Nairobi County is one of the 47 counties of Kenya. The smallest yet most populous of the counties, it is coterminous with the city of Nairobi, the capital and largest city of Kenya. Nairobi County was founded in 2013 on the same boundaries as Nairobi Province, after Kenya's 8 provinces were subdivided into 47 counties; the county is composed of 17 Parliamentary constituencies: Nairobi County is within Greater Nairobi which consists of 5 out of 47 counties in Kenya but the area generates about 60% of the nation's wealth. The counties are: Source: NairobiMetro/ Kenya Census Nairobi has experienced one of the most rapid growths in urban centers; this is unlikely to slow down any time soon because the population in Kenya increases by an average of about 3%. Source: OpenDataKenya Source: OpenDataKenya Worldbank Gatharaini Gathanga Kamulu Nairobi City Mombasa County Nairobi City OpenDataKenya CIA World Factbook
Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey was a Kenyan paleoanthropologist and archaeologist whose work was important in demonstrating that humans evolved in Africa through discoveries made at Olduvai Gorge with his wife, fellow paleontologist Mary Leakey. Having established a program of palaeoanthropological inquiry in eastern Africa, he motivated many future generations to continue this scholarly work. Several members of Leakey's family became prominent scholars themselves. Another of Leakey's legacies stems from his role in fostering field research of primates in their natural habitats, which he saw as key to understanding human evolution, he chose three female researchers, Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, Birutė Galdikas, calling them The Trimates. Each went on to become an important scholar in the field of primatology. Leakey encouraged and supported many other Ph. D. candidates, most notably from the University of Cambridge. Leakey played a major role in creating organizations for future research in Africa and for protecting wildlife there.
Louis's parents and Mary Bazett Leakey, were Church of England missionaries in British East Africa. Harry was the son of James Shirley Leakey, one of the eleven children of the portrait painter James Leakey. Harry Leakey was assigned to an established post of the Church Mission Society among the Kikuyu at Kabete, in the highlands north of Nairobi; the station was at that time two tents. Louis's earliest home had an earthen floor, a leaky thatched roof and insects, no heating system except for charcoal braziers; the facilities improved over time. The mission, a center of activity, set up a clinic in one of the tents, a girls' school. Harry was working on a translation of the Bible into the Gikuyu language, he had a distinguished career in the CMS. Louis had a younger brother and two older sisters and Julia. Both sisters married missionaries: Gladys married Leonard Beecher, Anglican Bishop of Mombasa and Archbishop of East Africa from 1960 to 1970; the Leakey household came to contain Miss Oakes, Miss Higgenbotham, Mariamu.
Louis grew up, learned to hunt with the native Kikuyus. He learned to walk with the distinctive gait of the Kikuyu and speak their language fluently, as did his siblings, he was initiated into the Kikuyu ethnic group, an event of which he never spoke, as he was sworn to secrecy. Louis requested and was given permission to build and move into a hut, Kikuyu style, at the end of the garden, it was home to his personal collection such as birds' eggs and skulls. All the children developed a keen interest in and appreciation of the pristine natural surroundings in which they found themselves, they raised baby animals turning them over to zoos. Louis read a gift book, Days Before History, by H. R. Hall, a juvenile fictional work illustrating the prehistory of Britain, he began to collect tools and was further encouraged in this activity by a role model, Arthur Loveridge, first curator of the Natural History Museum in Nairobi, predecessor of the Coryndon Museum. This interest may have predisposed him toward a career in archaeology.
His father was a role model: Canon Leakey co-founded the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society. Neither Harry nor May were of strong constitution. From 1904–1906 the entire family lived at May's mother's house in Reading, England, while Harry recovered from neurasthenia, again in 1911–1913, while May recovered from general frailty and exhaustion. During the latter stay, Harry bought a house in Boscombe. In Britain, the Leakey children attended elementary school; the family sat out World War I in Africa. When the sea lanes opened again in 1919, they returned to Boscombe, where Louis was sent to Weymouth College, a private boys' school, when he was 16 years old. In three years there, he did not do well and complained of hazing and rules that he considered an infringement on his freedom. Advised by one teacher to seek employment in a bank, he secured help from an English teacher in applying to St John's College, Cambridge, he received a scholarship for his high scores on the entrance exams.
Louis matriculated at the University of Cambridge, his father's alma mater, in 1922, intending to become a missionary to British East Africa. He told a story about his final exams; when he had arrived in Britain, he had notified the register. When he came to his finals, he asked to be examined in this language, the authorities agreed. One day, he received two letters. One instructed him to report at a certain place for a viva voce examination in Swahili; the other asked if, at the same place, he would examine a candidate in Swahili. In 1922 the British had been awarded German East Africa as part of the settlement of World War I. Within the Tanganyika Territory the Germans had discovered a site rich in dinosaur fossils, Tendaguru. Louis was told by C. W. Hobley, a friend of the family, that the British Museum of Natural History was going to send a fossil-hunting expedition led by William E. Cutler to the site. Louis was hired to locate the site and manage the administrative details. In 1924 they departed for Africa.
They never found a complete dinosaur skeleton, Louis was recalled from the site by Cambridge in 1925. Louis switched his focus to anthropology, found a new mentor in Alfred Cort Haddon, head of the Camb
Kiambu County is a county in the former Central Province of Kenya. Its capital is Kiambu and its largest town is Thika; the county is adjacent to the northern border of Nairobi County and has a population of 1,623,282. Its governor is Ferdinand Waititu; the county is 60 % urban owing to Nairobi's consistent growth Northwards. Kikuyu are the dominant tribe in the county. In 2007, Kiambu District was subdivided in two: Kiambu West. Kiambu West district took Limuru and Kikuyu divisions, with Limuru as its district capital. Governor Ferdinand Waititu, is the head of the county, he was elected for a five-year term during 2017 general election. Although the capital is Kiambu town, the executive conducts business from Thika town; the legislature of Kiambu County is a unicameral County Assembly. It is composed of 60 elected Members of County Assembly from the sixty wards of the county and 27 nominated members; the members hold office for a five-year term each, renewable during the general election. The speaker and deputy speaker of the assembly are elected by the MCAs.
The county Assembly is located at Kiambu town. Kiambu High Court was established on 20 June 2016; as of 2017, it consists of a one-judge bench. It is temporarily located at Thika waiting for a permanent building to be constructed at Kiambu, the capital; the county has a county administrator, appointed by the President of Kenya. He is not part of the county government but is a representative of the President to assist with matters of administration in the county with regards to the national government; the county has twelve constituencies/Sub-counties: 1. Githunguri Githunguri Ward Githiga Ward Ikinu Ward Ngewa Ward Komothai 3 Ward 2. Kiambaa Cianda Ward Karuri Ward Ndenderu Ward Muchatha Ward Kihara Ward 3. Kabete Gitaru Ward Muguga Ward Nyathuna Ward Kabete Ward Uthiru Ward 4. Limuru Bibirioni Ward Limuru Central Ward Ndeiya Ward Limuru East Ward Ngecha Tigoni Ward 5. Lari Kinale Ward Kijabe Ward Nyanduma Ward Kamburu Ward Lari/Kirenga Ward 6. Gatundu North Gituamba Ward Githobokoni Ward Chania Ward Mang’u Ward 7.
Gatundu South Kiamwangi Ward Kiganjo Ward Ndarugo Ward Ngenda Ward 8. Ruiru Gitothua Ward Biashara Ward Gatongora Ward Kahawa/Sukari Ward Kahawa Wendani Ward Kiuu Ward Mwiki Ward Mwihoko 1 Ward 9. Kikuyu Karai Ward Nachu Ward Sigona Ward Kikuyu Ward Kinoo Ward 10. Juja Murera Ward Theta Ward Juja Ward Witeithie Ward Kalimoni Ward 11. Thika Town Township Ward Kamenu Ward Hospita Ward Gatuanyaga Ward 12. Kiambu Ting’ang’a Ward Ndumberi 3 Ward Riabai Ward Township Ward st Pauls Boys High School Gatuanyaga Kiambu High School St. Anne's Lioki Loreto Kiambu Thika High School Mang'u High School St. Francis Girls High School Alliance High School Alliance Girls High School Loreto Kiambu High school Loreto Limuru High School Limuru Girls High School Ruiru High School Kanunga High School Mirithu Girls High School Kijabe High School Muhoho High School Maryhill girls high school Mururia Secondary School Karinga Girls High Karuri High School Muthurwa Girls Secondary School Senior Chief Koinange Girls Secondary School Chania Boys High School Kiambu County is within Greater Nairobi which consists of 4 out of 47 counties in Kenya but the area generates about 60% of the nations wealth.
The counties are: Source: NairobiMetro/ Kenya Census Source: OpenDataKenya Source: OpenDataKenya Worldbank Source: OpenDataKenya Source: OpenDataKenya Worldbank Gitombo Kabete Kijabe Kiratina Wilfred Kiboro Nakuru County
Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya. The name comes from the Maasai phrase Enkare Nairobi, which translates to "cool water", a reference to the Nairobi River which flows through the city; the city proper had a population of 3,138,369 in the 2009 census, while the metropolitan area has a population of 6,547,547. The city is popularly referred to as the Green City in the Sun. Nairobi was founded in 1899 by the colonial authorities in British East Africa, as a rail depot on the Uganda Railway; the town grew to replace Machakos as the capital of Kenya in 1907. After independence in 1963, Nairobi became the capital of the Republic of Kenya. During Kenya's colonial period, the city became a centre for the colony's coffee and sisal industry; the city lies on the River Athi in the southern part of the country, has an elevation of 1,795 metres above sea level. With a population of 3.36 million in 2011, Nairobi is the second-largest city by population in the African Great Lakes region after Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
According to the 2009 census, in the administrative area of Nairobi, 3,138,295 inhabitants lived within 696 km2. Nairobi is the 10th-largest city including the population of its suburbs. Home to thousands of Kenyan businesses and over 100 major international companies and organisations, including the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Office at Nairobi, Nairobi is an established hub for business and culture; the Nairobi Securities Exchange is one of the largest in Africa and the second-oldest exchange on the continent. It is Africa's fourth-largest exchange in terms of trading volume, capable of making 10 million trades a day. Nairobi is found within the Greater Nairobi Metropolitan region, which consists of 5 out of 47 counties in Kenya, which generates about 60% of the entire nation's GDP; the counties are: Source: NairobiMetro/ Kenya Census The site of Nairobi was part of an uninhabited swamp. The name Nairobi itself comes from the Maasai expression meaning "cool waters", referring to the cold water stream which flowed through the area.
With the arrival of the Uganda Railway, the site was identified by Sir George Whitehouse for a store depot, shunting ground and camping ground for the Indian labourers working on the railway. Whitehouse, chief engineer of the railway, favoured the site as an ideal resting place due to its high elevation, temperate climate and being situated before the steep ascent of the Limuru escarpments, his choice was however criticised by officials within the Protectorate government who felt the site was too flat, poorly drained and infertile. In 1898, Arthur Church was commissioned to design the first town layout for the railway depot, it constituted two streets – Victoria Street and Station Street, ten avenues, staff quarters and an Indian commercial area. The railway arrived at Nairobi on 30 May 1899, soon Nairobi replaced Machakos as the headquarters of the provincial administration for Ukamba province. On the arrival of the railway, Whitehouse remarked that "Nairobi itself will in the course of the next two years become a large and flourishing place and there are many applications for sites for hotels and houses.
The town's early years were however beset with problems of malaria leading to at least one attempt to have the town moved. In the early 1900s, Bazaar Street was rebuilt after an outbreak of plague and the burning of the original town. Between 1902 and 1910, the town's population rose from 5,000 to 16,000 and grew around administration and tourism in the form of big game hunting. In 1907, Nairobi replaced Mombasa as the capital of the East Africa Protectorate. In 1908, a further outbreak of the plague led to Europeans concluding that the cause was unhygienic conditions in the Indian Bazaar; the government responded by restricting lower class Indians and African natives to specific quarters for residence and trade setting a precedent for racial segregation in the commercial sphere. By the outset of the First World War, Nairobi was well established as a European settler colony through immigration and land alienation. In 1919, Nairobi was declared to be a municipality. In 1921, Nairobi had 24,000 residents.
The next decade would see a growth in native African communities into Nairobi, where they would go on to constitute a majority for the first time. In February 1926, colonial officer Eric Dutton passed through Nairobi on his way to Mount Kenya, said of the city: Maybe one day Nairobi will be laid out with tarred roads, with avenues of flowering trees, flanked by noble buildings, and it is fair to say that the Government and the Municipality have bravely tackled the problem and that a town-plan ambitious enough to turn Nairobi into a thing of beauty has been worked out, much has been done. But until that plan has borne fruit, Nairobi must remain what she was a slatternly creature, unfit to queen it over so lovely a country; the continuous expansion of the city began to anger the Maasai, as the city was devouring their land to the south. It angered the Kikuyu people, who wanted the land returned to them. After the end of World War II, this friction developed into the Mau Mau rebellion. Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya's future president, was jailed for his involvement though there was no evidence linking him to the rebellion.
The pressure exerted from the locals onto the British resulted in Kenyan independence in 1963, with Nairobi as the capital of the new republic. After independence, Nairobi grew and this growth put pressure on the city's
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social and political elements. Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food and shelter; the threshold at which absolute poverty is defined is considered to be about the same, independent of the person's permanent location or era. On the other hand, relative poverty occurs when a person who lives in a given country does not enjoy a certain minimum level of "living standards" as compared to the rest of the population of that country. Therefore, the threshold at which relative poverty is defined varies from country to another, or from one society to another. Providing basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government's ability to deliver services, such as corruption, tax avoidance and loan conditionalities and by the brain drain of health care and educational professionals.
Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable include welfare, economic freedoms and providing financial services. Poverty reduction is still a major issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Bank, United States Agency for International Development, Oxfam, CARE, World Vision International, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Red Cross among a plethora of others. In 2012 it was estimated that, using a poverty line of $1.25 a day, 1.2 billion people lived in poverty. Given the current economic model, built on GDP, it would take 100 years to bring the world's poorest up to the poverty line of $1.25 a day. UNICEF estimates; the World Bank forecasted in 2015 that 702.1 million people were living in extreme poverty, down from 1.75 billion in 1990. Extreme poverty is observed in all parts including developed economies. Of the 2015 population, about 347.1 million people lived in Sub-Saharan Africa and 231.3 million lived in South Asia.
According to the World Bank, between 1990 and 2015, the percentage of the world's population living in extreme poverty fell from 37.1% to 9.6%, falling below 10% for the first time. The People's Republic of China accounts for over three quarters of global poverty reduction from 1990 to 2005. Though, as noted, China accounted for nearly half of all extreme poverty in 1990. In public opinion around the world people surveyed tend to incorrectly think extreme poverty hasn't decreased. During the 2013 to 2015 period The World Bank reported that extreme poverty fell from 11% to 10%, however they noted that the rate of decline had slowed by nearly half from the 25 year average with parts of sub-saharan Africa returning to early 2000 levels; the World Bank attributed this to increasing violence following the Arab Spring, population increases in Sub-Saharan Africa, general African inflationary pressures and economic malaise were the primary drivers for this slow down. There is disagreement among experts as to what would be considered a realistic poverty rate with one considering it "an inaccurately measured and arbitrary cut off".
Some contend that a higher poverty line is needed, such as a minimum of $7.40 or $10 to $15 a day. They argue that these levels would better reflect the cost of basic needs and normal life expectancy. One estimate places the true scale of poverty much higher than the World Bank, with an estimated 4.3 billion people living with less than $5 a day and unable to meet basic needs adequately. It has been argued by some academics that the neoliberal policies promoted by global financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank are exacerbating both inequality and poverty. Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money; the word poverty comes from Latin paupertās from pauper. There are several definitions of poverty depending on the context of the situation it is placed in, the views of the person giving the definition. Income Poverty: a family's income fails to meet a federally established threshold that differs across countries. United Nations: Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity.
It means lack of basic capacity to participate in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one's food or a job to earn one's living, not having access to credit, it means insecurity and exclusion of individuals and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, it implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation. World Bank: Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, comprises many dimensions, it includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one's life. Poverty is measured as either absolute or relative. In the United Kingdom, the second Cameron ministry came under attack for their redefinition of poverty.
Considering that two-thirds of people who found work were accepting wages that are below the living wage t