Kabylie is a cultural region, natural region and historical region in northern Algeria. It is part of the Tell Atlas mountain range, is located at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea. Kabylia covers several provinces of Algeria: the whole of Tizi Ouzou and Bejaia, most of Bouira and parts of the wilayas of Boumerdes, Jijel and Bordj Bou Arreridj. Gouraya National Park and Djurdjura National Park are located in Kabylie. Kabylia was a part of the Kingdom of Numidia; the Fatimid dynasty of the 10th century originated in Lower Kabylia, where an Ismaili missionary found a receptive audience for his millennialist preaching, led the Kutama tribe to be accepted as a voluntary tax collector in Ifriqiya. After failing to raise the moneys and support hoped for, the kutama tribe/family left for Egypt. A Berber Family emerged as a formidable leader in the Unique Berber form of Elected Delegates form of Government, the Zirids. Beyond their immediate Zirid territory another Aarch and Family Hammadid and its associates emerged in Kabylia with influence covering most of today's Algeria, whereas the Zirid's territory extended eastward to cover the area of modern Tunisia.
During the Regency of Algiers, most of Kabylia was independent. Kabylia was split into two main kingdoms, the Kingdom of Kuku in modern Tizi Ouzou, the Kingdom of Ait Abbas in modern Béjaïa. Though the region was the last stronghold against French colonization, the area was taken over by the French after 1830, despite vigorous local resistance by the local population led by leaders such as Faḍma n Sumer, until the battle of Icheriden in 1857 marked a decisive French victory, with sporadic outbursts of violence continuing as late as Mokrani's rebellion in 1871. Much land was confiscated in this period from the more recalcitrant tribes and given to French pieds-noirs. Many arrests and deportations were carried out by the French in response to uprisings to New Caledonia Colonization resulted in an acceleration of the emigration into other areas of the country and outside of it. Algerian migrant workers in France organized the first party promoting independence in the 1920s. Messali Hadj, Imache Amar, Si Djilani, Belkacem Radjef built a strong following throughout France and Algeria in the 1930s and trained militants who became key players during the struggle for independence and in building an independent Algerian state.
During the War of Independence, the FLN and ALN's reorganisation of the country created, for the first time, a unified Kabyle administrative territory, wilaya III, being as it was at the centre of the anti-colonial struggle. As such, along with the Aurès, it was one of the most affected areas because of the importance of the maquis and the high levels of support and collaboration of its inhabitants for the nationalist cause. Several historic leaders of the FLN came from this region, including Hocine Aït Ahmed, Abane Ramdane, Krim Belkacem, it was in Kabylia that the Soummam conference took place in 1956, the first of the FLN. The flipside of being such a critical region for the independence movement was being one of the major target of French counter-insurgency operations, not least the devastation of agricultural lands, destruction of villages, population displacement, the creation of forbidden zones, etc. From the moment of independence, tensions had developed between Kabyle leaders and the central government, with the Socialist Forces Front party of Hocine Aït Ahmed, strong in wilayas III and IV, opposing the FLN's Political Bureau centred around the person of Ahmed Ben Bella, who in turn relied upon the forces of the border army group within the ALN commanded by Houari Boumediene.
As early as 1963 the FFS called into question the authority of the single-party system, which resulted in two years of armed confrontation in the region, leaving more than four hundred dead, most of the FLN leaders from Kabylia and the eastern provinces either executed or forced into exile. In April 1980, following the banning of a conference by writer Mouloud Mammeri on traditional Kabyle poetry and strikes broke out in Tizi Ouzou, followed by several months of demonstrations on university campuses in Kabylia and Algiers, known as the Berber Spring, demanding the officialisation and recognition of the Tamazight language; these resulted in the extrajudicial imprisonment of thousands of Kabylie intellectuals, along with other clashes in Tizi-Ouzou and Algiers in 1984 and 1985. With the opening up and establishment of the multi-party system in 1989, the RCD party was created by Saïd Sadi, at the same time as identity politics and the cultural awakening of the Kabylians were intensifying in reaction to the hard-line Arabization.
In the midst of the civil war, there was an act of massive civil disobedience beginning in September 1994 and lasting the entire school year until mid 1995 where the ten-million strong population of Kabylia conducted a total school boycott, known as the "schoolbag strike". In June and July 1998 the region flared up again after the assassination of protest singer and political activist Lounès Matoub at the same time that a law requiring the use of Arabic in all fields of education entered into force, further worsening tensions. Following the death in April 2001 of Massinissa Guermah, a young high school student, in police custody, major riots took place, known as the Black Spring, in which 123 people died and some two thousand were wounded a
Isaignaniyar spelt as Isainaniyar, Isaignaniyaar and Isaijnaniyar and known as Isai-jnani Ammaiyar, is the mother of Sundarar, one of the most prominent Nayanar saints. She is herself regarded as a Nayanar saint, venerated in the Hindu sect of Shaivism, along with her husband Sadaiya Nayanar, she is counted as the last in the list of 63 Nayanars. Isaignaniyar is one of the three female saints. Sundarar is the only Nayanar with both his parents; the inclusion of Isaignaniyar, streams on basis on her association with Sundarar, rather than individual merit. Her sainthood status is seen as a proof of the greatness of her son. Little is known about her; the Tamil Periya Puranam by Sekkizhar, the hagiography of the 63 Nayanars and the primary source about their life, dedicates just an hymn to her, naming her son and husband. "As the divinely opulent wife of Sataiyanaar and as a devotee of the lord who shattered the triple hostile citadels, the poet realizes the inadequacy of the poetic medium to extol her glory."
The couple are said to be devout devotees of the patron god of Shaivism. They lived in Tirunavalur, in the kingdom of Thirumunaipadi, in present-day Indian state of Tamil Nadu, they belonged to the Brahmin caste. They are said to have lived an ideal Grihastha life; the couple gave away Sundarar to Narasinga Muniyaraiyar, the chieftain of Thirumunaipadi and a Nayanar saint, for adoption. Sundarar grew up in luxury in the home of his foster-father. In another instance, she is described to adorn herself with vibhuti; the Chola king Kulothunga Chola II created inscriptions honouring Sundarar in his seventh year of reign. An inscription on the west wall of the second prakaram of the Thyagaraja Temple, Thiruvarur mentions Isaignaniyar; the Sanskrit part of the inscription records that the mother of Aludaiya Nambi, Isaignaniyar – known as Gnani – was born in Kamalapura, the town of the inscription. Isaignaniyar is described to be born in the family of Gnanasivarcharya, a Shaiva and belonged to the Gautama gotra.
Besides being famous for its Shiva temple, Thiruvarur was one of the five capital cities of the Chola Empire. Sundarar refers to Isaignaniyar in the Tiruthonda Thogai, a hymn to Nayanar saints, the first compilation of the list, it is disputed if Sundarar enlists his parents as Nayanars in the hymn or he just names them in the last verse, a "signature-verse". However, in the second listing of the Nayanars, Nambi Andar Nambi formally includes Isaignaniyar in the list, he praises Sundarar's mother as a queen. Isaignaniyar is worshipped in the Tamil month of Chithirai, when the moon crossed into the Chitrai nakshatra, she is depicted standing with folded hands. She receives collective worship as part of the 63 Nayanars, their icons and brief accounts of his deeds are found in many Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu. Their images are taken out in procession in festivals. Isaignaniyar is one of only female Nayanar saints, the others being the poet Karaikkal Ammaiyar and the Pandya queen Mangayarkkarasiyar; the inclusion of only three women in the Nayanars is interpreted as influence of a patriarchal society.
While the account of Karaikkal Ammaiyar is detailed, the life of Isaignaniyar and Mangayarkkarasiyar is explained in brief in the Periya Puranam. Sundarar's mother Isaignaniyar and another notable Nayanar Sambandar’s "foster-mother" Mangayarkkarasiyar were included in the list due to their maternal links
Oonops pulcher is a tiny spider. Its six eyes are located together, giving the impression of only one eye; the spider is of a bleak light red, with a reddish to whitish abdomen, found out of doors in bird nests, under stones and under tree bark in webs of Amaurobius and Coelotes. Only two eggs are laid into a flat eggsac; when moving it keep its two front legs stretched, moves slowly a few steps and accelerates. It is similar to the related O. domesticus, but has four tibial spine pairs instead of five. O. domesticus is only found in buildings. O. pulcher has been identified from Europe to Ukraine, North Africa, Tasmania, where it was introduced by man. The subspecies Oonops pulcher hispanicus is found in Spain; the species name pulcher is Latin for "beautiful", referring to the oval eyes. Templeton, R.. "On the spiders of the genus Dysdera Latr. with the description of a new allied genus". Zoological Journal. 5: 400–408. Hickman, V. V.. "Some Tasmanian spiders of the families Oonopidae and Mysmenidae".
Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 113: 53–79
The Frog and the Pussycat is the third and final episode of the Rock & Chips trilogy. It was first screened on 28 April five days after the death of writer John Sullivan. Picking up some time after "Five Gold Rings" on February 1962, as Del Boy and his friends are having a smoke outside Sir Walter Raleigh Tower, his mother Joan reads her baby son, Rodney, a bedtime story, regretfully talks about how Del ruined their future happiness; the door slams and Joan jumps. Going back seven months earlier to July 1961, life is still more or less the same for the Trotter family. Del continues to pursue countless girls with his glass rings, Reg is still unemployed, Joan works for Freddie "The Frog" Robdal as his "charlady", although they use their time together for sexual pleasure. Robdal, for his part, keeps his own eyes on the Trotter family, going as far as to assault Joan's lecherous employer, Mr. Raynor, by breaking his fingers and threatening him into silence after learning of his perverted behaviour towards her through gossip in the Nag's Head.
Del crosses paths with an old flame of his, Barbara Bird, they go for a coffee together, where they agree to continue seeing each other but only after Barbara returns from an upcoming trip. Around the same time, Robdal gives Joan a ring as a gift, she asks Robdal if he stole this ring from the jewellery store in Margate while on the 1960 Jolly Boys' Outing with Del, but he denies it. Robdal and his friend, Gerald "Jelly" Kelly, are approached once again by the corrupt DI Thomas and DC Stanton, who now claim to have a one-eyed war hero eyewitness, Eric Poulton, to the Margate robbery, on, Thomas arrests them both when Poulton goes missing. However, Robdal comes triumphant once again when it is revealed that Poulton is a policeman who lost his eye in a street fight and served as the desk sergeant when DI Thomas first started as a policeman, it turns out Poulton was living in Margate opposite the jewellers, Thomas asked him to tell a few "white lies" in return for a share of the reward money, but Robdal and Kelly paid him a visit and told him their side of the story, treating him to a holiday in Spain.
All but defeated, Thomas begrudgingly drops the case, but once Kelly is gone, Thomas plays his trump card: he has acquired the ring which Robdal gave to Joan, which she pawned in order to buy Del a lambretta. Despite furiously threatening Joan over the phone, Robdal chooses to protect Joan and Del. Robdal subsequently takes the full blame and is imprisoned on an alternate charge for a few months while Kelly goes free. Del, begins his own plans to make a film, "Dracula on the Moon", become a millionaire. Joan, under the name "Reenie Turpin", visits Robdal in prison. Robdal claims that once he is released, he wants to move to his country house near Bournemouth and start a new life, implores Joan to run away with Rodney to live with him. Joan accepts, but tells Robdal seven months on February 1962 that she will only leave with him once she is certain of Del's financial security though Robdal, knowing of Del's life as a market trader, believes Del is old and smart enough to look after himself. During the conversation, Joan mentions that she began working as a charlady for an art dealer, Roland Pernell, for seven pounds a week, although Pernell callously deducted three pounds from her salary for "tax reasons".
This, as well as the mention of Pernell's name, pique Robdal's interest. To get Del set up financially, she pushes his relationship with Barbara, who comes from a rich family. Del takes Barbara out to dinner. Barbara's parents and Beryl, take a liking to Del and invite his family over for an engagement party, during which Reg gets drunk and makes a fool of himself. Whilst alone in the kitchen, Beryl makes a sexual pass at a surprised Del and is seen by the rest of the family. Beryl confesses that she never had the happy, privileged life Barbara had, became so jealous with her disturbed childhood and unhappy marriage to Bernard, that she began secretly dressing in Barbara's clothes and listening to her music while alone. Despite Joan's efforts to patch things up, the engagement is off, Joan decides to remain in Peckham for Del's sake. Meanwhile and Kelly rob Pernell's art gallery together: many years back, Pernell cheated Robdal out of some money and went into hiding. Once Robdal went to jail, Pernell re-emerged, opened a new art gallery, cheated Joan out of half of her wages.
By robbing Pernell, Robdal will make him a target for the Inland Revenue for tax fraud. Following this, Robdal vows unaware of Del's failed relationship. Returning to the opening scene, while Del and his friends share a smoke outside, Joan reads Rodney a bedtime story and laments how both her and Del's happy futures were ruined; the door slams and Reg comes inside calm and expressing relief that Del's relationship with Barbara is over, having been disturbed by Beryl's actions. Reg goes to bed, leaving Joan to wait for Robdal to call. Del and his friends, steal some lambrettas and ride off into the night towards Brighton as Will You Love Me Tomorrow by The Shirelles plays in the background. Del's love for the song "Old Shep" is first displayed in this episode, it was first elaborated on in "Diamonds Are for Heather". Del's first use of one of his catchphrases, "Lovely Jubbly"; the first signs of Del's affection for Rodney are show
Richard "Dicky" Barrett was one of the first European traders to be based in New Zealand. He lent his translation skills to help negotiate the first land purchases from Maori in New Plymouth and Wellington and became a key figure in the establishment of the settlement of New Plymouth, he was described by Edward Jerningham Wakefield, son of New Zealand Company founder Edward Gibbon Wakefield, as short, stout and "perfectly round all over" and fond of relating "wild adventures and hairbreadth'scapes". Barrett was born and raised in the slums of either Durham or Bermondsey, England He spent six years as a sailor and arrived in Taranaki from Sydney as a mate on the trading vessel Adventure in March, 1828, he and captain John Agar "Jacky" Love established a trading post at Ngamotu, trading muskets and trinkets for flax, maize and vegetables grown by local Te Atiawa Māori. The trading post attracted increasing numbers of passing ships. Barrett picked up a rudimentary understanding of the Māori language, was given the name of Tiki Parete and married Rawinia, the daughter of a local chief.
In 1832 Barrett and his former crewmates joined local Maori in the Otaka pā at Ngamotu to aid their defence in the face of an attack by armed Waikato Māori, firing on the invaders with three cannon, using nails, iron scraps and stones for ammunition. The siege lasted more than three weeks before the Waikato withdrew, leaving a battle scene strewn with bodies, many of, cannibalised. In June Barrett and Love migrated south with as many as 3000 Atiawa Māori. In late 1833 or early 1834 Barrett and Love established a whaling station at Queen Charlotte Sound. In September 1839 Barrett sailed from Queen Charlotte Sound to Port Nicholson aboard the Tory with representatives of the New Zealand Company to help negotiate the purchase of land there; the party remained there for about 10 days securing the signatures of 16 Maori on a deed for the purchase of an estimated 64,000ha in the Wellington area. The Waitangi Tribunal noted in its 2003 report on the Port Nicholson land purchases that Barrett – who it describes as having "marked incompetence as an interpreter" – was unable to translate the deed into Maori and "quite incapable of conveying its meaning... to the assembled Maori".
Barrett was described by a contemporary as speaking "whaler Maori, a jargon that bears much the same relation to the real language of the Maori as the pigeon English of the Chinese does to our mother tongue". In November 1839 Barrett arrived in Taranaki on the Tory to negotiate the purchase of land from his wife's iwi, remaining there while Wakefield continued north to Kaipara. On February 15, 1840 he translated Deeds of Sale and obtained 72 signatures to formalise the purchase of a vast area of Taranaki, extending from Mokau to Cape Egmont and inland to the upper reaches of the Whanganui River. Payment was made with guns and other chattels. J. Houston, writing in Maori Life in Old Taranaki, observed: "Many of the true owners were absent, while others had not returned from slavery to the Waikatos in the north, thus the 72 chiefs of Ngamotu cheerfully sold lands in which they themselves had no interest, as well as lands wherein they held only a part interest along with several others."The Maori were not aided in their understanding of the deal by Barrett's translation skills.
In the Land Commission hearings at Wellington in 1843, when asked to translate a lengthy land sale deed into Maori to demonstrate his abilities, he "turned a 1600-word document, written in English, into 115 meaningless Maori ones". Barrett moved to Wellington to open a hotel and in early 1840 was appointed Agent for the Natives by Wakefield, who said the role "will make him the medium between the settlers and their dark neighbours in all disputes and in the allotment of the native reserves in lieu of the land now occupied and cultivated by them"; the position was rewarded with a £100 a year salary and Barrett received glowing praise from Wakefield for his loyalty and success as well as his interpreting skills. In 1841 he returned to New Plymouth with Frederic Alonzo Carrington, a surveyor commissioned by the New Zealand Company, who began surveying the planned town, he married Rawinia the same year, describing himself on the marriage certificate as "a whaling master of full age". Barrett remained in New Plymouth as the settlement grew, establishing a commercially unsuccessful whaling station and serving as an unofficial harbour master, helping immigrants ashore as ships arrived.
He became a gardener and farmer. He drove the first cattle and sheep to Taranaki from Wellington and introduced a wide variety of new crops and vegetables, he missed the landing of the first settlers, who arrived on the William Bryan in March 1841, because he was about 10 km inland, searching for peach trees he had earlier planted. When the Land Claims Commission held hearings in New Plymouth into disputed land purchases in 1844, it awarded the New Zealand Company 24,000ha of "legitimately purchased" land, including 72ha for Barrett and his family. From 1842 Barrett became a persona non grata and was ostracised after being blamed by Atiawa Māori and settlers alike – as well as Governor Robert FitzRoy – for contributing to tension over settlement of Māori land with his initial negotiations; the tension spilled over into war. Barrett died in 1847 as the result of a heart attack. Claims that he suffered fatal injuries while killing a whale off the coast of New Plymouth, reported by the Taranaki Herald in 1941, are not supported by any contemporary evidence.
He was buried at Wahitapu Cemetery off lower New Plymouth. A headston
Harley Finkelstein is a Canadian businessperson and public speaker. He is best known as the Chief Operating Officer of Shopify, he is a board member of CBC, an advisor to both OMERS Ventures and Felicis Ventures. He is a Dragon on CBC Dragons' Den, Next Gen Den. Finkelstein was born in Montreal, Canada. At 17, he founded a T-shirt company while attending McGill University, he transferred to Concordia University and received a bachelor's degree in economics. Finkelstein attended the University of Ottawa where he founded the JD/MBA Student Society and the Canadian MBA Oath while working towards his Juris Doctor and MBA. After completing his JD and MBA, Finkelstein worked at a law firm in Toronto for a year. In 2009, Finkelstein met with Tobias Lütke, the co-founder and CEO of Shopify, to discuss opportunities for the company. Finkelstein was named Shopify's Chief Platform Officer. In December 2014, Finkelstein was appointed a member of the C100 board; the C100 is an organization that supports the Canadian technology community and is a bridge between Canada and Silicon Valley.
Finkelstein serves as a mentor and advisor to various organizations and incubators including Felicis Ventures, FounderFuel, Invest Ottawa and CIPPIC. In January 2016, Finkelstein was named COO of Shopify; that same year, he was inducted into the Order of Ottawa by Mayor Jim Watson. In December 2017, Finkelstein joined the board of directors for CBC. Finkelstein was named Angel Investor of the Year at the Canadian Startup Awards in March 2017. Finkelstein is the grandson of Holocaust survivors, he is married to Lindsay Taub, Jewish, they have a daughter. The three of them live in New Edinburgh. In 2018 it was announced that Finkelstein was donating $500,000 to establish the new Finkelstein Chabad Jewish Centre in the Sandy Hill neighbourhood of Ottawa. After attending the Chabad centre when he was a student at the University of Ottawa and realizing that there was not enough room to fit all the students who wished to attend events, he promised the Rabbi he would donate in order to pay him back for the generosity of his family in welcoming Jewish students in Ottawa.
Harley Finkelstein for The Globe and Mail