Radio comedy, or comedic radio programming, is a radio broadcast that may involve sitcom elements and various types of comedy found on other media. It may include more surreal or fantastic elements, as these can be conveyed on a small budget with just a few sound effects or some simple dialogue. Radio comedy in the United States began when Raymond Knight launched The Cuckoo Hour on NBC in 1929, along with the 1931 network debut of Stoopnagle and Budd on CBS. Comedians such as Fred Allen, Jack Benny, Judy Canova, Bob Hope and Red Skelton were top-rated in the decades that followed. After the big name comedians moved to television, radio comedy continued, notably from Bob and Ray, The Firesign Theatre and segments heard on NBC's Monitor. Although traditional comedy was once a significant part of American broadcast radio programming, it is now found in the archives of Old Time Radio enthusiasts and on the Internet streaming of comedy recordings; the majority of mainstream radio comedy now consists of personality-driven shows hosted by talk-radio hosts such as Howard Stern or comedic duos such as Armstrong & Getty and Bob & Tom.
Exceptions to this are WSRN's "Audience of Two", Garrison Keillor's work on Minnesota Public Radio: A Prairie Home Companion and Comedy College, NPR's Car Talk, a comedy show thinly disguised as car advice, Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me!. Shows featuring comedic music are popular. Several networks program 24 hours a day of stand-up comedy routines. Rock music stations play bits of stand-up comedy within the bounds of their regular formats under the banner of a "five o'clock funnies" feature. In Britain and Canada, the BBC and CBC have continued making new radio comedy and drama. British radio comedy has a home on Australia's Radio National and in Ireland there are always a few comedy shows in the week's programming on RTÉ. A locally produced Australian comedic radio program is Hamish & Andy, in the United Kingdom an example is The Burkiss Way. Many of the BBC's most successful television comedies began life as radio shows; these include Hancock's Half Hour, Goodness Gracious Me, Knowing Me, Knowing You, The League of Gentlemen, Whose Line Is It Anyway?, Room 101, Have I Got News For You, Dead Ringers and most Little Britain and Absolute Power.
The science fiction comedy Red Dwarf was developed from ideas in a radio show called Son Of Cliché. Another science fiction comedy The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy was created for radio, but went on to great success in book and film formats. Examples of American radio comedy can be heard on streaming internet radio stations. Humorous storytelling is the focus of The Moth Radio Hour. Garrison Keillor's A Prairie Home Companion can be heard on public radio stations in the United States and a different version of the shows can be heard on BBC Radio 4 Extra and RTÉ under the name Garrison Keillor's Radio Show. Old shows can be listened to online at the websites of "A Prairie Home Companion" or RTÉ. British radio comedy can be heard on BBC Radio 2 and BBC Radio 4 Extra. Minnesota Public Radio maintains a website where it is possible to listen to episodes of Comedy College. A British commercial station Oneword broadcast American vintage radio comedy as part of their 24-hour-a-day programming of books and drama and this was streamed on the internet until the station closed in 2008.
Interest in radio comedy and radio drama is enjoying a resurgence. Epguides.com, which provides encyclopedic information on television shows, has begun to build a similar list of radio shows. In America, new groups have formed to try to bring about a renewed interest in the art-form. At the forefront of this new wave of audio-only comedic groups is Peeper Radio Theatre. Veteran NPR Producer Joe Bevilacqua is creating new radio comedy for The Comedy-O-Rama Hour, which airs on XM Satellite Radio's Sonic Theater Channel 163, five times per week. In the UK, recent standup and revue comedy performances are now receiving airing on radio. Books on the radio List of old-time radio people List of radio comedies Necrology of Old Radio Personalities OTR Actors and Their Roles
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
The HOYTS Group is an Australian group of companies, including Hoyts Exhibition, Hoyts Kiosk and Val Morgan. It has two components: Hoyts Cinema, which incorporates the chain of successful cinema complexes in Australia and New Zealand with more than 450 screens and over 55,000 seats; the Hoyts Group CEO, Damien Keogh, was appointed to the role in 2014. In 2015, Hoyts was acquired by the Wanda Group, a subsidiary of Chinese conglomerate Dalian Wanda Group. At the start of the 20th century, Dr. Arthur Russell, a successful dentist, purchased a share in a small touring circus-type tent show incorporating magic and moving pictures. Russell performed shows at St George's Hall in Bourke Street, in 1909 moving pictures was the only attraction. Russell negotiated a long lease for St George's Hall with the purpose of opening a Picture Palace called Hoyt's Pictures. By the time he died at the end of World War I, Hoyts had expanded into the suburbs of Melbourne, into Sydney. On September 29, 1926, Hoyts and two other companies, Electric Theatres Pty. Ltd. and Associated Theatres Pty. Ltd. merged to become Hoyts Theatres Limited.
In 1930 the Fox Film Corp. acquired majority of shares in Hoyts Theatres Ltd. In August 1982, Twentieth Century Fox sold Hoyts to Stardawn Investments, a group of four Melbourne businessmen. In April 1985, the Fink family subsequently bought out the other partners to become the sole owner. In 1987, the corporation was restructured and two of the companies in the corporation were listed on the Australian Stock Exchange: Hoyts Media and Hoyts Entertainment. However, the company that owned the cinemas, Hoyts Cinemas, was not floated until 1996; the years between 1987 and 1996 saw considerable expansion for Hoyts, expanding in Australia, New Zealand and the United States. Following Leon Fink's death in 1993, the Hoyts organisation was sold to Hellman & Friedman and Lend-Lease; the company went public in 1995. In 1999, Hoyts celebrated its 90th anniversary and was ranked the seventh largest cinema exhibitor in the world. In the same year, the late Kerry Packer's private family company, Consolidated Press Holdings, bought the chain for $620 million.
After that, Hoyts began to sell off international cinemas except for some New Zealand cinemas. In 2004, it joined forces with Village Roadshow and AHL to bail out Val Morgan Cinema Advertising taking their stake to 100% in 2005. In December that year, PBL and West Australian Newspapers purchased the company from Consolidated Press Holdings. In 2007, Hoyts was sold to Sydney-based private equity firm Pacific Equity Partners; the sale valued the company at A$440 million. In October 2008, Hoyts announced a takeover bid for Australian Multiplex Cinemas; the purchase did not proceed, although at the time Hoyts still hoped to return to Queensland, where they had owned theatres in Brisbane and a three cinema complex in Surfers Paradise on the Gold Coast. In 2010, Hoyts acquired the Berkeley Cinema Group in New Zealand and Australian Multiplex Cinema to re-enter the Queensland market. In December 2014, Hoyts was bought by Chinese billionaire Sun Xishuang, through his investment company ID Leisure Ventures.
On 2 June 2015 Wanda Cinema Line, a subsidiary of Dalian Wanda Group, purchased Hoyts from ID Leisure Ventures. Hoyts Distribution was the film distribution arm of the Group until 2012, it existed in its own right in the 1980s- early 1990s, was merged with the distribution operations of Sony Pictures and Twentieth Century Fox. In 2002, the company was brought back to life, distributing films produced by Nine Films and Television, Channel 9's film production arm, major independent studios, such as Lions Gate Entertainment. In July 2012 it was acquired by StudioCanal. Val Morgan holds the advertising rights to all advertising screens in Australia and all screens in New Zealand. Val Morgan's sister company, VMO, operates a digital out-of-home advertising network in four key environments: shopping centres, health clubs, service stations and office towers. Australian Theatres Birch Carroll & Coyle Event Cinemas Greater Union Palace Cinemas Reading Cinemas The Movie Masters Cinema Group Village Cinemas Wallis Cinemas Warner Village Cinemas Hoyts Cinemas Australia Hoyts Cinemas New Zealand
94.7 The Pulse
94.7 The Pulse, is a community radio station which broadcasts to the Geelong, Victoria region in Australia. The Pulse had been known as 3YYR, broadcasting on 100.3 MHz FM before becoming known as Geelong Community Radio on the same frequency. In 2001, frequency 100.3Mhz was issued to new commercial station Nova 100 in Melbourne and the station was moved to its current frequency of 94.7 MHz FM and changed names to 94.7 The Pulse. Its studios which are based in 68-70 Lt Ryrie St, Geelong at the Geelong Media Education Centre is a training facility for other forms of media; the Geelong Media Co-operative - the operators of 3YYR - operated the radio station for some period of time in conjunction with Diversitat, the operational arm of the Geelong Ethnic Communities Council, representing the ethnic broadcasters. The full-time licence held by the GCRC was surrendered to the Australian Communications and Media Authority; the licence passed to Diversitat, who have since maintained the mix of ethnic and broader community programming.
The station is now run by a board drawn from the volunteer operators and has a representative on the GECC executive. The frequency used by the station is not guaranteed for a future community radio service, as such has become available in the longer term for a potential variety of alternate services. In June 2007 an article appeared in the Geelong Advertiser stating that the Australian Broadcasting Corporation wanted to establish a radio station in Geelong, wanted to take over the frequency used by The Pulse; the Pulse has organised a campaign to protect the Frequency. On Monday, 18 August 2008 the Australian Communications and Media Authority announced a proposal which would see 94.7 The Pulse move to 91.9FM with a reduced broadcast power of 3 kW down from 56 kWOn 27 August 2009, the ACMA announced that the station would be able to keeps its frequency with ABC Local Radio having to find another location to broadcast to the region. This followed widespread support from Local Government for The Pulse.
David Speers is an Australian journalist and the political editor at Sky News Australia, as well as host of PM Agenda, The Last Word and Speers Tonight. Speers began his career at K-Rock FM Geelong newsroom before moving to the Macquarie Radio Network at 2GB, the Southern Cross radio network, including stations 2UE and 3AW, before joining Sky News Australia in 2000, he has been a member of the National Press Club board since 2005 and is a director. He hosts the channel's flagship PM Agenda program Monday to Thursday afternoons. Additionally, he presents political updates and conducts interviews throughout the day on the 24-hour news channel, he previously commuted from his home in Canberra once a week to Sky News' primary studios in Sydney to host primetime program The Nation with David Speers before the program ended in 2015. On 28 January 2016, Speers began hosting a new weekly Sky News format Speers Tonight from Canberra. Speers was chosen to moderate the leaders' debate between John Howard and Kevin Rudd for the 2007 Australian Federal Election and again in the 2010 Australian Federal Election between Julia Gillard and Tony Abbott, as well as the 2013 Australian Federal Election between Kevin Rudd and Tony Abbott.
Speers writes for financial website Switzer. Between 2006 and 2015, Speers has been awarded with an ASTRA Award for'outstanding performance' by a presenter or journalist every year with the exception of 2010; the awards were discontinued after 2015. Speers won a Walkley Award in December 2014 for a notable interview with Attorney General George Brandis, in which Brandis struggled to explain what metadata was despite being the minister in charge of proposed new laws surrounding the storage and police access of metadata. Speers won the same award at the 2015 event for his notable'The Fixer' interview with Christopher Pyne on PM Agenda. In 2016, Speers was named one of the 50 most powerful people in Australian television by News Corp Australia. Speers won the Subscription Television Award for Best Male Presenter at the 2017 AACTA Awards. Speers lives in Canberra and is married to his wife Liz, together have two children, Matilda born in 2010 and Olive born in 2014. Olive, while aged 2 years old, was flown from Canberra to the Sydney Children's Hospital and placed on life support for nine days following the onset of croup.
Speers plays the trumpet and demonstrated this ability while hosting the 2010 ASTRA Awards
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, commercial and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan has the attributes of being memorable concise and appealing to the audience. The word slogan is derived from slogorn, an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the visual to the chanted and the vulgar, their simple rhetorical nature leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankel's research states that, "English-speaking people began using the term by 1704." The term at that time meant "the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons." Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages.
Crimmins' research suggests that brands are an valuable corporate asset, can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components; these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message clear and concise. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas' research suggests that there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan; the clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan. The slogan emphasizes the benefit of the service it is portraying; the creativity of a slogan is another factor that had a positive effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the brand name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself.
Advertisers must keep into consideration these factors when creating a slogan for a brand, as it shows a brand is a valuable asset to a company, with the slogan being one of the three main components to a brands' image. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans. Marketing slogans are called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs. "Sloganeering" is a derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans. Slogans are used to convey a message about the service or cause that it is representing, it written as a song. Slogans are used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach. If the slogan is used for commercial purposes it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the production aspect that helps create an image for the product, service or cause it's representing.
A slogan can be a few simple words used to form a phrase. In commercial advertising, corporations will use a slogan as part of promotional activity. Slogans can become a global way of identifying good or service, for example Nike's slogan'Just Do It' helped establish Nike as an identifiable brand worldwide. Slogans should catch the audience's attention and influence the consumer's thoughts on what to purchase; the slogan is used by companies to affect the way consumers view their product compared to others. Slogans can provide information about the product, service or cause its advertising; the language used in the slogans is essential to the message. Current words used can trigger different emotions; the use of good adjectives makes for an effective slogan. When a slogan is used for advertising purposes its goal is to sell the product or service to as many consumers through the message and information a slogan provides. A slogan's message can include information about the quality of the product.
Examples of words that can be used to direct the consumer preference towards a current product and its qualities are: good, real, great, perfect and pure. Slogans can influence. Slogans offer information to consumers in an creative way. A slogan can be used for a powerful cause; the slogan can be used to raise awareness about a current cause. A slogan should be clear with a supporting message. Slogans, when combined with action, can provide an influential foundation for a cause to be seen by its intended audience. Slogans, whether used for advertising purpose or social causes, deliver a message to the public that shapes the audiences' opinion towards the subject of the slogan. "It is well known that the text a human hears or reads constitutes 7% of the received information. As a result, any slogan possesses a support