Lobbying in the United States
Lobbying in the United States describes paid activity in which special interests hire well-connected professional advocates lawyers, to argue for specific legislation in decision-making bodies such as the United States Congress. It is a controversial phenomenon seen in a negative light by journalists and the American public, with some critics describing it as a legal form of bribery or extortion. While lobbying is subject to extensive and complex rules which, if not followed, can lead to penalties including jail, the activity of lobbying has been interpreted by court rulings as constitutionally protected free speech and a way to petition the government for the redress of grievances, two of the freedoms protected by the First Amendment of the Constitution. Since the 1970s, lobbying activity has grown immensely in the United States in terms of the numbers of lobbyists and the size of lobbying budgets, has become the focus of much criticism of American governance. Since lobby rules require extensive disclosure, there is a large amount of information in the public sphere about which entities lobby, how, at whom, for how much.
The current pattern suggests much lobbying is done by corporations, although a wide variety of coalitions representing diverse groups occurs. Lobbying takes place at every level of government, including federal, county and local governments. In Washington, D. C. lobbying targets members of Congress, although there have been efforts to influence executive agency officials as well as Supreme Court appointments. Lobbying can have an important influence on the political system; the number of lobbyists in Washington is estimated to be over twelve thousand, but most lobbying, is handled by fewer than 300 firms with low turnover. A report in The Nation in 2014 suggested that while the number of 12,281 registered lobbyists was a decrease since 2002, lobbying activity was increasing and "going underground" as lobbyists use "increasingly sophisticated strategies" to obscure their activity. Analyst James A. Thurber estimated that the actual number of working lobbyists was close to 100,000 and that the industry brings in $9 billion annually.
Lobbying has been the subject of academic inquiry in various fields, including law, public policy and marketing strategy. Political scientist Thomas R. Dye once said that politics is about battling over scarce governmental resources: who gets them, when and how. Since government makes the rules in a complex economy such as the United States, it is logical that various organizations, individuals, trade groups, religions and others—which are affected by these rules—will exert as much influence as they can to have rulings favorable to their cause, and the battling for influence has happened in every organized society since the beginning of civilization, whether it was Ancient Athens, Florence during the time of the Medici, Late Imperial China, or the present-day United States. Modern-day lobbyists in one sense are like the courtiers of the Ancien Régime. If voting is a general way for a public to control a government, lobbying is a more specific, targeted effort, focused on a narrower set of issues.
The term lobby has etymological roots in the physical structure of the British Parliament, in which there was an intermediary covered room outside the main hall. People pushing an agenda would try to meet with members of Parliament in this room, they came to be known, by metonymy, as lobbyists, although one account in 1890 suggested that the application of the word "lobby" is American and that the term is not used as much in Britain; the term lobbying in everyday parlance can describe a wide variety of activities, in its general sense, suggests advocacy, advertising, or promoting a cause. In this sense, anybody who tries to influence any political position can be thought of as "lobbying", sometimes the term is used in this loose sense. A person who writes a letter to a congressperson, or questions a candidate at a political meeting, could be construed as being a lobbyist. However, the term "lobbying" means a paid activity with the purpose of attempting to "influence or sway" a public official – including bureaucrats and elected officials – towards a desired specific action relating to specific legislation.
If advocacy is disseminating information, including attempts to persuade public officials as well as the public and media to promote the cause of something and support it when this activity becomes focused on specific legislation, either in support or in opposition it crosses the line from advocacy and becomes lobbying. This is the usual sense of the term "lobbying." One account suggested that much of the activity of nonprofits was not lobbying per se, since it did not mean changes in legislation. A lobbyist, according to the legal sense of the word, is a professional a lawyer. Lobbyists are intermediaries between client organizations and lawmakers: they explain to legislators what their organizations want, they explain to their clients what obstacles elected officials face. One definition of a lobbyist is someone "employed to persuade legislators to pass legislation that will help the lobbyist's employer." Many lobbyists work in lobbying firms or law firms. Others work for advocacy groups, trade associations and state and local governments.
Lobbyists can be one type of government official, such as a governor of a sta
Pennsylvania Avenue is a diagonal street in Washington, D. C. and Prince George's County, Maryland that connects the White House and the United States Capitol and crosses the city to Maryland. In Maryland it is Maryland Route 4 to MD-717 where it becomes Stephanie Roper Highway; the section between the White House and Congress is called "America's Main Street", it is the location of official parades and processions, as well as protest marches. Moreover, Pennsylvania Avenue is an important commuter road and is part of the National Highway System; the avenue runs for a total of 5.8 miles inside Washington, but the 1.2 miles of Pennsylvania Avenue from the White House to the United States Capitol building is considered the most important. It continues within the city for 3.5 miles, from the southeast corner of the Capitol grounds through the Capitol Hill neighborhood, over the Anacostia River on the John Philip Sousa Bridge. Crossing most of Prince George's County, Maryland, it ends 9.5 miles from the DC line at the junction with MD 717 in WUpper Marlboro where the name changes to the Stephanie Roper Highway, for a total length of 15.3 miles.
Stephanie Roper Highway used to be Pennsylvania Avenue, but was renamed in 2012. In addition to its street names, in Maryland it is designated as Maryland Route 4. At one point in the mid-20th century, Pennsylvania Avenue was designated DC 4, an extension of Maryland Route 4 that reached at least the east side of the White House. Northwest of the White House, Pennsylvania Avenue runs for 1.4 miles to its end at M Street NW in Georgetown, just beyond the Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge over Rock Creek. From 1862 to 1962, streetcars ran the length of the avenue from Georgetown to the Anacostia River. Although Pennsylvania Avenue extends six miles within Washington, D. C. the expanse between the White House and the Capitol constitutes the ceremonial heart of the nation. Washington called this stretch "most magnificent & most convenient". Laid out by Pierre Charles L'Enfant, Pennsylvania Avenue was one of the earliest streets constructed in the Federal City; the first reference to the street as Pennsylvania Avenue comes in a 1791 letter from Thomas Jefferson.
One theory is that the street was named for Pennsylvania as consolation for moving the capital from Philadelphia. Both Jefferson and George Washington considered the avenue an important feature of the new capital. After inspecting L'Enfant's plan, President Washington referred to the thoroughfare as a "Grand Avenue". Jefferson concurred, while the "grand avenue" was little more than a wide dirt road ridiculed as "The Great Serbonian Bog", he planted it with rows of fast-growing Lombardy poplars. At one time Pennsylvania Avenue provided an unobstructed view between the White House and the Capitol; the construction of an expansion to the Treasury Building blocked this view, President Andrew Jackson did this on purpose. Relations between the president and Congress were strained, Jackson did not want to see the Capitol out his window, though in reality the Treasury Building was built on what was cheap government land. In an effort to tame dust and dirt, Pennsylvania Avenue was first paved using the macadam method in 1832, but over the years other pavement methods were trialed on the avenue: cobblestones in 1849 followed by Belgian blocks and in 1871, wooden blocks.
In 1876, as part of an initiative begun by President Ulysses S. Grant to see Washington City's streets improved, Pennsylvania Avenue was paved with asphalt by Civil War veteran William Averell using Trinidad lake asphalt. In 1959, Pennsylvania Avenue was extended from the DC line to Dower House Road. On September 30, 1965, portions of the avenue and surrounding area were designated the Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site; the National Park Service administers this area which includes the United States Navy Memorial, Old Post Office Tower, Pershing Park. Congress created the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation on October 27, 1972 to rehabilitate the street between the Capitol and the White House, an area seen as blighted; the new organization was given the mandate of developing Pennsylvania Avenue "in a manner suitable to its ceremonial and historic relationship to the legislative and executive branches of the Federal Government". In 2010, the District of Columbia designated Pennsylvania Avenue from the southwestern terminus of John Philip Sousa Bridge to the Maryland state line to be a "D.
C. Great Street"; the city spent $430 million to improve the roadway. Since an impromptu procession formed around Jefferson's second inauguration, every United States president except Ronald Reagan has paraded down the Avenue after taking the oath of office. From William Henry Harrison to Gerald Ford, the funeral corteges of seven of the eight presidents who died in office and two former presidents followed this route. Franklin Roosevelt was the only president who died in office whose cortege did not follow this route. Lyndon B. Johnson and Ford were the former presidents. For LBJ, it was along the route from the Capitol to the National City Christian Church, where he worshiped because the funeral was held there. Ford's went up Pennsylvania Avenue because it paused at the White House en route to the Washington National Cathedral, where the funeral was held. Abraham Lincoln's funeral cortege solemnly proceeded along Pennsylvania Avenue in 1865.
Interstate 66 is an Interstate Highway in the eastern United States. As indicated by its route number, it runs in an east–west direction, its current western terminus is near Middletown, Virginia, at an interchange with Interstate 81. C. at an interchange with U. S. Route 29; because of its terminus in the Shenandoah Valley, the highway was once called the "Shenandoah Freeway." Much of the route parallels U. S. Route 29 or Virginia State Route 55. Interstate 66 has no physical or historical connection to the famous U. S. Route 66, in a different region of the United States; the E Street Expressway is a spur from Interstate 66 into the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C; because I-66 is the only Interstate Highway running west from Washington, D. C. into Northern Virginia, traffic on the road is extremely heavy. For decades, there has been talk of widening I-66 from 2 to 3 lanes each way inside the Capital Beltway through Arlington, although many Arlington residents are adamantly opposed to this plan.
In 2005, the Virginia Department of Transportation studied the prospect of implementing a one-lane-plus-shoulder extension on westbound I-66 within the Beltway. In the summer of 2010, construction began on a third lane and a 12-foot shoulder lane between the Fairfax Drive entrance ramp to I-66 west and the Sycamore Street ramp, a 1.9 mile distance. The entrance ramp acceleration lane and the exit ramp deceleration lanes were lengthened to form a continuous lane between both ramps; the 12-foot shoulder lane can be used in emergency situations. This project was completed in December 2011; the Orange Line and the Silver Line of the Washington Metro operate in the median of the highway in Fairfax and Arlington counties. Four stations are located along this segment of I-66. I-66 east has two exit ramps, one from each side of the highway, to the Inner Loop of I-495 heading northbound. One is a two lane right exit which merges down to one lane halfway along the ramp, while a second exit ramp is a left exit.
Both exit ramps for the Inner Loop merge prior to merging from the left with the Inner Loop. There is no access from the Outer Loop of I-495 to I-66 east. I-66 east has two exits, one from each side of the highway, to the Outer Loop of I-495. One is a right exit. I-66 is named the "Custis Memorial Parkway" east of the Capital Beltway in Virginia; the name commemorates the Custis family, several of whose members played prominent roles in Northern Virginia's history. Due to heavy commuter traffic, I-66 features a variety of high-occupancy vehicle restrictions. Between US 15 in Haymarket and the Capital Beltway, the left lane on eastbound I-66 is reserved for vehicles with two or more occupants from 5:30 to 9:30 a.m. on weekdays, the left lane on westbound I-66 is reserved for HOV-2 traffic from 3:00 to 7:00 p.m on weekdays. The eastbound shoulder lane between US 50 in Fairfax and the Beltway is open to all traffic from 5:30 to 11:00 a.m on weekdays. The westbound shoulder lane between the Capital Beltway and U.
S. Route 50, is open to all traffic from 2:00 to 8:00 p.m on weekdays. Between the Beltway and the Theodore Roosevelt Bridge, the entire eastbound roadway is reserved for HOV-2 and Washington Dulles International Airport traffic from 5:30 to 9:30 a.m. and the entire westbound roadway is reserved for HOV-2 and Dulles Airport traffic from 3:00 to 7:00 p.m. This is enforced by random police presence on the on- and off-ramps, because single-passenger vehicles are allowed to enter the highway inside the Beltway in the direction of rush-hour traffic when they intend to use the Dulles Access Road called Virginia State Route 267 at exit 67. Police monitor the three-mile stretch between the Dulles Access Road and the Beltway for violations on Virginia State Route 267 between the on and off ramp to Washington Dulles International Airport and I-66 having traffic slow down to visually inspect inside each vehicle. Both motorcycles and qualified "clean special fuel" vehicles are permitted to use HOV-2 facilities on I-66 during times when HOV regulations are in effect without the required number of occupants.
The "clean special fuel" designation is used by hybrid vehicles, but is available for vehicles using alternative fuels such as natural gas or electricity. To qualify for the HOV exemption, a vehicle owner must request the designation when registering the vehicle, pay the appropriate fees, display a "clean special fuel" license plate; the clean-fuel exemption is scheduled to expire on June 30, 2012, although the Virginia General Assembly has extended the exemption every year, one year at a time, since it was designated to expire in 2006. In 2011, the exemption was modified so it applies only to clean fuel vehicles registered before June 30, 2011. Clean-fuel vehicles registered after that date are not exempt from HOV regulations on I-66. In 2012, the exemption was modified to be "open-ended" rather than year-to-year; as of January 28, 2011, penalt
Southwest (Washington, D.C.)
Southwest is the southwestern quadrant of Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States, is located south of the National Mall and west of South Capitol Street. It is the smallest quadrant of the city. Southwest is small enough that it is referred to as a neighborhood in and of itself. However, it contains five separate neighborhoods. Southwest is composed of five neighborhoods: the Southwest Federal Center called the Southwest Employment District, is the area between the National Mall and the Southeast/Southwest Freeway. Southwest Federal Center contains the Smithsonian Institution museums along the south side of the Mall—including the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the National Museum of African Art, the Freer Gallery of Art, the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, the National Air and Space Museum, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the National Museum of the American Indian—as well as the United States Botanical Gardens, L'Enfant Plaza and a large concentration of federal executive branch office buildings for departments as well the House office buildings.
The Southwest Waterfront called Near Southwest, is between I-395 and Fort Lesley J. McNair. Southwest Waterfront is a residential neighborhood, it is home to several Washington DC marinas, including the Washington Marina, The Capitol Yacht Club, the Gangplank Marina, the James Creek Marina. It is home to the Maine Avenue Fish Market, Arena Stage, the Washington Marina, Fort McNair, Hains Point. Buzzard Point, a undeveloped industrial area between South Capitol Street and Fort McNair. Buzzard Point was the home of the U. S. Coast Guard, headquartered in a building at the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers; the headquarters moved to the former St. Elizabeths Hospital campus elsewhere in DC in 2013; the area of Southwest, south and east of the Anacostia River contains Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling together with the Naval Research Laboratory and the Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant, Job Corps Center, Fire Department Training Center. Bolling is in Ward 8; the Bellevue neighborhood occupies all of the Southwest land between South Capitol Street and the Anacostia and Potomac rivers.
Included is the small Hadley Hospital. Bellevue is in Ward 8; the Blue and Silver lines of the Washington Metro have the following stations in the Southwest Federal Center: Smithsonian, L'Enfant Plaza, Federal Center SW. The Yellow line stops at L'Enfant Plaza; the Green line has a stop in the Southwest Federal Center at L'Enfant Plaza and in the Southwest Waterfront at Waterfront. Southwest is part of Pierre L'Enfant's original city plans and includes some of the oldest buildings in the city, including the Wheat Row block of townhouses, built in 1793, Fort McNair, established in 1791 as "the U. S. Arsenal at Greenleaf Point." Prior to 1847, much of the Virginia portion of the District of Columbia, including the town of Alexandria, was included in Southwest. After the Civil War, the Southwest Waterfront became a neighborhood for the poorer classes of Washingtonians; the neighborhood was divided in half by Fourth Street SW known as 41⁄2 Street. Each half was centered on religious establishments: St. Dominic's Catholic Church and Talmud Torah Congregation on the west, Friendship Baptist Church on the east.
Waterfront developed into a quite contradictory area: it had a thriving commercial district with grocery stores, shops, a movie theater, as well as a few large and elaborate houses. However, most of the neighborhood was a poor shantytown of tenements and tents; these places, some of them in the shadow of the Capitol Building, were frequent subjects of photographs highlighting the stark contrast. In the 1950s, city planners working with the U. S. Congress decided that Southwest should undergo a significant urban renewal — in this case, meaning that the city would declare eminent domain over all land south of the National Mall and north of the Anacostia River; the seizure of the entire area, including well maintained properties, was upheld by the United States Supreme Court in Berman v. Parker. Justice William Douglas emphasized the squalor and segregation the area suffered, noting that the area was 98% black while 58% of dwellings had outside toilets. Only a few buildings were left intact, notably the Maine Avenue fish market, the Wheat Row townhouses, the Thomas Law House, the St. Dominic's and Friendship churches.
The Southeast/Southwest Freeway was
Foggy Bottom is one of the oldest late 18th- and 19th-century neighborhoods in Washington, D. C. Foggy Bottom is west of the White House and downtown Washington, in the Northwest quadrant, bounded by 17th Street NW to the east, Rock Creek Parkway to the west, Constitution Avenue NW to the south, Pennsylvania Avenue NW to the north. Much of Foggy Bottom is occupied by the main campus of the George Washington University. Foggy Bottom is thought to have received its name due to its riverside location, which made it susceptible to concentrations of fog and industrial smoke, an atmospheric quirk; the Foggy Bottom neighborhood not only borders Downtown Washington D. C. but borders the affluent neighborhood of Georgetown as well. Residents of Foggy Bottom have convenient access to Georgetown University as well; the United States Department of State gained the metonym "Foggy Bottom" when it moved its headquarters to the nearby Harry S Truman Building planned and constructed to be the new United States Department of War headquarters building, from the State and Navy Building near the White House in 1947.
The Foggy Bottom area was the site of one of the earliest settlements in what is now the District of Columbia, when German settler Jacob Funk subdivided 130 acres near the meeting place of the Potomac River and Rock Creek in 1763. The settlement was named Hamburgh, but colloquially was called Funkstown. In 1765, German settlers established the town of Hamburg on what would become the area between 24th and 18th NW Street. There are two more founders: Robert Peter and James Linigan; the three had control of the land until 1791 when the territories were given to the city of Washington and the United States government. In the town of Hamburg, a German community was founded by many German immigrants. In 1768, Funk sold two lots of territory to both the German Lutheran and the German Presbyterian communities; the lot, sold to the German Lutherans was located on the corner of 20th and G Street. The lot sold to the German Presbyterians was located on the southeast corner of G Street; the Lutheran lot would not the Presbyterian until the 1880s.
The lot, sold to the German Lutheran community was turned into the Concordia German Church. By the 19th century, Foggy Bottom became a community of white and black laborers employed at the nearby breweries, glass plants, city gas works; these industrial facilities are cited as a possible reason for the neighborhood's name, the "fog" being the smoke given off by the industries. Foggy Bottom attracted few settlers until the 1850s, when more industrial enterprises came into the area. Funk set aside land in Hamburgh for a German-speaking congregation in 1768. Concordia German Evangelical Church, located at 1920 G Street NW was founded in 1833. Today the congregation is The United Church, is the oldest religious community remaining in Foggy Bottom. Foggy Bottom became the site of the George Washington University's 42-acre main campus in 1912. Foggy Bottom was the name of a line of beer by the Olde Heurich Brewing Company, founded by German immigrant Christian Heurich's grandson, Gary Heurich, he tried to revive the tradition of his family's Christian Heurich Brewing Company, which had ceased production in Foggy Bottom.
Christian Heurich Brewing Company's most successful products bore such local names as Senate and Old Georgetown. During the 1950s, Heurich Brewing sponsored the city's professional baseball team, the Washington Senators. Industry consolidation led the brewery to cease operations in 1956. In 1961–1962, the brewery buildings were razed to make way for the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Heurich, Jr. and his two sisters donated a portion of the brewery land to the Kennedy Center in memory of their parents, established the Christian Heurich Family as one of the Founders of the national cultural center. Although the firm was founded in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood, the modern beer was brewed in Utica, New York. Foggy Bottom, along with the rest of Washington D. C, was designed using the L'Enfant Plan, which created squares of housing with open space left in the middle. Foggy Bottom's alley life issue emerged during the 1860s when an influx of Irish and German immigrants attempted to move into Foggy Bottom.
This influx was a result of the large number of industrial buildings that were located in Foggy Bottom. There were no immediate houses available for these new immigrants, so they were forced to move into the uninhabited alleys that were located in the middle of the squares; the situation became worse after the Civil War when a wave of newly freed blacks moved to Washington and began populating the alleys. Construction of the alleys continued until 1892 because the government needed to reduce overcrowding in residential areas. For the next decade, the government left the alleys untouched. However, at the turn of the 20th century, the government began relegating more responsibilities and authority to the Health Department, which began demolishing the alleys because of the copious amounts of crime and disease; the living conditions of the inhabitants were quite abysmal, with half of the population sharing or having no toilet facilities Furthermore, crime was a major problem. The following decades showed an improvement in the overall living conditions in the alleys of Foggy Bottom.
The Health Department's effort to reduce crime and overcrowding succeeded until the 1920s, when prohibition began being enforced. Because breweries were a major source of income for the in
U.S. Route 29 in the District of Columbia
U. S. Route 29 in the District of Columbia is a U. S. highway which enters D. C. via Key Bridge from Arlington and exits at Silver Spring, Maryland. It predominantly follows city surface streets, although the portion of the route from Key Bridge east to 26th Street NW is an elevated highway; the elevated section of U. S. Route 29 in D. C. is better known as the Whitehurst Freeway. Called the city's most ridiculed bridge in 1989, there have been several attempts to have the Whitehurst Freeway torn down but cost and other considerations have stopped these proposals from being acted on. From Virginia, US 29 enters the District of Columbia on the Key Bridge, it bypasses Georgetown on the Whitehurst Freeway, an elevated highway over K Street NW and Water Street NW. After crossing the K Street Bridge, US 29 travels along K Street NW through downtown Washington. From K Street, US 29 turns left at 11th Street NW right at Rhode Island Avenue NW. US 29 northbound turns left at 6th Street NW left again onto Florida Avenue NW before turning right onto Georgia Avenue NW.
US 29 southbound traffic on Georgia Avenue continues straight at Florida Avenue, where Georgia Avenue becomes 7th Street NW turns right at Rhode Island Avenue NW. US 29 follows Georgia Avenue NW out into Maryland. Various alignments of Route 29 used to exist, including segments along New Hampshire Avenue NW, Dupont Circle, 16th Street NW, Alaska Avenue NW. Prior to construction of the Whitehurst Freeway, the Georgetown waterfront experienced periods of prosperity and decline; the freeway was seen as a component of what would be the "Inner Loop", a system of three concentric high-speed freeways. Whitehurst would form part of the innermost loop, an ellipse centered on and built about 1 mile from the White House. Planning for a "sky-road" above K Street NW along the Georgetown waterfront was long-planned by the time architectural drawings were released to the public in December 1941. Congress authorized construction of the freeway on January 24, 1942, appropriated $2.2 million of federal funds for its construction on February 6.
But with the outbreak of World War II and the diversion of steel for war material, construction of the freeway was indefinitely postponed in May 1942. Gas rationing during the war caused the number of automobiles on roads to drop precipitously, helping to make the freeway unnecessary. Planning for post-war construction did not cease during the war, however. In May 1943, the United States Commission of Fine Arts approved a plan for post-war construction in Washington, D. C. that gave a high priority to the K Street freeway in fiscal 1947. Construction of the $3.294 million freeway began on June 1, 1947. The structure was built by engineer Archibald Alexander; the Des Moines, firm of Alexander & Repass bid to construct the viaduct. The cost of the freeway was split between the D. C. and federal governments, with cost overruns to be paid from D. C. reserves. Extra federal funds were procured in the fiscal 1949 budget to speed its construction. Construction of the freeway required the demolition of the Francis Scott Key home at 3516 M Street NW.
Although efforts to have the home dismantled rather than demolished were successful, President Harry S. Truman declined to expend federal funds to have the home rebuilt elsewhere, the structure went into storage. Herbert C. Whitehurst, director of the D. C. highway department, died on September 1, 1948. A week his successor, Gordon R. Young, suggested that the then-under construction freeway should be named for him, in honor of his leadership in constructing many highway and bridges, including the new Chain Bridge; the Commissioners of the District of Columbia approved naming the freeway after Whitehurst. The Whitehurst Freeway opened on October 8, 1949. Whitehurst's granddaughter Maria cut the ceremonial ribbon during the opening ceremonies. Demolition of the Whitehurst Freeway was first proposed in 1970. A report commissioned by the National Capitol Planning Commission and the Georgetown Citizens' Association said the freeway blocked vistas, inhibited development of the waterfront, was poorly engineered, caused traffic back-ups at both of its ends.
The report urged the city to bury the freeway in an enclosed trench and sell the air rights above it to developers or use it as parkland. But in 1977, D. C. director of municipal planning Ben Gilbert concluded that Whitehurst's "removal is not practical in the near future and maybe never". In 1985, D. C. Mayor Marion Barry said. City public works officials implemented a $47 million rehabilitation of the Whitehurst Freeway in 1989; the year-long construction project, which would be 80 percent paid for by the federal government and take more than a year to complete, added shoulders to the freeway that widened it to 60 feet from 52 feet, replaced the entire deck, added drains, improved the lighting. Officials sandblasted rust and old paint from the understructure, repainted it. A westbound ramp used to access Key Bridge was eliminated, replaced with a new traffic route that required motorists to go to Canal Road NW/M Street NW, wait for the traffic light, turn east to access Key Bridge. Two unused ramps at the eastern end of Whitehurst Freeway were demolished.
Prior to the rehabilitation, city officials studied the feasib
Mount Vernon Square
Mount Vernon Square is a city square and neighborhood in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D. C; the square is located where the following streets would otherwise intersect: Massachusetts Avenue NW, New York Avenue NW, K Street NW, 8th Street NW. Mount Vernon Square is bounded on the east by 7th Street NW, on the west by 9th Street NW, on the north by Mount Vernon Place, on the south by a two-block section of K Street NW, offset from the rest of K Street. In the center of the square is the Carnegie Library of Washington D. C. finished as a gift of industrialist Andrew Carnegie. The white marble Beaux-Arts building was the central library for Washington, D. C. and housed the Historical Society of Washington, D. C. An Apple Store will occupy the building; the square was in the original L'Enfant Plan for the city but in the early 1800s was divided into four triangles by the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and New York Avenue. The old Northern Liberty Market stood along Seventh Street until 1872, when it was demolished by Governor Alexander Shepherd in a night raid with two to three hundred men.
The roadways were removed in 1882 at the request of residents who complained that "in its former condition the constant passage of vehicles of all descriptions through the park made it unpleasant and oftentimes dangerous for those frequenting it." The Carnegie Library of Washington D. C. was built in 1903. It was the central library for the city until 1972, when the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library was completed; the library sat abandoned for a decade until it was renovated as a library for the University of the District of Columbia. In 1999, the library became the headquarters for the Historical Society of Washington, D. C; the City Museum of Washington opened in the library in May 2003, but closed less than two years later. In 2008, a sculpture was installed on the lawn at the south side of the square - "The Hand" created by Jim Fauntleroy in the 1960s for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference’s Poor People’s Campaign; the Washington Convention and Sports Authority took over the library building in 2011, renting it out for events.
The building underwent significant renovations in 2018, to accommodate a new Apple Store and exhibit space for the Historical Society. Mount Vernon Square refers to the neighborhood northeast of the square, extending north to O Street and east to New Jersey Avenue. In the early 20th century, Victorian-style townhomes occupied the area, it was a vibrant business district until the Great Depression, when the area went into a steep decline. During the 1968 Martin Luther King, Jr. riots, the area around the square suffered rioting and extensive vandalism. In the 1980s, 7th Street was shut down for several years during the construction of the Green Line - the Mount Vernon Square station opened in 1991. Washington's Chinatown is just south of the square, the Shaw neighborhood is just to the north, Mount Vernon Triangle is the neighborhood directly to the east. In 1977, the city used eminent domain to purchase several blocks southwest of Mount Vernon Square. Over the next few years, the homes and businesses on these blocks were razed.
The old Washington Convention Center was constructed on the area block bounded by New York Avenue NW, 9th Street NW, H Street NW, 11th Street NW. Construction on the center began in 1980, it opened on December 10, 1982. At 800,000 square feet, it was the fourth largest facility in the United States at the time. However, during the 1980s and 1990s, numerous larger and more modern facilities were constructed around the country, by 1997 the Washington Convention Center had become the 30th largest facility. In 1998, construction began on a new larger convention center, occupying several blocks directly north of Mount Vernon Square; the new convention center was completed in 2003, renamed the Walter E. Washington Convention Center in 2007. Many small businesses existed around Mount Vernon Square before the construction of the convention centers. One of the last businesses to exist on the west side of the square was a Chinese restaurant named Nan King, open until 1979. By 2004, Alperstein's Furniture was the only store on 7th Street to survive through the construction of the Metro station and the new convention center.
It closed with a restaurant moving into its building. On the west side of the square is the 901 New York Avenue office building, completed in 2003. On the east are two large office buildings, including the headquarters of law firm Arnold & Porter, the headquarters for the Association of American Medical Colleges and the American Dental Education Association. On the south side is the Renaissance Washington DC Hotel, the Techworld plaza office development, undergoing redevelopment and re-branding as "Anthem Row."Across from the northwest corner of the square is the Washington Marriott Marquis, the largest hotel in the city, which opened in 2014. The lot at the southwest corner of the square was the former site of the old Washington Convention Center, now the CityCenterDC development, which opened in 2015. There are two historic buildings northwest of the square: the Mount Vernon Place United Methodist Church and the American Federation of Labor Building; the Mount Vernon Place church was built by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.
The Labor building was built in 1916 as the headquarters for the American Federation of Labor. List of circles in Washington, D. C