Ramayana is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Mahābhārata. Along with the Mahābhārata, it forms the Hindu Itihasa; the epic, traditionally ascribed to the Hindu Valmiki, narrates the life of Rama, the legendary prince of the Kosala Kingdom. It follows his fourteen-year exile to the forest from the kingdom, by his father King Dasharatha, on request of his second wife Kaikeyi, his travels across forests in India with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana, the kidnapping of his wife by Ravana, the great king of Lanka, resulting in a war with him, Rama's eventual return to Ayodhya to be crowned king. There have been many attempts to unravel the epic's historical growth and compositional layers; the Ramayana is one of the largest ancient epics in world literature. It consists of nearly 24,000 verses, divided into about 500 sargas. In Hindu tradition, it is considered to be the adi-kavya, it depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal husband and the ideal king.
Ramayana was an important influence on Sanskrit poetry and Hindu life and culture. Like Mahabharata, Ramayana is not just a story: it presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages in narrative allegory, interspersing philosophical and ethical elements; the characters Rama, Lakshmana, Hanuman and Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of India, Sri Lanka, south-east Asian countries such as Thailand, Cambodia and Indonesia. There are many versions of Ramayana in Indian languages, besides Buddhist and Jain adaptations. There are Cambodian, Filipino, Lao and Malaysian versions of the tale; the name Ramayana is a tatpuruṣa compound of the name Rāma. According to Hindu tradition, the Ramayana itself, the epic belongs to the genre of itihasa like Mahabharata; the definition of itihāsa is a narrative of past events which includes teachings on the goals of human life. According to Hindu tradition, Ramayana takes place during a period of time known as Treta Yuga. In its extant form, Valmiki's Ramayana is an epic poem of some 24,000 verses.
The text survives in several thousand partial and complete manuscripts, the oldest of, a palm-leaf manuscript found in Nepal and dated to the 11th century CE. A Times of India report dated 18 December 2015 informs about the discovery of a 6th-century manuscript of the Ramayana at the Asiatic Society library, Kolkata; the Ramayana text has several regional renderings and sub recensions. Textual scholar Robert P. Goldman differentiates two major regional revisions: the southern. Scholar Romesh Chunder Dutt writes that "the Ramayana, like the Mahabharata, is a growth of centuries, but the main story is more distinctly the creation of one mind." There has been discussion as to whether the first and the last volumes of Valmiki's Ramayana were composed by the original author. Most Hindus still believe they are integral parts of the book, in spite of some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book. Retellings include Kamban's Ramavataram in Tamil, Gona Budda Reddy's Ramayanam in Telugu, Madhava Kandali's Saptakanda Ramayana in Assamese, Krittibas Ojha's Krittivasi Ramayan in Bengali, Sarala Das' Vilanka Ramayana and Balaram Das' Dandi Ramayana both in Odia, sant Eknath's Bhavarth Ramayan in Marathi, Tulsidas' Ramcharitamanas in Awadhi and Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan's Adhyathmaramayanam in Malayalam.
Ramayana predates Mahabharata. However, the general cultural background of Ramayana is one of the post-urbanization periods of the eastern part of north India and Nepal, while Mahabharata reflects the Kuru areas west of this, from the Rigvedic to the late Vedic period. By tradition, the text belongs to second of the four eons of Hindu chronology. Rama is said to have been born in the Treta Yuga to king Dasharatha in the Ikshvaku dynasty; the names of the characters are all known in late Vedic literature. However, nowhere in the surviving Vedic poetry is there a story similar to the Ramayana of Valmiki. According to the modern academic view, who, according to Bala Kanda, was incarnated as Rama, first came into prominence with the epics themselves and further, during the puranic period of the 1st millennium CE. In the epic Mahabharata, there is a version of Ramayana known as Ramopakhyana; this version is depicted as a narration to Yudhishthira. Books two to six form the oldest portion of the epic, while the first and last books are additions, as some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book.
The author or authors of Bala Kanda and Ayodhya Kanda appear to be familiar with the eastern Gangetic basin region of northern India and with the Kosala and Magadha regions during the period of the sixteen Mahajanapadas, based on the fact that the geographical and geopolitical data accords with what is known about the region. Dasharatha is father of Rama, he has three queens, Kausalya, Ka
Siem Reap Province
Siem Reap Siemreap, is a province of Cambodia. It borders the provinces of Oddar Meanchey to the north, Preah Vihear and Kampong Thom to the east, Battambang to the south, Banteay Meanchey to the west, its capital and largest city is Siem Reap. Siem Reap is the 10th largest province in Cambodia. With a population of 896,309, it ranks as the 6th largest in the nation. A large portion of Siem Reap's southern border is demarcated by the Tonle Sap and as such, it is one of the nine provinces that making up the Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve. In modern times the province is best known as the site of Angkor and the Angkor Wat temple ruins, UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is the home of Banteay Srei, Roluos, UNESCO tentative site of Beng Mealea, UNESCO tentative site of Phnom Kulen National Park. The name "Siem Reap" means "Siam Defeated", a reminder of the centuries-old conflict between the Siamese and the Khmer. In Siam, the province and its capital were called "Siemmarat" meaning "Siam's Territory"; the province came under the control of the Thai kingdom of Siam in 1795 and was returned to Cambodia in 1907 after French made a treaty with Siam for exchange of Trat and Dan Sai for the Siamese province of Inner Cambodia which included Phra Tabong and Nakhon Wat.
The Inner Cambodia province was split into Battambang and Siem Reap by the royal decree of King Sisowath the same year. This area became part of a disputed territory between France and Siam which led to the Franco-Thai War in 1941, resulting in victory for Thailand and a return to Thai control; the province again reverted to Cambodia in 1946, after the end of World War II with French and UN international pressure. The province is subdivided into 1 municipality, 100 communes and 907 villages. Siem Reap - The Gate to Angkor (Official Website of the Provincial Town Siem Reap on www.rithyrineangkorresidence.com
Kalasan known as Candi Kalibening, is an 8th-century Buddhist temple in Java, Indonesia. It is located 13 km east of Yogyakarta on the way to Prambanan temple, on the south side of the main road Jalan Solo between Yogyakarta and Surakarta. Administratively, it is located in the Kalasan District of Sleman Regency. According to the Kalasan inscription dated 778 AD, written in Sanskrit using Pranagari script, the temple was erected by the will of Guru Sang Raja Sailendravamçatilaka who succeeded in persuading Maharaja Tejapurnapana Panangkaran to construct Tarabhavanam, a holy building for the goddess Tara. In addition, a vihara was built for buddhist monks from the Sailendra family's realm. Panangkaran awarded the Kalaça village to sangha. According to the date of this inscription, Kalasan temple is the oldest of the temples built in the Prambanan Plain. Despite being renovated and rebuilt during the Dutch colonial era, the temple is in poor condition. Compared to other temples nearby such as Prambanan and Sambisari the temple is not well maintained.
The temple stands on square 14.20 meters sub-basement. The temple plan is cross-shaped, designed as a twelve-cornered polygon; each of four cardinal points has stairs and gates adorned with Kala-Makara and rooms measuring 3,5 square meters. No statue is to be found in the smaller rooms facing north and south; the temple is richly decorated with buddhist figures such as the gana. The Kala Face above the southern door has been photographed and used by a number of foreign academics in their books to give an idea of the artistry in stone by Central Javanese artists of a millennia ago. Niches where the statues would have been placed are found outside the temple; the niches adorned an outer wall intricately carved with Kala and divinities in scenes depicting the svargaloka, celestial palace of the gods and gandharvas. The roof of the temple is designed in three sections; the lower one are still according to the polygonal shape of the body and contains small niches with statues of boddhisatvas seated on lotus.
Each of this niches is crowned with stupas. The middle part of the roof is in octagonal shape; each of this eight sides adorned with niches contains statue of a Dhyani Buddha flanked by two standing boddhisatvas. The top part of the roof is circular and have 8 niches crowned with single large dagoba; the octagonal aspect of the structure has led to speculation of non-buddhist elements in the temple, similar to some interpretations of the early Borobudur structure. The temple is facing east, with eastern room served as access to main central room. In the larger main room there is lotus pedestal and throne carved with makara and elephant figure, similar to the Buddha Vairocana throne founds in Mendut temple. According to the Kalasan inscription, the temple once houses the large statue of the Boddhisattvadevi Tara. By the design of the throne, most the statue of the goddess was in seated position and made from bronze. Now the statue is missing the same fate as bronze Buddha statue in Sewu temple, being looted for scrap metal over centuries.
On the outer wall of the temple found the traces of plaster called vajralepa. The same substance founds in nearby Sari temple; the white-yellowish plaster was applied to protect the temple wall, but now the plaster has worn off. The temple is located on archaeologically rich Prambanan plain. Just a few hundred meters north east from Kalasan temple is located Sari temple. Candi Sari most was the monastery mentioned in Kalasan inscription. Further east lies the Prambanan complex, Sewu temple, Plaosan temple. In December 2016, the fourth expansion of the popular real-time strategy PC game from Microsoft, Age of Empires II titled Rise of the Rajas featured Candi Kalasan as the Wonder of the Malay civilization featured in-game. Candi of Indonesia Holt, Claire. Art in Indonesia: continuities and change. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0188-7 Roy E. Jordaan, The Tārā temple of Kalasan in Central Java, PERSEE, retrieved 15 January 2014 Kalasan Temple Official site
Yama or Yamarāja is a god of death, the south direction, the underworld, belonging to an early stratum of Rigvedic Hindu deities. In Sanskrit, his name can be interpreted to mean "twin". In the Zend-Avesta of Zoroastrianism, he is called "Yima". According to the Vishnu Purana, Yama is the son of sun-god Surya and Sandhya, the daughter of Vishvakarma. Yama is the brother of Sraddhadeva Manu and of his older sister Yami, which Horace Hayman Wilson indicates to mean the Yamuna. According to the Vedas, Yama is said to have been the first mortal. By virtue of precedence, he became the ruler of the departed, is called "Lord of the Pitrs". Mentioned in the Pāli Canon of Theravada Buddhism, Yama subsequently entered Buddhist mythology in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka as a Dharmapala under various transliterations, he is otherwise called as "Dharmaraja". In Hinduism, Yama is the son of Surya. Three hymns in the 10th book of the Rig Veda are addressed to him. In Puranas, Yama is described as having four arms, protruding fangs, complexion of storm clouds with a wrathful expression.
He wields a noose. Yama is the son of Saranyu, he is brother of Shraddhadeva Manu and the step brother of Shani. His wife was Goddess Dhumorna and his son was Katila. In Buddhism, Yama is a dharmapala, a wrathful god or the Enlightened Protector of Buddhism, considered worldly, said to judge the dead and preside over the Narakas and the cycle of rebirth; the Buddhist Yama has, developed different myths and different functions from the Hindu deity. In Pali Canon Buddhist myths, Yama takes those who have mistreated elders, holy spirits, or their parents when they die. Contrary though, in the Majjhima Nikaya commentary by Buddhagosa, Yama is a vimānapeta – a preta with occasional suffering. In other parts of Buddhism, Yama's main duty is to watch over purgatorial aspects of Hell, has no relation to rebirth, his sole purpose is to maintain the relationships between spirits that pass through the ten courts, similar to Yama's representation in several Chinese religions. He has spread and is known in every country where Buddhism is practiced, including China, Vietnam, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and United States.
In Chinese texts, Yama only holds transitional places in Hell where he oversaw the deceased before he, the Generals of Five Paths, were assigned a course of rebirth. Yama was placed as a King in the Fifth Court when texts led to the fruition of the underworld that marked the beginnings of systemizations. Yama can be found in one of the oldest Japanese religious works called Nipponkoku Genpō Zenaku Ryōiki, a literary work compiled by the Monk Keikai in 822. Yama was introduced to Japan through Buddhism, he holds the same position title as other works depict him – a judge who imposes decisions on the dead who have mistreated others. Naraka in Hinduism serves only as a temporary purgatory where the soul is purified of sin by its suffering. In Hindu mythology, Naraka holds many hells, Yama directs departed souls to the appropriate one. Elevated Mukti-yogyas and Nitya-samsarins can experience Naraka for expiation of sins. Although Yama is the lord of Naraka, he may direct the soul to a Swarga or return it to Bhoomi.
As good and bad deeds are not considered to cancel each other out, the same soul may spend time in both a hell and a heaven. The seven Swargas are: Bhuvas, Tharus, Savithaa and Maha; the idea of Naraka in Sikhism is like the idea of Hell. One's soul, however, is confined to 8.4 million life cycles before taking birth as a human, the point of human life being one where one attains salvation, the salvation being sach khand. The idea of khand comes in multiple levels of such heavens, the highest being merging with God as one; the idea of Hell comes in multiple levels, hell itself can manifest within human life itself. The Sikh idea of hell is where one is apart from the Guru's charana. Without naama one is damned. Naama is believed to be a direct deliverance by God to humanity in the form of Guru Nanak. A Sikh is hence required to take the Amrit from gurubani, panj pyare to come closer to naama. A true Sikh of the Gurus has the Guru himself takes that person into sach khand. In the Jātakas the Narakas are mentioned as Yama's abode.
It is noted that all of Samsāra is subject to Yama's rule, escape from samsāra means escape from Yama's influence. The Vetaranī River is said to form the boundary of Yama's kingdom. Elsewhere, it is referred to as consisting of Ussadaniraya, the four woeful planes, or the preta realm. Naraka is translated into English as "hell" or "purgatory". A Naraka differs from the hells of western religions in two respects. First, beings are not sent to Naraka as the result of a divine punishment. Instead, a being is born into a Naraka as a direct result of his or her previous karma, resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has exhausted its cumulate effect. Mandarin Diyu, Japanese Ji
In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhishthira was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti and the king of Indraprastha and of Hastinapura. He was the leader of the successful Pandava side in the Kurukshetra War. At the end of the epic, he ascended to heaven, he was blessed with the spiritual vision of second sight by a celestial Rishi as a boon. The word Yudhishthira means "the one, steady in the war", from the words, yuddha meaning'war', sthira meaning'steady', his other names are- Bharata Vanshi – descendant of Bharata Ajatashatru – one without enemies Dharmanandan - The son of Dharma Dharmaraj - Lord of Dharma Once a Brahmin rishi and his wife were making love in the forest when Yudhishthira's father Pandu accidentally shot at them, mistaking them for deer. Before dying, Kindama cursed the king to die. Due to this curse, Pandu was unable to father children; as an additional penance for the murder, Pandu abdicated the throne of Hastinapura, his blind brother Dhritarashtra took over the reins of the kingdom.
After knowing the curse of Pandu, Kunti told him that he could be the father of child and told her boon of sage Durvasa. Pandu requested Kunti to apply her boon and suggested to call Dharma to get a truthful and justice knowing son who can rule Hastinapur. On the full moon of May first and eldest Pandavas Yudhishthira born. Yudhishthira's four younger brothers were Bhima,. If Karna, the son of Kunti born before her marriage by invoking Surya is counted, Yudhishthira would be the second-eldest of Kunti's children. Yudhishthira was trained in religion, science and military arts by the Kuru preceptors and Drona, he became a master in using the spear and war chariot. It is said that his spear was so strong that it could penetrate a stone wall as though it were a piece of paper, his chariot always flew at a 4 finger distance above the ground due to his piety. Yudhishthira had two wives and Draupadi. Devika was his first wife. Devika married Yudhishthira in her swayamwara; when Yudhishthira was the crown prince of Hastinapur Yudhishthira attained Devika's Swayamvara and Devika chose him.
Devika was the daughter of King Shivi. It said in some tales that Devika used to love Yudhishthira and Devika was his first love. After the Lakshyagriha episode, the Pandavas disguised. Here, they attended the Swayamwara of Draupadi, the princess of Panchala and the daughter of King Drupada. Arjuna, the younger brother of Yudhishthira, participated in her swayamwara and succeeded in winning her hand in marriage. After the swayamvara, Arjuna along with his brothers, treaded towards the hut where their mother Kunti was waiting for them; as soon as they reached the hut, Arjuna called his mother in delight and said, "Look what we have got as alms". Kunti, praying at that moment, without looking what it was, commanded "Whatever Arjuna has received as alms should be distributed amongst the five brothers." Hence Draupadi was married off to all the five brothers. But, Mahabharata indirectly shows the attraction between five Pandavas and Draupadi. Yudhishthira's first love and wife, his empress was Draupadi.
After the coronation at Indraprastha, Yudhishthira set out to perform the Rajasuya yagna. Arjuna, Bhima and Sahadeva led armies across the four corners of the world to obtain tributes from all kingdoms for Yudhishthira's sacrifice; the non-compliant Magadha king, Jarasandha was defeated by Krishna. At his sacrifice, Yudhishthira chose Krishna as his honoured guest. Yudhishthira succumbed to Shakuni's challenge in the Pachisi, he lost his brothers and Draupadi. While playing for second time, he lost all his kingdom in the game and was forced into exile for 13 years, which included one year in anonymity. During their exile, the four other Pandavas happened upon a lake, haunted by a Yaksha; the Yaksha challenged the brothers to answer his moral questions before drinking the water. As a result, they died. Yudhishthira went in last, answered many questions put forth to him by the Yaksha and revived his brothers; this story is cited as an example of Yudhishthira's upright principles. The Yaksha identified himself as Yudhishthira's father and pointed them to the kingdom of Matsya to spend their last year in exile anonymously.
Along with his brothers, Yudhishthira spent his last year of exile in the kingdom of Matsya. He disguised himself as a Brahmin taught the game of dice to the king; when the period of exile was completed, Duryodhana refused to return Yudhishthira's kingdom. Yudhishthira made numerous diplomatic efforts to retrieve his kingdom peacefully but in vain, he was convinced by Krishna to wage war. The flag of Yudhishthira's chariot bore the image of a golden moon with planets around it. Two large and beautiful kettle-drums, called Nanda and Upananda, were tied to it. Before the war started, Yudhisthitra sep down of his chariot to take blessings firm his grand sire Bhishma, teachers Drona and Kripa and uncle Shalya, who all were in his opposite side in the war showing his respect towards his elders. Yudhishthira had to bend numerous rules of Dharma during the course of the war. Krishna made him trick Drona
Bhagavata Purana known as Śrīmad Bhāgavata Mahā Purāṇa, Śrīmad Bhāgavatam or Bhāgavata, is one of Hinduism's eighteen great Puranas. Composed in Sanskrit and available in all major Indian languages, it promotes bhakti to Krishna integrating themes from the Advaita philosophy and from the Dvaita philosophy; the origin of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam can be traced back to God Brahma who initiated Narada Rishi summarised in four verse called Chatur Sloki Bhagavatam. Narada Rishi submitted the same to Lord Veda Vyasa who elaborated to the presently available twelve skandhas and initiated to Sri Shukacharya. Lord Veda Vyasa has recorded the following narrations of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam in seven days or in Saphaha format in the Puranas being worthy: Sri Shukacharya narrated Śrīmad Bhāgavatam for seven days to Parakshit Raja on the banks of Ganga and present Haridwar. Gokarna narrated Śrīmad Bhāgavatam for seven days on the banks of river Tungabhadra. Narada Rishi organized Śrīmad Bhāgavatam for seven days at Ananda on the banks of Ganga wherein Sanatkumara narrated.
Sri Sutacharya, present during the first narration of Sri Shukacharya to Parakshit Raja narrated Śrīmad Bhāgavatam to Sri Saunaka Rishi in Naimisaranya in an elaborate way and for a long period of time. The Bhagavata Purana discusses a wide range of topics including Cosmology, Geography, Legend, Dance and Culture; as it begins, the forces of evil have won a war between the benevolent devas and evil asuras and now rule the universe. Truth re-emerges as Krishna, – first makes peace with the demons, understands them and creatively defeats them, bringing back hope, justice and happiness – a cyclic theme that appears in many legends; the Bhagavata Purana is a revered text in a Hindu tradition that reveres Vishnu. The text presents a form of religion that competes with that of the Vedas, wherein bhakti leads to self-knowledge and bliss; however the Bhagavata Purana asserts that the inner nature and outer form of Krishna is identical to the Vedas and that this is what rescues the world from the forces of evil.
An oft-quoted verse is used by some Krishna sects to assert that the text itself is Krishna in literary form. The date of composition is between the eighth and the tenth century AD, but may be as early as the 6th century AD. Manuscripts survive in numerous inconsistent versions revised through the 18th century creating various recensions both in the same languages and across different Indian languages; the text consists of twelve books totalling 332 chapters and between 16,000 and 18,000 verses depending on the recension. The tenth book, with about 4,000 verses, has been the most popular and studied, it was the first Purana, translated into a European language, when a French translation of a Tamil version appeared in 1788 and introduced many Europeans to Hinduism and 18th-century Hindu culture during the colonial era. "Purana" means "ancient, old". Bhagavata means "devoted to, follower of Bhagavat – the "sacred, divine". An alternative interpretation of Bhagavata is "devotees of the Adorable One".
Bhagavata Purana therefore means "Ancient Tales of Followers of the Lord". The composer of this work, Lord Veda Vyasa, in his second verse has described the Subject and the Fruit of studying and named it as Srimad Bhagavatam. Sri is used for abundance or richness; such Sri hence called Srimad. Bhagavata means Sacred or Divine or Holy; the holy or divine verses brings an abundance of happiness, Knowledge, in Vedas and Vedanta, Vairagya to the reader or listener and hence is called Srimad Bhagavatam. The Bhagavata is recognized as the best-known and most influential of the Puranas and, along with the Itihasa and other puranas, is sometimes referred to as the "Fifth Veda", it is important in Indian religious literature for its emphasis on the practice of devotion as compared to the more theoretical approach of the Bhagavad Gita. It is the source of many popular stories of Krishna's childhood told for centuries on the Indian subcontinent and of legends explaining Hindu festivals such as Holi and Diwali.
The Bhagavata declares itself the essence of derivative Smritis. Here Vedas are like seeds, Brahma Sutra, Bhagavad Gita, Vishnu Sahasaranama is like trunk, leaves, flowers; the fruit and its Juice being Srimad Bhagavata. As Srimad Bhagavata has the substance of Vedas and Mahabarata, it has high significance; the Srimad Bhagavatam is the essence of all the Vedanta literature. One who has enjoyed the nectar of its rasa never has any desire for anything else; the text has played a significant role in Chaitanya's Krishna-bhakti in Bengal, in the 15th–16th century Ekasarana Dharma in Assam, a panentheistic tradition whose proponents and Madhavdeva, acknowledge that their theological positions are rooted in the Bhagavata Purana, purged of doctrines that find no place in Assamese Vaishnavism and adding a monist commentary instead. In northern and western India the Bhagavata Purana has influenced the Hari Bhakti Vilasa and Haveli-style Krishna temples found in Braj region near Mathura-Vrindavan; the text complements the Pancharatra Agama texts of Vaishnavism.
While the text focu
Kali known as Kālikā or Shyāmā, is a Hindu goddess. Kali is one of a list which combines Sakta and Buddhist goddesses. Kali's earliest appearance is that of a destroyer of evil forces, she is the goddess of one of the four subcategories of a category of tantric Saivism. Over time, she has been worshipped by devotional movements and tantric sects variously as the Divine Mother, Mother of the Universe, Adi Shakti, or Adi Parashakti. Shakta Hindu and Tantric sects additionally worship her as Brahman, she is seen as divine protector and the one who bestows moksha, or liberation. Kali is portrayed standing or dancing on her consort, the Hindu god Shiva, who lies calm and prostrate beneath her. Kali is worshipped by Hindus throughout India in West Bengal. Kālī is the feminine form of "time" or "the fullness of time" with the masculine noun "kāla"—and by extension, time as "changing aspect of nature that bring things to life or death." Other names include Kālarātri, Kālikā. The homonymous kāla, "appointed time," is distinct from kāla "deep blue," but became associated through popular etymology.
The association is seen in a passage from the Mahābhārata, depicting a female figure who carries away the spirits of slain warriors and animals. She is called kālarātri and kālī. Kālī is the feminine form of Kāla, an epithet of Shiva, thus the consort of Shiva. Hugh Urban notes that although the word Kālī appears as early as the Atharva Veda, the first use of it as a proper name is in the Kathaka Grhya Sutra. Kali appears in the Mundaka Upanishad not explicitly as a goddess, but as the dark blue tongue of the seven flickering tongues of Agni, the Hindu god of fire. According to David Kinsley, Kāli is first mentioned in Hindu tradition as a distinct goddess around 600 AD, these texts "usually place her on the periphery of Hindu society or on the battlefield." She is regarded as the Shakti of Shiva, is associated with him in various Puranas. Her most well known appearance on the battlefield is in the sixth century Devi Mahatmyam; the deity of the first chapter of Devi Mahatmyam is Mahakali, who appears from the body of sleeping Vishnu as goddess Yoga Nidra to wake him up in order to protect Brahma and the World from two demons Madhu and Kaitabha.
When Vishnu woke up he started a war against the two demons. After a long battle with lord Vishnu when the two demons were undefeated Mahakali took the form of Mahamaya to enchant the two asuras; when Madhu and Kaitabha were enchanted by Mahakali, Vishnu killed them. In chapters the story of two demons can be found who were destroyed by Kali. Chanda and Munda attack the goddess Durga. Durga responds with such anger, causing her face to turn dark resulting in Kali appearing out of her forehead. Kali's appearance is dark blue, gaunt with sunken eyes, wearing a tiger skin and a garland of human heads, she defeats the two demons. In the same battle, the demon Raktabija is undefeated because of his ability to reproduce himself from every drop of his blood that reaches the ground. Countless Raktabija clones appear on the battlefield. Kali defeats him by sucking his blood before it can reach the ground, eating the numerous clones. Kinsley writes that Kali represents "Durga's personified wrath, her embodied fury."Other origin stories involve Parvati and Shiva.
Parvati is portrayed as a benign and friendly goddess. The Linga Purana describes Shiva asking Parvati to defeat the demon Daruka, who received a boon that would only allow a female to kill him. Parvati merges with Shiva's body, reappearing as Kali to defeat his armies, her bloodlust gets out of control. The Vamana Purana has a different version of Kali's relationship with Parvati; when Shiva addresses Parvati as Kali, "the dark blue one," she is offended. Parvati becomes Gauri, the golden one, her dark sheath becomes. Regarding the relationship between Kali and Shiva, Kinsley writes that: In relation to Shiva, she appears to play the opposite role from that of Parvati. Parvati calms Shiva, counterbalancing his destructive tendencies. Kali is Shiva's "other wife," as it were, provoking him and encouraging him in his mad, disruptive habits, it is never Shiva who must calm Kali. Kāli appears in the Death of the Mahabharata, she is called Kālarātri and appears to the Pandava soldiers in dreams, until she appears amidst the fighting during an attack by Drona's son Ashwatthama.
Another story involving Kali is her escapade with a band of thieves. The thieves wanted to make a human sacrifice to Kali, unwisely chose a saintly Brahmin monk as their victim; the radiance of the young monk was so much that it burned the image of Kali, who took living form and killed the entire band of thieves, decapitating them and drinking their blood. In Kāli's most famous legend and her assistants, the Matrikas, wound the demon Raktabija, in various ways and with a variety of weapons in an attempt to destroy him, they soon find that they have worsened the situation for with every drop of blood that is