Halibut Cove, Alaska
Halibut Cove is a census-designated place in Kenai Peninsula Borough, United States. The population was 76 at the 2010 census, up from 35 in 2000. A fishing village, Halibut Cove is now home to several artists and businesses. One of the only floating U. S. post offices is there. A popular tourist destination, the cove offers several lodges and cabins and the only way to get around the cove is by boat. Halibut Cove is located in the southern part of the Kenai Peninsula at 59°35′51″N 151°14′5″W, it lies on the south side of 10 miles southeast of Homer. The CDP is bordered to the east by Halibut Cove and to the west by China Poot Bay, both of which are arms of Kachemak Bay; the town center is on Ismailof Island. Peterson Bay is an inlet west of Ismailof Island. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 11.5 square miles, of which 8.3 square miles are land and 3.2 square miles, or 27.60%, are water. Visitors reach Halibut Cove by private boat from Homer. There is no road access.
Areas open to the public around the lagoon are connected by boardwalks, many homes and businesses are or constructed on pilings over the water. Halibut Cove first appeared on the 1940 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it did not appear on the 1950 census, but returned again in 1960, in every successive census to date. It was made a census-designated place in 1980; as of the census of 2010, there were 76 people, 34 households, 21 families residing in the CDP. There were 161 housing units, of which or 78.9 %, were vacant. 99 of the vacant housing units were for vacation use. The racial makeup of the CDP was 86.8% white, 6.6% Alaska Native American, 6.6% from two or more races. Of the 34 households, 17.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were headed by married couples living together, 38.2% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were individuals, 14.7% were someone living alone age 65 years or older. The average household size was 2.24, the average family size was 2.57.
In the CDP, 10.5% of the population were under the age of 18, 13.1% were from 18 to 24, 23.6% were from 25 to 44, 38.1% were from 45 to 64, 14.5% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 117.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 119.4 males. Halibut Cove website
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. It may be defined as: "The most intact, undisturbed wild natural areas left on our planet—those last wild places that humans do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines or other industrial infrastructure." The term has traditionally referred to terrestrial environments, though growing attention is being placed on marine wilderness. Recent maps of wilderness suggest it covers one quarter of Earth's terrestrial surface, but is being degraded by human activity. Less wilderness remains in the ocean, with only 13.2% free from intense human activity. Some governments establish them by law or administrative acts in land tracts that have not been modified by human action in great measure; the main feature of them is that human motorized activity is restricted. These actions seek not only to preserve what exists, but to promote and advance a natural expression and development. Wilderness areas can be found in preserves, conservation preserves, National Forests, National Parks and in urban areas along rivers, gulches or otherwise undeveloped areas.
These areas are considered important for the survival of certain species, ecological studies, conservation and recreation. Wilderness is valued for cultural, spiritual and aesthetic reasons; some nature writers believe wilderness areas are vital for creativity. They may preserve historic genetic traits and provide habitat for wild flora and fauna that may be difficult to recreate in zoos, arboretums or laboratories; the word wilderness derives from the notion of "wildness"—in other words, that, not controlled by humans. The mere presence or activity of people does not disqualify an area from being "wilderness." Many ecosystems that are, or have been, inhabited or influenced by activities of people may still be considered "wild." This way of looking at wilderness includes areas within which natural processes operate without human interference. The WILD Foundation states that wilderness areas have two dimensions: they must be biologically intact and protected; the World Conservation Union classifies wilderness at Ia and Ib.
Activities on the margins of specific wilderness areas, such as fire suppression and the interruption of animal migration affect the interior of wildernesses. In wealthier, industrialized nations, it has a specific legal meaning as well: as land where development is prohibited by law. Many nations have designated wilderness, including the United States, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa. Many new parks are being planned and passed by various Parliaments and Legislatures at the urging of dedicated individuals around the globe who believe that "in the end, inspired people empowered by effective legislation will ensure that the spirit and services of wilderness will thrive and permeate our society, preserving a world that we are proud to hand over to those who come after us." Looked at through the lens of the visual arts and wildness have been important subjects in various epochs of world history. An early tradition of landscape art occurred in the Tang Dynasty; the tradition of representing nature as it is became one of the aims of Chinese painting and was a significant influence in Asian art.
Artists in the tradition of Shan shui, learned to depict mountains and rivers "from the perspective of nature as a whole and on the basis of their understanding of the laws of nature… as if seen through the eyes of a bird." In the 13th century, Shih Erh Chi recommended avoiding painting "scenes lacking any places made inaccessible by nature."For most of human history, the greater part of the Earth's terrain was wilderness, human attention was concentrated in settled areas. The first known laws to protect parts of nature date back to the Babylonian Empire and Chinese Empire. Ashoka, the Great Mauryan King, defined the first laws in the world to protect flora and fauna in Edicts of Ashoka around 3rd Century B. C. In the Middle Ages, the Kings of England initiated one of the world’s first conscious efforts to protect natural areas, they were motivated by a desire to be able to hunt wild animals in private hunting preserves rather than a desire to protect wilderness. In order to have animals to hunt they would have to protect wildlife from subsistence hunting and the land from villagers gathering firewood.
Similar measures were introduced in other European countries. The idea of wilderness having intrinsic value emerged in the Western world in the 19th century. British artists John Constable and J. M. W. Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of the natural world in their paintings. Prior to that, paintings had been of religious scenes or of human beings. William Wordsworth’s poetry described the wonder of the natural world, viewed as a threatening place; the valuing of nature became an aspect of Western culture. By the mid-19th century, in Germany, "Scientific Conservation," as it was called, advocated "the efficient utilization of natural resources through the application of science and technology." Concepts of forest management based on the German approach were applied in other parts of the world, but with varying degrees of success. Over the course of the 19th century wilderness became viewed not as a place to fear but a place to enjoy and protect, hence came the conservation movement in the latter half of the 19th century.
Rivers were rafted and mountains were climbed for the sake of recreation, not to determine th
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians have a larval phase of their life cycle; the larva's appearance is very different from the adult form including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may be different. Larvae are adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form. In some species like barnacles, adults are immobile but their larvae are mobile, use their mobile larval form to distribute themselves; some larvae are dependent on adults to feed them. In many eusocial Hymenoptera species, the larvae are fed by female workers.
In Ropalidia marginata the males are capable of feeding larvae but they are much less efficient, spending more time and getting less food to the larvae. The larvae of some species do not develop further into the adult form; this is a type of neoteny. It is a misunderstanding; this could be the case, but the larval stage has evolved secondarily, as in insects. In these cases the larval form may differ more than the adult form from the group's common origin. Within Insects, only Endopterygotes show different types of larvae. Several classifications have been suggested by many entomologists, following classification is based on Antonio Berlese classification in 1913. There are four main types of endopterygote larvae types: Apodous larvae – no legs at all and are poorly sclerotized. Based on sclerotization, three apodous forms are recognized. Eucephalous – with well sclerotized head capsule. Found in Nematocera and Cerambycidae families. Hemicephalus – with a reduced head capsule, retractable in to the thorax.
Found in Tipulidae and Brachycera families. Acephalus – without head capsule. Found in Cyclorrhapha Protopod larvae – larva have many different forms and unlike a normal insect form, they hatch from eggs which contains little yolk. Ex. first instar larvae of parasitic hymenoptera. Polypod larvae – known as eruciform larvae, these larva have abdominal prolegs, in addition to usual thoracic legs, they poorly sclerotized and inactive. They live in close contact with the food. Best example is caterpillars of lepidopterans. Oligopod larvae – have well developed head capsule and mouthparts are similar to the adult, but without compound eyes, they have six legs. No abdominal prolegs. Two types can be seen: Campodeiform – well sclerotized, dorso-ventrally flattened body. Long legged predators with prognathous mouthparts.. Scarabeiform – poorly sclerotized, flat thorax and abdomen. Short legged and inactive burrowing forms.. Crustacean larvae Ichthyoplankton Spawn Non-larval animal juvenile stages and other life cycle stages: In Porifera: olynthus, gemmule In Cnidaria: ephyra, strobila, hydranth, medusa In Mollusca: paralarva, young cephalopods In Platyhelminthes: hydatid cyst In Bryozoa: avicularium In Acanthocephala: cystacanth In Insecta: Nymphs and naiads, immature forms in hemimetabolous insects Subimago, a juvenile that resembles the adult in Ephemeroptera Instar, intermediate between each ecdysis Pupa and chrysalis, intermediate stages between larva and imago Protozoan life cycle stages Apicomplexan life cycle Algal life cycle stages: Codiolum-phase Conchocelis-phase Marine larval ecology Media related to Larvae at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of larva at Wiktionary Arenas-Mena, C.
Indirect development, transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Feb 27, 2010 Vol.365 no.1540 653-669 Brusca, R. C. & Brusca, G. J.. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. Hall, B. K. & Wake, M. H. eds.. The Origin and Evolution of Larval Forms. San Diego: Academic Press. Leis, J. M. & Carson-Ewart, B. M. eds.. The Larvae of Indo-Pacific Coastal Fishes. An Identification Guide to Marine Fish Larvae. Fauna Malesiana handbooks, vol. 2. Brill, Leiden. Minelli, A.. The larva. In: Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution. Oxford University Press. P. 160-170. Link. Shanks, A. L.. An Identification Guide to the Larval Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 256 pp. Smith, D. & Johnson, K. B.. A Guide to Marine Coastal Plankton and Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Kendall/Hunt Plublishing Company. Stanwell-Smith, D. Hood, A. & Peck, L. S.. A field guide to the pelagic invertebrates larvae of the maritime Antarctic.
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge. Thyssen, P. J.. Keys for Identification of Immature Insects. In: Amendt, J. et al.. Current Concepts in Forensic Entomology, chapter 2, pp. 25–42. Springer: Dordrecht
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is called a gulf, sound, or bight. A cove is a type of smaller bay with narrow entrance. A fjord is a steep bay shaped by glacial activity. A bay can be the estuary of a river, such as the Chesapeake Bay, an estuary of the Susquehanna River. Bays may be nested within each other; some large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal and Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology. The land surrounding a bay reduces the strength of winds and blocks waves. Bays were significant in the history of human settlement because they provided safe places for fishing, they were important in the development of sea trade as the safe anchorage they provide encouraged their selection as ports. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea called the Law of the Sea, defines a bay as a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast.
An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation. There are various ways; the largest bays have developed through plate tectonics. As the super-continent Pangaea broke up along curved and indented fault lines, the continents moved apart and left large bays. Bays form through coastal erosion by rivers and glaciers. A bay formed by a glacier is a fjord. Rias are characterised by more gradual slopes. Deposits of softer rocks erode more forming bays, while harder rocks erode less leaving headlands. Bay platform Great capes Headlands and bays
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Seldovia is a city in Kenai Peninsula Borough, United States. Its population was 255 at the 2010 census, down from 286 in 2000, it is located along Kachemak Bay southwest of Homer. There is no road system connecting the town to other communities, so all travel to Seldovia is by airplane or boat; the Alaska Native people of Seldovia make up 1/4 of the population and have ancestors of Aleut and Alutiiq descent, as well as some Dena'ina. The native residents are mixed Alutiiq Eskimo. In 1787 or 1788 a Russian fur trade post named Aleksandrovskaia was established at today's Seldovia by hunting parties under Evstratii Ivanovich Delarov, of the Shelikhov-Golikov company, precursor of the Russian-American Company. Although there has been little definitive archeological evidence of human habitation at Seldovia prior to the 1800s, it is said the early Russian St. Nicholas Orthodox Church, started in 1820, was built on top of an older aboriginal Inuit village site; the town's original Russian name, translates to "Herring Bay", as there was a significant herring population prior to rampant overfishing early in the 20th century.
Until the development of a more complete road system in Alaska, Seldovia was an important "first stop" for ships sailing from Seward and other points outside Cook Inlet. At one time Seldovia was home to over 2,000 residents, but today fewer than 300 persons reside year round; the town was one of many communities along the shores of Cook Inlet, noted for having one of the most severe tidal movements in North America. Similar to the dramatic tides of Bay of Fundy, the Cook Inlet's waters prior to 1964 would rise or fall 26 feet every six hours during the peak tides. After the Good Friday earthquake on March 27, 1964, which registered 9.2 on the moment magnitude scale, the surrounding land mass dropped six feet. Seldovia's "boardwalk" before the earthquake was thick wooden plank and piling, the town's main street was built entirely along the waterfront. Most of the community's businesses, many homes were constructed upon pilings on either side of this "street"; the sudden sinking of the land caused higher tides, peaking at 32 feet, to submerge the boardwalk and flood the homes and businesses along the waterfront.
The waterfront was rebuilt using fill from Cap's Hill, demolished to rebuild the town on higher ground. There is only one small portion of the boardwalk left; the original boardwalk is gone, destroyed during the urban renewal process, along with many homes and businesses. Seldovia has been home to many industries, including fox farming, berry picking and commercial fishing, including King Crab fishing. Logging and mining have featured in local history. Today charter boats keep busy bringing the visiting sport fishermen to the fishing grounds of Kachemak Bay and other nearby waters. Seldovia first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated villages of Seldovia and Ostrovki. Of the 74 residents, 38 were Creole and 36 were Inuit. In 1890, it returned as Seldovia, reported 99 residents, of which 83 were Native and 16 Creole, it has reported in every successive census. It formally incorporated in 1945; as of the census of 2010, there were 255 people, 121 households, 66 families residing in the city.
The population density was 668.6 people per square mile. There were 218 housing units at an average density of 571.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.5% White, 1.2% Black or African American, 13.7% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.0% from other races, 11.4% from two or more races. 3.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 121 households out of which 19.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.5% were non-families. 35.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.67. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 20.0% under the age of 18, 3.6% from 18 to 24, 21.2% from 25 to 44, 37.2% from 45 to 64, 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 48.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 104 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $50,313, the median income for a family was $68,750. Males had a median income of $61,875 versus $21,667 for females; the per capita income for the city was $30,754. About 1.7% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.2% of those under the age of eighteen and 1.9% of those sixty five or over. Seldovia is located at 59°26′20″N 151°42′45″W. Seldovia is on the Kenai Peninsula on the south shore of Kachemak Bay opposite Homer; the community is located in the Seldovia Recording District. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Seldovia has a total area of 0.6 square miles, of which, 0.4 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. Seldovia has brief dry summers; the school, Seldovia Village Tribe and commercial fishing related businesses are the dominant employers in town.
The Susan B. English Grade 1-12 School, opened on
National Estuarine Research Reserve
The National Estuarine Research Reserve System is a network of 29 protected areas established by partnerships between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and coastal states. The reserves represent different biogeographic regions of the United States; the National Estuarine Research Reserve System protects more than 1.3 million acres of coastal and estuarine habitats for long-term research, water-quality monitoring and coastal stewardship. For thousands of years and estuarine environments have provided people with food, safe harbors, transportation access, flood control, a place to play and relax; the pressures on the nation’s coast are enormous and the impacts on economies and ecosystems are becoming evident. Severe storms, climate change, habitat alteration and rapid population growth threaten the ecological functions that have supported coastal communities throughout history. Estuaries are the connection between the ocean and the land and humans depend on both for their existence, so caring for both – and the connection between them – is vital to humans.
The System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 as estuarine sanctuaries and was renamed to estuarine research reserves in the 1988 reauthorization of the CZMA. NOAA provides national guidance and technical assistance; each reserve is managed on daily basis by a lead state agency or university, with input from local partners. Reserve staff work with local communities and regional groups to address natural resource management issues, such as non-point source pollution, habitat restoration and invasive species. Through integrated research and education, the reserves help communities develop strategies to deal with these coastal resource issues. Reserves provide adult audiences with training on estuarine issues of concern in their local communities, offer field classes for K-12 students, provide estuary education to teachers through the Teachers on the Estuary program. Reserves provide long-term water quality monitoring as well as opportunities for both scientists and graduate students to conduct research in a "living laboratory".
The National Estuarine Research Reserves serve as living laboratories to support coastal research and long-term monitoring and to provide facilities for on-site staff, visiting scientists and graduate students. They serve as reference sites for comparative studies on coastal topics such as ecosystem dynamics, human influences on estuarine systems, habitat conservation and restoration, species management, social science. Additionally, the reserves serve as sentinel sites to better understand the effects of climate change; the goals of the Reserve System's research and monitoring program include: ensuring a stable environment for research through long-term protection of Reserve resources addressing coastal management issues through coordinated estuarine research within the System collecting information necessary for improved understanding and management of estuarine areas, making the information available to stakeholdersEach reserve works on a variety of research projects, in addition to participating in the System-wide Monitoring Program.
The topics of these projects are varied and depend on local needs and issues, as well as issues of national concern. Topics may include issues such as investigating the impacts of non-point source pollution, understanding the role of social science in coastal resource management, controlling invasive species; the System Wide Monitoring Program was established in 1995 as a means of observing short-term variability and long-term changes in estuarine regions. Each reserve participates in SWMP which provides researchers, resource managers and other coastal decision makers with standardized, quantitative measures to determine how reserve conditions are changing. By using standard operating procedures for each component across all 29 reserves, SWMP data helps establish the reserves as a system of national reference sites, as well a network of sentinel sites for detecting and understanding the effects of climate change in coastal regions. SWMP has three major components that focus on: abiotic indicators of water quality and weather biological monitoring watershed and land use mappingAbiotic parameters include nutrients, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, in some cases, contaminants.
Biological monitoring includes measures of biodiversity and population characteristics. Watershed and land use classifications provide information on types of land use by humans and changes in land cover associated with each reserve. SWMP data for each reserve are managed by the Centralized Data Management Office, managed through a grant to the University of South Carolina and is housed at the North Inlet-Winyah Bay Reserve in South Carolina. SWMP data can be viewed and downloaded from the CDMO; the NERRS Science Collaborative is designed to put Reserve-based science to work for local communities. Administered by the University of Michigan, the program funds research projects that bring scientists, intended users of the science, stakeholders and trainers together to address problems related to coastal pollution and habitat degradation in the context of climate change; the results of these projects is shared throughout the System. The Collaborative sponsors a UM-based graduate and professional education program focused on helping individuals develop the skills needed to link science-based information to coastal resource management decisions.
National Estuarine Research Reserves are federally designated "to enhance public awareness and understanding of estuarine areas, provide suitable opportunities for public ed