Uşak is a province in western Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Manisa to the west, Denizli to the south, Afyon to the east, Kütahya to the north; the provincial capital is Uşak, its licence location code is 64. The province covers an area of 5,341 km2. In August 2018, the province decided to stop running digital advertisement on United States based social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram and YouTube canceling all of the budget as a response to the U. S. sanctions on Turkey. The U. S. sanctions were over the detention of the Pastor Andrew Brunson. Uşak province is divided into 6 districts: Banaz Eşme Karahallı Sivaslı Ulubey Uşak Uşak governor's official website Uşak municipality's official website Uşak weather forecast information News from Uşak province and 6 districts
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Rohat Alakom, is a Kurdish author from Kars, Turkey who writes his books in Kurdish and Swedish. He was born in a village of Kağızman a district of Kars Province, he went to high school in Kağızman, Later, he went to the capital of Turkey Ankara for higher education. After living in Bulgaria and Germany he went to Sweden, he is living in Sweden. Kürdoloji Biliminin 200 Yıllık Geçmişi Çağdaş Türk Edebiyatında Kürtler Di Çavkaniyên Swêdî de Motîvên Kurdî Unutulmuşluğun Bir Öyküsü: Said-î Kürdi Ziya Gökalp’in Büyük Çilesi: Kürtler Yaşar Kemal’in Yapıtlarında Kürt Gerçeği Di Folklora Kurdî de Serdestiyeke Jinan Li Kurdistanê Hêzeke Nû: Jinên Kurd Bir Kürt Diplomatının Fırtınalı Yılları: Şerif Paşa Eski İstanbul Kürtleri Hoybun Örgütü ve Ağrı Ayaklanması Svensk-kurdiska kontakter under tusen år Arîstokratên Kurd: Torin Orta Anadolu Kürtleri Kurdên Swêdê Kurderna- Fyrtio år i Sverige Ronahîya Dîrokê Dünyanın En Yaşlı Adamı-Zaro Ağa Kars Kürtleri Kağızman-Kars’ın Tadı Tuzu Komkujiya Ermenîyan -1915 Xatirê Te Stockholm!
Selahaddîn Rastgeldî Dîroka Kurdistanê di çapemeniya swêdî de Jinên kurd di çavkaniyên swêdî de Folklore and Kurdish women
Sarıkamış is a town and a district of Kars Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Its population was 17,860 in 2010; the town sits in a valley and is surrounded by mountains, many of which are covered with pine forests. It has a subalpine climate, with average of 7–8 ft/2.1m-2.4m of snowfall. In recent years Sarıkamış has developed as a winter skiing resort, with one of the world's longest tracks. Sarıkamış district neighbours the districts of Selim and Kağızman to East, Şenkaya and Horasan to West, Eleşkirt to South, Selim and Şenkaya to North and occupies an area of 1732 km2, its average altitude is 1500-2000m, Aladag Mountain, 3138m, is within its borders. Other important mountains are Süphan, Balıklı, Kösedağı, Çıplakdağ and Soğanlı; the Kars and Aras rivers flow through it. Extensive barracks from the Russian period surround the town and are still in use by the Turkish army. Other historical buildings include the town's former Russian cathedral, known locally as Yanik Kilise, now used as a mosque after being used as a cinema for many years.
A hunting lodge, built for a visit by Czar Nicolas, is located at the edge of the pine forests. For most of the 19th century, Sarikamish was an insignificant settlement, divided into two parts: upper Sarikamish and lower Sarikamish. Nothing is known of its earlier history, but nearby archaeological sites date from Urartian times: there is a Urartian fortress on a hill beside upper Sarikamish, another, 12 km away, beside Chatak village, a third, 15 km away, at a site known as Yedikilise. To the east and south of the town, in the forests of Soğanlı, there were many medieval Armenian monasteries, but most were in ruins by 1878. Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan invaded the Sarikamish area including Allahüekber Dağları and Soğanlı mountains in 1064, only a few years prior to the battle of Manzikert between the armies of Alp Arslan and Byzantines; the area was taken by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1534 and became a liva of Kars sancak of the Ottoman Empire. In the 19th century the region around Sarikamish became a conflict zone between the Ottoman and Russian empires.
Battles took place at nearby Zivin in 1829, 1855 and 1877. After the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, Sarikamish became part of the Russian empire, incorporated within the militarily administered Kars Oblast, renowned for the extreme ethnic diversity of its population. Lower Sarikamish developed into a modern town. Being close to the Ottoman border, it was a military station with barracks for two regiments, it had a railway station, the railhead for the line running from Kars and Alexandropol. An important battle took place between the armies of the Ottoman and Russian empires in and around the city in late December 1914-January 1915 as part of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I. Enver Pasha, the leader of the Ittihat ve Terakki party in Istanbul led the army along with Hafiz Hakki Pasha, his brother in-law, to scale the Mount Allahu Ekber and afterwards attack the Russian army in Sarikamish. Enver Pasha intended to occupy the town in order to halt logistic support to the city of Kars, which the Turks lost to the Russians in 1878, which he was planning to reoccupy.
In mid December, Enver Pasha entered the Caucasus region through Armenia. Enver ordered his forces to attack along many routes with the goal of arriving at Sarikamis at the same time; the chief German military advisor, Liman von Sanders argued against this plan but was ignored. Governor General Vorontsov planned to withdraw his forces to the city of Kars, but General Yudenich, in charge of the defense of the area, ignored Vorontsov's wishes to withdraw and instead stayed to defend Sarikamis. Enver's forces lost touch with one another and arrived at Sarakamis at different times from December 29 through the 3rd of January; the first divisions to arrive took control of the barracks in the western part of the city but were driven off. In the following days, as more Ottoman forces arrived at the battle, they attacked without coordination and the Russians under the skillful command of Yudenich fought off the attacks one by one; the battle ended on January 4 and the Ottoman army retreated in complete disorganization back through the mountains in the middle of winter.
The number of Turkish losses is estimated to be 60,000-80,000 dead out of an army of 90,000. It is likely that the majority of Turkish soldiers died because of inadequate winter clothing and field shelters during the attack and retreat. In any event, this was an extraordinarily costly defeat for the Turks. Turkish soldiers reached their targets but they were too weak to win; the Russian casualties were estimated at 35,000. As one German officer attached to the army wrote the Ottoman 3rd army had "suffered a disaster which for rapidity and completeness is without parallel in military history."In 2005 the Turkish Army's 9th Infantry Division, located here, was reduced to a brigade, still part of Third Army. Sarıkamış Soğuksu Nature Park, a 2011-established nature park 3 km southeast of Sarıkamış. 360 Degree Panoramic Photos / Sarıkamış Virtual Tour, 360TR. COM, 2009
Nationalist Movement Party
The Nationalist Movement Party is a Turkish far-right conservative political party that adheres to Turkish ultranationalism and Euroscepticism. The party was formed in 1969 by former colonel Alparslan Türkeş, who had become leader of the far-right Republican Villagers Nation Party in 1965; the party followed a Pan-Turkist and ultranationalist political agenda throughout the latter half of the 20th century, but moderated its views under the leadership of Devlet Bahçeli, who took over after Türkeş's death in 1997. The party's youth wing is the Grey Wolves organization, known as the "Nationalist Hearths". Türkeş, revered by Turkish nationalists as the founder of the idealist movement, is referred to as "Chieftain" by his supporters. Alparslan Türkeş founded the party after criticising the Republican People's Party for moving too far away from the nationalist principles of their founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, claiming that he would not have founded the MHP had the CHP not deviated from Atatürk's ideology.
Although Türkeş failed to win any elections, the MHP won enough seats in the 1973 and 1977 general election to take part in two right-wing coalition governments led by Justice Party leader Süleyman Demirel. Türkeş served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey between 1975 and 1977 in what was referred to as the First Nationalist Front government and again between 1977 and 1978 in the Second Nationalist Front. After Türkeş's death and the election of Devlet Bahçeli as his successor, the party moderated its views and adopted a more mainstream nationalist agenda; the party under Bahçeli's leadership won 18% of the vote and 129 seats in the 1999 general election, its best result, coming second only to the Democratic Left Party. Bahçeli subsequently became Deputy Prime Minister after entering a coalition with the DSP and the Motherland Party, though his calls for an early election resulted in the government's collapse in 2002. In the 2002 general election, the MHP fell below the 10% election threshold and lost all of its parliamentary representation after the newly formed Justice and Development Party won a plurality.
Since the 2007 general election, in which the MHP won back its parliamentary representation with 14.27% of the vote and 71 seats, the party has opposed the peace negotiations between the government and Kurdish separatist militants and has been fiercely critical of the governing AKP over government corruption and authoritarianism. The MHP has been referred to critics as the "AKP's lifeline", having either or covertly helped the AKP in situations such as the 2007 presidential election, repealing the headscarf ban and the June–July 2015 parliamentary speaker elections. In the 2011 general election, the party's vote fell to 13% and won 53 seats, though increased to 16.3% and 80 seats in the June 2015 general election. Having maintained third-party status in Parliament since 2007, the MHP halved its parliamentary representation to win 40 seats with 11.9% of the vote in the November 2015 general election, becoming the fourth largest party in Parliament behind the Peoples' Democratic Party. The MHP supported a'Yes' vote in the 2017 referendum, has formed the People's Alliance electoral pact with the AKP for the 2018 Turkish general election.
In 1965, nationalist politician and ex-Colonel Alparslan Türkeş, who had trained in the United States for NATO, founded the Turkish Gladio Special Warfare Department, gained control of the conservative rural Republican Villagers Nation Party. During an Extraordinary Great Congress held at Adana in Turkey on 8–9 February 1969, Türkeş changed the name of the party to the Nationalist Movement Party; the MHP embraced Turkish nationalism, under the leadership of Türkeş, militias connected to the party were responsible for assassinating numerous left-wing intellectuals and academics, including some Kurds, during the 1970s. The leader of the party's youth wing, known as the Grey Wolves after Turkic mythology, claimed that they had an intelligence organization, superior to the state's own. On the other hand, MHP had links to the Aydınlar Ocağı, a right-wing think tank launched in 1970 by established university professors, which served as a connecting link between secular-conservative and Islamic rightists, promoting the ideology of Turkish-Islamic synthesis.
AO's ideas, which have been compared to those of the French Nouvelle Droite, had a determining influence on MHP's programmes and served to lend the far-right party a more legitimate, respectable appearance. On May 27, 1980, the party's deputy leader and former government minister Gün Sazak was assassinated by members of the Marxist–Leninist terrorist group Revolutionary Left in front of his home; when the Turkish army seized power on September 12, 1980, in a violent coup d'état led by General Kenan Evren, the party was banned, along with all other active political parties at the time, many of its leading members were imprisoned. Many party members joined various Islamist parties. Party member noted; the party was reformed in 1983 under the name "Conservative Party". After 1985, the name was changed to the "Nationalist Task Party" back again to its former name in 1992. In 1993, Muhsin Yazıcıoğlu and five other deputies separated and founded the Great Union Party, which is
Denizli Province is a province of Turkey in Western Anatolia, on high ground above the Aegean coast. Neighbouring provinces are Uşak to the north, Isparta, Afyon to the east, Aydın, Manisa to the west and Muğla to the south, it is located between the coordinates 28° 30’ and 29° 30’ E and 37° 12’ and 38° 12’ N. It covers an area of 11,868 km2, the population is 931,823; the population was 750,882 in 1990. The provincial capital is the city of Denizli. 28-30% of the land is plain, 25% is high plateau and tableland, 47% is mountainous. At 2571m Mount Honaz is the highest in the province, indeed in Western Anatolia. Babadag in the Mentes range has a height of 2308 meters; the biggest lake in Denizli is Acıgöl, which means bitter lake and indeed industrial salts are extracted from this lake, alkaline. There is a thermal spring to the west of Sarayköy, at the source of the Great Menderes River, which contains bicarbonates and sulfates. There is another hot spring in Kızıldere which reaches 200˚C. A geothermal steam source was first found in the region in 1965 during drilling work.
Today there is a power plant producing electricity from the geothermal steam. Only 11% of the geothermal energy source is used to produce electricity and 89% of it, which flows into the Great Menderes, is 150˚C at source. In general the Aegean region has a mild climate. However, it becomes harsher at altitude. Temperatures can fall to -5 °C in winter. There are about 80 days with precipitation during winter. There are traces of prehistoric cultures throughout the province, including evidence of pre-Hittite cultures and the Hittites themselves; the Hittites were followed by Phrygians and Persians, cities founded by the ancient Greeks and Alexander the Great. The first real settlement was the city of Laodicea on the Lycus, established by King Antiochus II for his wife Laodice. Laodicea is located 6 km north of the city of Denizli; the city of Hierapolis was established around 190 BC by the Pergamene Kingdom, one of the Hellenistic states of Anatolia. The calcified terraces and pools of Pamukkale now stand below the ruins of Hierapolis.
The two cities and Hierapolis came under Roman rule, with the division of the Empire in 395 were left within the boundaries of the East Roman Empire. The province has strong biblical connections: in the Book of Revelation, John the Evangelist hears a loud voice which sounded like a trumpet when he was on the island of Patmos; the voice says: "Write down what you see and send the book to the Churches in these seven cities: Ephesus, Pergamum, Sardis and Laodicea". The Church of Laodicea was a sacred place in pre-Christian times, is still visited by Christians today, although it lost its importance to a great extent during Byzantine rule. Turks were first seen in Denizli in 1070 when Afşın Bey, under the control of the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan, raided the area; the second and third Crusades fought here against Kazıkbeli, who managed to flee with a small force to Antalya. After the Turks had established control of the ancient cities, they moved south to the site of the present city of Denizli, where drinking water was brought through stone pipes.
The name Laodicea changed into “Ladik” since the 17th century other names were given “Tonguzlu”, ”Tonuzlu”, ”Tenguzlug”, ”Donuzlu” and “Denizli”. After World War I, when the Greek army arrived in İzmir on May 15, 1919, one of the first centres of Turkish resistance formed at an open-air meeting in Denizli. A Turkish militia formed lines on the Menderes organized by Yörük Ali and Demirci Efe, involving large numbers of volunteers from the local peasantry. Stiffened by the Turkish regular army, Greek forces were repelled, Denizli remained in Turkish hands throughout the Greco-Turkish War. See the article on Denizli and other districts for more details.... Near Denizli... Laodicea ad Lycum - Ruins of the ancient city located north of Denizli, about 1km north of the village of Eskihisar. Hierapolis and Pamukkale -20 km north of Denizli; the ruins of the ancient city and the hillside covered in minerals from the thermal waters. The Seljuk caravanserai Akhan, 6 km from Denizli on the Ankara highway.and near the other districts in the province....
Tripolis near the village of Yenicekent in Buldan - ruins of a city dating back to the Hellenistic period. A few remains in Honaz. Beycehöyük in Çivril, where several antiquities of the Copper Age dating back to 3000 BC were found; the Hanabat Caravanserai in Çardak is a typical Seljuk caravaserai. The Ahmetli Bridge over the Great Menderes river, 15 km from Sarayköy dates back to the Roman era. Denizli is renowned in Turkey for having a famous breed of cock, renowned for its appearance and colour, along with its prolonged and melodious crows. Great effort is taken by the state and local farmers to preserve the breed. In appearance the Denizli cock has black eyes, dark grey legs, a long neck, a red crown, it weighs 3-3.5 kg, has a distinctive crow. List of populated places in Denizli Province Media related to Denizli Province at Wikimedia Commons Denizli governor's official website Denizli municipality's official website Map of Denizli Satellite view The Rooster Cock of Denizli Denizli Weather Forecast Information Denizli Telephone Address Book, Guide
Akyaka is a district of Kars Province in eastern Turkey, the name of the small town, the district's administrative capital. It is located on Turkey's border with Armenia; the settlement was called Şuregel until 1922 and Kızılçakçak between 1922-1961. It was a district between 1922-1926, a township in Arpaçay district between 1926-1988. Akyaka municipality was established in 1972; the population was 2,273 in 2010. Akyaka is a border checkpoint on the railway into Armenia, closed since 1993; the route from Kars runs next to the railway leading to the border