Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church also shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages, locations and cultures. The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. Poaceae includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns, Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks. The lower part of each leaf encloses the stem, forming a leaf-sheath, with ca 780 genera and around 12,000 species, Poaceae are the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Fabaceae and Rubiaceae. Grasslands such as savannah and prairie grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40. 5% of the land area of the Earth, excluding Greenland. Grasses are also an important part of the vegetation in many habitats, including wetlands, forests. Though commonly called grasses, seagrasses, rushes, and sedges fall outside this family, the rushes and sedges are related to the Poaceae, being members of the order Poales, but the seagrasses are members of order Alismatales. The name Poaceae was given by John Hendley Barnhart in 1895, based on the tribe Poeae described in 1814 by Robert Brown, the term is derived from the Ancient Greek πόα. Grasses include some of the most versatile plant life-forms, a cladogram shows subfamilies and approximate species numbers in brackets, Before 2005, fossil findings indicated that grasses evolved around 55 million years ago. Recent findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites have pushed this back to 66 million years ago. In 2011, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae suggested a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya, a multituberculate mammal with grass-eating adaptations seems to suggest that grasses were already around at 120 mya. This separation occurred within the short time span of about 4 million years. Grass leaves are always alternate and distichous, and have parallel veins. Each leaf is differentiated into a lower sheath hugging the stem, the leaf blades of many grasses are hardened with silica phytoliths, which discourage grazing animals, some, such as sword grass, are sharp enough to cut human skin. A membranous appendage or fringe of hairs called the ligule lies at the junction between sheath and blade, preventing water or insects from penetrating into the sheath, flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each having one or more florets. The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes, the part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla. A spikelet consists of two bracts at the base, called glumes, followed by one or more florets, a floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts, one external—the lemma—and one internal—the palea. The flowers are usually hermaphroditic—maize being an important exception—and anemophilous or wind-pollinated, the perianth is reduced to two scales, called lodicules, that expand and contract to spread the lemma and palea, these are generally interpreted to be modified sepals. This complex structure can be seen in the image on the right, the fruit of grasses is a caryopsis, in which the seed coat is fused to the fruit wall
Iraklis 1908 Thessaloniki F.C.
Iraklis 1908 FC or Iraklis FC, is a Greek football club, based in the city of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece, currently playing in the Superleague, the top tier of Greek football. Their home ground is the Kaftanzoglio Stadium with a capacity of 27,770, founded in 1908 as Macedonikos Gymnasticos Syllogos, they are one of the oldest in Greek football and the oldest in Thessaloniki, hence the nickname Ghireos. A year later, the name Iraklis was added to the name as an honour to the ancient Greek hero Heracles. The teams colours are cyan or blue and white, inspired by the Greek flag, Iraklis was a founding member of Macedonia Football Clubs Association, as well as the Hellenic Football Federation, as a part of G. S. Iraklis. Before the formation of the league of Alpha Ethniki, Iraklis competed in the league that was run by the Macedonia Football Clubs Association. The club has played in five Greek Cup finals, lifting the trophy once in the 1976 final. They have also a title, as they won the Balkans Cup in 1985. Iraklis traces its roots back in 1899 when Omilos Filomouson was established, the club was established as a cultural union of the Greeks of Thessaloniki, but in 1902 it founded a sports department. Football was a new sport at the time, but rapidly increasing in popularity, the first match that was held by the Omilos Filomouson football team was on 23 April 1905, against a team of the Western European diaspora of the city called Union Sportive. Omilos Filomouson won the match by a 3-0 scoreline, later on, the club faced financial problems, but members of the club joined forces with another Greek athletic club of the city, called Olympia. The result of union was the foundation of a new club on 29 November 1908, called Makedonikos Gymnastikos Syllogos. The new clubs first president was a Greek doctor, Alkiviadis Maltos, the name of the club had a direct reference to the ethnic tensions that took place in the area at that time. Due to the Young Turks revolt of 1908 and their promises for ease of ethnic tensions in the area, thus a new name was decided for the club, Ottomanikos Ellinikos Gymnastikos Syllogos Thessalonikis Iraklis. The new name was approved, together with a new statute, Iraklis won Alliance 3-1, Progrès Sportive 5-1 and after winning the French-German School Alumni Union, the club was proclaimed Champion of Thessaloniki. On 6 April 1914, Iraklis played a match against Athinaikos Syllogos Podosfairou and it was the clubs first match against a club outside Thessaloniki. In 1914, Iraklis established the clubs youth squad, so the students of the Greek Gymnasium of the city could train in football, a year later Iraklis won the second Thessaloniki Football Championship. The next championship was not held due to World War I, in the years following World War I, several football clubs were established in Thessaloniki and that led to the establishment of the Macedonia Football Clubs Association in 1923. The first championship from the newly founded association was organised shortly afterwards, in 1924 Iraklis played its first match against a club from outside the borders of Greece
Football at the 2004 Summer Olympics
The football tournament at the 2004 Summer Olympics started on 11 August, and ended on 28 August. The tournaments take place four years, in conjunction with the Summer Olympic Games. The associations affiliated to FIFA are invited to participate with their mens U-23, the mens tournament allows up to three overage players to join the U-23 squads. The mens tournament was won by Argentina, coached by Marcelo Bielsa, the Golden Boot was won by Argentinas Carlos Tevez. The womens tournament was won by the United States. com Olympic Football Tournaments Athens 2004 - Women, FIFA. com Olympics, Olympic Football Tournament 2004
Veria Football Club is a football club based in Veria, Imathia, Greece. Veria FC was founded in September 1960 when two teams merged. The club has competed in Superleague Greece since 2012 and it has the nicknames Queen of the North and Rossoblu. Veria, PAOK and Iraklis are the clubs left representing the region of Macedonia in the top-tier championship. In 1960 two local teams of Imathia, Hermes and Vermion, merged when their founders decided that this was the way to create a competitive club. Verias first appearance in football championships came in 1962–63, when it finished sixth in the fourth group of Beta Ethniki. Four years later, the club had a breakthrough, finishing first in the group of Beta Ethniki. Because of this accomplishment, Veria was nicknamed Queen of the North, the following season saw Veria underperform and be relegated after three play-off matches against Olympiakos Volou. Despite the relegation, Veria achieved promotion the season, again finishing first in Group C of Beta Ethniki. Veria finished 13th in Alpha Ethniki in the 1970–71 season, during which they suffered a heavy 8–2 defeat by AEK Athens, the following season saw them finish 15th and be relegated again. Despite the relegation, Veria celebrated some notable wins such as against AEK Athens with a score 1–0, Olympiacos with a score 2–1, from 1972 until 1977, Veria competed in Beta Ethniki. They finished mid-table until 1975 but in 1976–77 tied with Kavala for first place, Veria were relegated again in 1977–78, when they finished 16th. The relegation came after Veria attempted to bribe Christos Hatziskoulidis of Egaleo F. C. to underperform in a match, the team was suspended and deducted ten points. For the next eight years Veria played in Beta Ethniki, finishing mid-table for seven of them, for five of those seasons Veria faced the other Imathia team, Naoussa, which led to a rivalry between the fans of the two cities. In 1982–83, Naoussa was relegated and the rivality was forgotten, in 1985–86, Veria played again in Alpha Ethniki following promotion in the previous season. The campaign resulted in the clubs best ever position, finishing joint seventh with AEK. That season,12 out of 16 teams, including Veria, were docked six points due to a players strike. Despite the great season in Alpha Ethniki, the season saw Veria being relegated again
Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event at the ancient Greek Olympic festival was the race that comprised one length of the stade at Olympia, where the word stadium originated. In modern times, a stadium is officially a stadium when at least 50% of the capacity is an actual building. If the majority of the capacity is formed by grasshills, the venue is not officially considered a stadium. Most of the stadiums with a capacity of at least 10,000 are used for football, or soccer. A large amount of sports venues are also used for concerts. Stadium is the Latin form of the Greek word stadion, a measure of length equalling the length of 600 human feet, as feet are of variable length the exact length of a stadion depends on the exact length adopted for 1 foot at a given place and time. Although in modern terms 1 stadion =600 ft, in a historical context it may actually signify a length up to 15% larger or smaller. The equivalent Roman measure, the stadium, had a similar length — about 185 m -, the English use of stadium comes from the tiered infrastructure surrounding a Roman track of such length. Most dictionaries provide for both stadiums and stadia as valid English plurals, although etymological purists sometimes apply stadia only to measures of length in excess of 1 stadium. The oldest known stadium is the one in Olympia, in the western Peloponnese, Greece, initially the Games consisted of a single event, a sprint along the length of the stadium. The stadion, a measure of length, may be related to the Stadium, Greek and Roman stadiums have been found in numerous ancient cities, perhaps the most famous being the Stadium of Domitian, in Rome. The excavated and refurbished ancient Panathenaic stadium hosted a version of the Olympic Games in 1870,1875,1896 and 1906. The excavation and refurbishment of the stadium was part of the legacy of the Greek national benefactor Evangelos Zappas, the first stadiums to be built in the modern era were basic facilities, designed for the single purpose of fitting as many spectators in as possible. One such early stadium was the Lansdowne Road Stadium, the brainchild of Henry Dunlop, banned from locating sporting events at Trinity College, Dunlop built the stadium in 1872. Some 300 cartloads of soil from a trench beneath the railway were used to raise the ground, other early stadiums from this period in the UK include the Stamford Bridge stadium and Anfield stadium. In the U. S. However, many of these caught fire. All of the 19th-century wooden parks were replaced, some only a few years. Goodison Park was the first purpose-built football stadium in the world, walton-based building firm Kelly brothers were instructed to erect two uncovered stands that could each accommodate 4,000 spectators