Nationally, Kappa Psi is divided into eleven provinces, which the majority meet biannually and is divided as follows: Atlantic Province - Chapters in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. Great Lakes Province - Chapters in Kentucky and Ohio. Gulf Coast Province - Chapters in Alabama, Louisiana and Tennessee.
Mid-America Province - Chapters in Illinois, Indiana and Missouri. Mountain East Province - Chapters in the District of Columbia, New York, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Northeast Province - Chapters in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont. Northern Plains Province - Chapters in Iowa, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. Northwest Province - Chapters in Alaska, British Columbia, Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Wyoming. Pacific West Province - Chapters in Arizona, California and Nevada. Southeast Province - Chapters in the Bahamas, Florida and South Carolina. Southwest Province - Chapters in Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. At the 58th Grand Council Convention held in Naples, Florida in August 2017, the following Brothers were elected as international officers of the Fraternity: The office of Executive Director is appointed by the International Executive Committee. Kappa Psi consists of 81 graduate chapters organized into 11 regional provinces.
Ada Graduate Albany Graduate Appalachia Graduate Athens Graduate Arizona Graduate Atlanta Graduate Auburn Graduate Birmingham Graduate Boston Graduate Buffalo Graduate Buies Creek Graduate Central Michigan Graduate Charleston Graduate Cincinnati Graduate Cleveland Graduate Columbus Graduate Connecticut Graduate Dallas Fort Worth Graduate Denver Graduate Detroit Graduate District of Columbia Graduate Gainesville Graduate Georgia Graduate Harrisburg Graduate Hawaii Graduate Houston Graduate Idaho Graduate Illinois Graduate Indiana Graduate Iowa Graduate Jacksonville Graduate Kentucky Graduate Laurel Highlands Graduate Los Angeles Graduate Louisiana Graduate Maine Graduate Maryland Graduate Maryland Eastern Shore Graduate Middle Tennessee Graduate Minnesota Graduate Montana Graduate Nebraska Graduate Nevada Graduate New Jersey Graduate New Mexico Graduate New York Graduate North Alabama Graduate North Carolina Graduate North Florida Graduate Orlando Graduate Pacific Graduate Palouse Graduate Philadelphia Graduate Pittsburgh Graduate Pocono Graduate Pomona Graduate Portland Graduate Providence Graduate Ringgold Graduate Saint Louis Graduate San Antonio Graduate San Diego Graduate San Francisco Graduate Savannah Graduate Seattle Graduate South Carolina Graduate South Carolina Upstate Graduate South Dakota Graduate South Texas Graduate Southeast Florida-Bahamas Graduate Southwestern Graduate Tampa Graduate Tennessee Graduate Texas Graduate Toledo Graduate Utah Graduate Vancouver Graduate Virginia Graduate Wisconsin Graduate These are dormant chapters at schools of pharmacy, the school is still active.
These chapters at schools of pharmacy where the pharmacy school no longer exists. Kappa Psi holds its international convention biennially; the 58th Grand Council Convention took place from August 1–5, 2017 at the Naples Grande Beach Resort in Naples and the 59th Grand Council Convention will be held at the Grand Hyatt Washington in Washington DC from July 17–21, 2019. Below is a list of the Grand Council Conventions dating back to the first Grand Council Convention in 1900 in New York City; the 22nd and 23rd Grand Council Conventions were postponed due to WWII. The 1932, 1936, 1940 Grand Council Conventions were cancelled; the 15th and 16th Grand Council Conventions were held in three separate regional locations with the same business discussed at each