Muldersdrift, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, is a picturesque rural area situated 27 km north-west of the CBD between Johannesburg and the Magaliesberg mountain range. The area falls under the West Rand District Municipality, is part of Mogale City. Located in the Kromdraai Valley and on the Crocodile River, Muldersdrift forms part of the Crocodile Ramble, a scenic tourist route regarded as the most popular of all the craft routes around South Africa. Muldersdrift is the gateway to the West Rand, forms part of Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site. Muldersdrift is found on a ford offering a safe crossing point of the Crocodile River; the river crossing point was on an old wagon route that lead from Pretoria in the north-east to Potchefstroom in the south-west. The area was said to have been settled in 1840s as farmland and the area acquired its name in 1866 after the Mulder family when they camped close to the river when they were unable to across the drift due to flooding; the spot would soon become an outspan site for horse and oxen on the wagon route and would attract a postmaster long before the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand.
With its wealth of tourism establishments and more than 40 wedding venues and conference centres, Muldersdrift is known for its fine accommodation, restaurants and health resorts. It is referred to as the “wedding capital” of Gauteng. Home to numerous small farms and nurseries, the area has acquired a reputation for being an arts and cultural hub with a number of home craft industries with a number of potters, artists and astronomers based in the area; the Wonder Cave near Muldersdrift is one of the show caves of the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site. It is one of the world's richest hominid fossil sites. Muldersdrift is home to Gilroy’s Brewery. Situated in Muldersdrift is Gauteng’s newest casino; the Silverstar Casino and Entertainment Centre contains a variety of restaurants, retail shops, conference facilities, a spa, a 34-room hotel. Opened in October 2013, the 75,000 square metres Cradlestone Mall is named after its proximity to the Cradle of Humankind. Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden Cradle of Humankind Lanseria International Airport Magaliesburg Hartbeespoort Dam Maropeng Sterkfontein Caves Wonder Cave Krugersdorp Game Reserve Lesedi Cultural Village Gauteng Tourism - Muldersdrift Valley of Ancestors Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site Cradlestone Mall Silverstar Casino Leafy Greens
Johannesburg is the largest city in South Africa and one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world. It is the provincial capital and largest city of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa. While Johannesburg is not one of South Africa's three capital cities, it is the seat of the Constitutional Court; the city is located in the mineral-rich Witwatersrand range of hills and is the centre of large-scale gold and diamond trade. The metropolis is an alpha global city as listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. In 2011, the population of the city of Johannesburg was 4,434,827, making it the most populous city in South Africa. In the same year, the population of Johannesburg's urban agglomeration was put at 7,860,781; the land area of the municipal city is large in comparison with those of other major cities, resulting in a moderate population density of 2,364/km2. The city was established in 1886 following the discovery of gold on; the city is interpreted as the modern day El Dorado due to the large gold deposit found along the Witwatersrand.
In ten years, the population grew to 100,000 inhabitants. A separate city from the late 1970s until 1994, Soweto is now part of Johannesburg. An acronym for "South-Western Townships", Soweto originated as a collection of settlements on the outskirts of Johannesburg, populated by native African workers from the gold mining industry. Soweto, although incorporated into Johannesburg, had been separated as a residential area for Blacks, who were not permitted to live in Johannesburg proper. Lenasia is predominantly populated by English-speaking South Africans of Indian descent; these areas were designated as non-white areas in accordance with the segregationist policies of the South African government known as Apartheid. Controversy surrounds the origin of the name. There was quite a number of people with the name "Johannes" who were involved in the early history of the city. Among them are the principal clerk attached to the office of the surveyor-general Hendrik Dercksen, Christiaan Johannes Joubert, a member of the Volksraad and was Republic's chief of mining.
Another was Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger, president of the South African Republic from 1883 - 1900. Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility. Precise records for the choice of name were lost. Johannes Rissik and Johannes Joubert were members of a delegation sent to England to attain mining rights for the area. Joubert had a park in the city named after him and Rissik has his name for one of the main streets in the city where the important albeit dilapidated Rissik Street Post Office is located; the City Hall is located on Rissik Street. The region surrounding Johannesburg was inhabited by San people. By the 13th century, groups of Bantu-speaking people started moving southwards from central Africa and encroached on the indigenous San population. By the mid-18th century, the broader region was settled by various Sotho–Tswana communities, whose villages, towns and kingdoms stretched from what is now Botswana in the west, to present day Lesotho in the south, to the present day Pedi areas of the Northern Province.
More the stone-walled ruins of Sotho–Tswana towns and villages are scattered around the parts of the former Transvaal province in which Johannesburg is situated. The Sotho–Tswana practised farming and extensively mined and smelted metals that were available in the area. Moreover, from the early 1960s until his retirement, Professor Revil Mason of the University of the Witwatersrand and documented many Late Iron Age archaeological sites throughout the Johannesburg area; these sites dated from between the 12th century and 18th century, many contained the ruins of Sotho–Tswana mines and iron smelting furnaces, suggesting that the area was being exploited for its mineral wealth before the arrival of Europeans or the discovery of gold. The most prominent site within Johannesburg is Melville Koppies, which contains an iron smelting furnace. Many Sotho–Tswana towns and villages in the areas around Johannesburg were destroyed and their people driven away during the wars emanating from Zululand during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, as a result, an offshoot of the Zulu kingdom, the Ndebele, set up a kingdom to the northwest of Johannesburg around modern-day Rustenburg.
The main Witwatersrand gold reef was discovered in June 1884 on the farm Vogelstruisfontein by Jan Gerritse Bantjes that triggered the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the founding of Johannesburg in 1886. The discovery of gold attracted people to the area, making necessary a name and governmental organisation for the area. Jan and Johannes were common male names among the Dutch of that time. Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility. Precise records for the choice of name were lost. Within ten years, the city of Johannesburg included 100,000 people. In September 1884, the Struben brothers discovered the Confidence Reef on the farm Wilgespruit near present-day Roodepoort, which further boosted excitement over gold prospects; the first gold to be crushed on the Witwatersrand was the gold-bearing rock from the Bantjes mine crushed using the Struben brothers stamp machine. News of t
Nomvula Paula Mokonyane is the Minister of Environmental Affairs in South Africa, appointed on 22 November 2018 under President Cyril Ramaphosa. She was first appointed to the cabinet of South Africa in May 2014 under President Jacob Zuma, serving as Minister in the Department of Water and Sanitation, became Minister of Communication under President Cyril Ramaphosa in January 2018. Prior to serving in Cabinet, she was the Premier of Gauteng province, elected following the 2009 South African general election, she is Honorary President of SA-China People's Friendship Association. Mokonyane was born in the West Rand township of Kagiso, the youngest in a family of 12, with six sisters and five brothers, she matriculated at Kagiso. She is a Catholic and still an active member of her social networking club, her political career began in the early 1980s as a student activist. During that period she became a member of the Young Christian Students and a founder member of the Congress of South African Students.
She was the publicity secretary of the Krugersdorp branch of the United Democratic Front and an organiser of the Federation of Transvaal Women, an organisation that supported the families of detainees and the youth in their fight for democratic student representative councils. Because of her political activities, Mokonyane was continuously harassed and detained by the apartheid security police. After the unbanning of political organisations in 1990, Mokonyane was involved in the re-establishment of the ANC and SACP structures. Mokonyane served in the Gauteng Legislature from 1994 in various portfolio committees before she was appointed MEC of Agriculture and Environment in 1996, she became MEC for Safety and Liaison from 1999 to 2004, was appointed Housing MEC between 2004 and 2009. Mokonyane is a member of the National Executive Committee of the African National Congress elected at the 52nd national conference in 2007 in Polokwane. Following the South African general election, Mokonyane was sworn in as Premier of Gauteng on May 6, 2009, becoming Gauteng's first female premier.
She succeeded outgoing Premier Paul Mashatile. Upon her appointment as Premier, she re-organised the Gauteng provincial administration, including a planning department, her selection by the NEC came as a surprise given that the incumbent Paul Mashatile was expected to retain the post. The ANC decides nationally on premiers and instructs provincial MPLs to elect their nominee in the official election. Prior to the South African general election, Mokonyane was not placed first on the ANC's list for Provincial Legislature. Following the elections, the ANC won 53% of the Provincial vote and she was subsequently succeeded as Premier by David Makhura, the provincial secretary of the ANC; this followed harsh criticisms of Mokonyane after she had addressed the Bekkersdal community following protests in the area, saying that the ANC doesn't want their "dirty votes". The comment was criticised by the community and public; the ANC Youth League was among the most prominent critics of the decision, indeed called on the ruling party to reconsider and reappoint Mashatile, who had earlier taken over from Mbhazima Shilowa on the latter's defection from the ANC to form the breakaway party Congress of the People.
On May 25, 2014, Mokonyane was appointed Minister of Water Affairs and Sanitation, a new Ministry created to combat water issues and serious sanitation problems across the country. Mokonyane was not at the time a Member of Parliament, but the Constitution of South Africa allows for two ministers to be appointed from outside the National Legislature. In June 2014, Mokonyane visited Bloemhof, in the Lekwa Teemananeng local municipality in the North West Province, following an outbreak of diarrhoea in the area thought to be linked to dirty drinking water; as Water Affairs and Sanitation Minister, Mokonyane headed South Africa's Lesotho Highlands Water Project, in its second phase. Original timelines stated. However, due to delays ordered by Mokonyane, the date of completion has been moved to 2025, the budget has escalated to R26 billion; the only source of funding for this project is the taxpayer. In response to accusations of maladministration, Mokonyane has stated that she delayed the project for reasons of transformation - more black-owned companies should be involved.
A report by City Press found that a single company, LTE Consulting, has been awarded contracts worth R5 billion in a single year, all dealing with water and sanitation. LTE had donated up to R3.5 million to the ANC in only two months. Should LTE join the project, they stand to make R2.6 billion. Officials involved in the Lesotho Highlands Project, who denied LTE tenders, have since been replaced. A second controversy in which Mokonyane finds herself relates to the merger of two of South Africa's powerful water boards, the Umgeni and Mhlathuze boards, both in KwaZulu-Natal; this action was taken despite the misgivings of the South African Treasury. Mokonyane appointed Dudu Myeni to oversee the merger. In 2019, former Bosasa chief operations officer Angelo Agrizzi claimed that Mokonyane was paid R50 000 a month for years to protect the company from law enforcement agencies
Randfontein is a gold mining city in the West Rand, South Africa, 40 km in the west of Johannesburg. With the Witwatersrand gold rush in full swing, mining financier JB Robinson bought the farm Randfontein and, in 1889, floated the Randfontein Estates Gold Mining Company; the town was established in 1890 to serve the new mine and was administered by Krugersdorp until it became a municipality in 1929. Apart from having the largest stamp mill in the world, like many of the other outlying areas of Johannesburg, is a rural collection of farms and small holdings in a beautiful part of Gauteng. Randfontein’s existence dates back to the 1550s when the AmaNdebele lived as one nation at Emhlangeni under King Mhlanga between 1550-1580; the name of Emhlangeni is translated today into the Sesotho language as Mohlakeng, one of the southeastern suburbs of the town. Randfontein was established formally on 3 March 1890 and proclaimed a municipality in 1929; some important dates in Randfontein's history: 1857: Bootha and Jonker families arrive in the area.
1874: Gold discovered in Blaauwbank stream near Magaliesburg by Henry Lewis an Australian prospector. 1886: Discovery of gold on the Rand by Harrison and Walker. 1886: JB Robinson arrives on the Reef. 1889: Randfontein Estates Gold Mining Company registered. 1890: JB Robinson buys properties and farms in the Randfontein district. 1894: The first shop, opens. 1901: The first car, owned by Hector Mackay, arrives in town. 1904: Chinese miners arrive in Randfontein. 1929: Randfontein Municipality established. 1979: Randfontein celebrates 50 years as an independent municipality. 2004': Hilton Hamann writes a comprehensive history on Randfontein. His book Randfontein: A Town Like No Other is available via the local publicity association; this marked the 75th anniversary of Randfontein. Remnants of the Jameson Raid can be found in Randfontein. Various graves of those killed are scattered around the West Rand. In Randfontein, the graves of troopers William Charles Beatty-Powell, John Bernard Bletsoe, Harry Davies, John Foster, C.
E Hennessy, are hidden amongst the trees in what was known as the Randfontein Estates Gold Mine Military Cemetery. The graves are beside the railway line diagonally opposite where Uncle Harry's Roadhouse is located at the northern entrance to town from Krugersdorp. GPS: -26.150206, 27.719646 Randfontein War Memorial: This pretty memorial can be found next to the roadhouse on the corner of Randfontein and Main Reef Roads, Surprisingly the components of the memorial are all in a reasonably good condition and it is fenced off. GPS: -26.157176, 27.719646 On 11 June 2015, a hidden graveyard with about 80 to 100 graves dating back to the 1800s was discovered near the grain silos off Main Reef Road. It's not known yet. Paul Kruger and JB Robinson enjoyed a warm friendship which has led to rumours that the Kruger Millions were buried in the Homestead's grounds to stop them from falling into British hands during the Second Boer War; the Homestead is the home that Robinson lived in, now situated along Homestead Avenue next to Riebeeck Lake and owned by well-known local businessman and racing driver, Ben Morgenrood.
Over the years, many have searched here for the Kruger Millions, but either nothing has been found, or the finder has kept quiet about it. Central: Aureus, Culemborg Park, Eike Park, Greenhills, Helikon Park, Kocksoord, Orion Park, Randpoort, Robin Park, West Porges, Westergloor. Outlying and plots: Bootha Plots, Dennydale. Dwarskloof, Hillside, Middelvlei, Randridge, Rikasrus, Vleikop, Wilbotsdal. From what can be established these are some of the oldest buildings in Randfontein: 1857: Homestead of Barend Bootha on the original farm called Randfontein 1859: Jonkerhuis 1889: Mining Commissioner and Telegraph Office in Kocksoord Robinson Lake is situated between the Randfontein Golf Course and the suburb of Robin Park; the lake was a former recreational lake filled from water, pumped from the Robinson Deep gold mine. The lake has a pH of 2.6. Water has a natural uranium concentration of 0.0004 mg/l. The Department of Water and Sanitation considers a concentration of 0.07 mg/l safe to drink. Robinson Lake has a uranium concentration of 16 mg/l, more than 220 times safe levels.
This has resulted in Robinson Lake being declared a radioactive area and it is closed off to the public. The general consensus is that this has been caused by acid mine drainage, or AMD, it is however now a dangerous area and nothing is being done about the number of people accessing it. As of 2011, Randfontein has a population of 149,286, which incorporates Toekomsrus; the average elevation of the town is 1709m above sea level. The total municipal area, after recent restructuring, is 475km2. According to the Randfontein Socio-Economic Survey of 2006, Randfontein's population is divided into Black, White and Asian/Indian; the local immigrant population is made up mai
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Coloureds are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from more than one of the various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Afrikaner, Austronesian, East Asian or South Asian. Because of the combination of ethnicities, different families and individuals within a family may have a variety of different physical features. In the Western Cape, a distinctive Cape Coloured and affiliated Cape Malay culture developed. In other parts of Southern Africa, people classified as Coloured were the descendants of individuals from two distinct ethnicities. Genetic studies suggest. Mitochondrial DNA studies have demonstrated that the maternal lines of the Coloured population are descended from African Khoisan women; this ethnicity shows a gender-biased admixture. Male lines have been African, Asian Indian, Southeast Asian. Coloureds are to be found in the western part of South Africa. In Cape Town, they form 45.4% of the total population, according to the South African National Census of 2011.
The apartheid-era Population Registration Act, 1950, subsequent amendments, codified the Coloured identity, defined its subgroups. Indian South Africans were classified under the act as a subgroup of Coloured; the Coloured community is predominantly descended from numerous interracial sexual unions between Western European men and Khoisan or mixed-race women in the Cape Colony from the 17th century onwards. In KwaZulu-Natal, the Coloured possess a diverse heritage including British, German, Saint Helenian, Indian and Zulu. Zimbabwean Coloured are descended from Shona or Ndebele and Afrikaner settlers, as well as Arab and Asian people. Griqua, on the other hand, are descendants of Afrikaner Trekboers. Despite these major differences, as both groups have ancestry from more than one naturalised racial group, they are classified as coloured in the South African context; such mixed-race people did not self-identify this way. The Griqua were subjected to an ambiguity of other creole people within Southern African social order.
According to Nurse and Jenkins, the leader of this “mixed” group, Adam Kok I, was a former slave of the Dutch governor, manumitted and provided land outside Cape Town in the eighteenth century. With territories beyond the Dutch East India Company’s administration, Kok provided refuge to deserting soldiers, runaway slaves, remaining members of various Khoikhoi tribes. In South Africa and neighbouring countries, the white minority governments segregated Africans from Europeans after settlement had progressed, they classified all such mixed race people together in one class, despite their numerous ethnic and national differences in ancestry. The imperial and apartheid governments categorized them as Coloured. In addition, other distinctly homogeneous ethnic groups traditionally viewed the mixed-race populations as a separate group. During the apartheid era in South Africa of the second half of the 20th century, the government used the term "Coloured" to describe one of the four main racial groups it defined by law.
This was an effort to maintain racial divisions. Individuals were classified as white South Africans, black South Africans and Indians. Coloured people may have ethnic ancestry from Indonesia, mixed-race, Khoisan ancestry; the Apartheid government treated them as one people, despite their differences.'Cape Muslims' were classified as'coloured.' They have Indonesian and black ancestry, as many Indonesian slaves had children with African partners. Many Griqua began to self-identify as Coloureds during the apartheid era, because of the benefits of such classification. For example, Coloureds did not have to carry a dompas, while the Griqua, who were seen as an indigenous African group, did. In the 21st century, Coloured people constitute a plurality of the population in the provinces of Western Cape, a large minority in the Northern Cape, both areas of centuries of mixing among the populations. In the Eastern Cape, they make up 8.3% of the population. Most speak Afrikaans, as they were descendants of Dutch and Afrikaner men and grew up in their society.
About twenty percent of the Coloured speak English as their mother tongue those of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. All Cape Town Coloured are bilingual; some can comfortably codeswitch between Kaapse taal and suiwer Afrikaans, South African English. At least one genetic study indicates that Cape Coloureds have ancestries from the following ethnic groups. Indigenous Khoisan: Bantu peoples, chiefly from Southern Africa: Peoples from Western Europe, chiefly the Low Countries: Peoples from South and Southeast Asia: The Malagasy component in the Coloured composite gene pool is itself a blend of Malay and Bantu genetic markers; this genetic admixture appears to be gender-biased. A majority of maternal genetic material is Khoisan; the Coloured population is descended predominantly from unions of European and European-African males with autochthonous Khoisan females. Colou
Frank Chikane is a South African civil servant and cleric. He is a member of the African National Congress. Chikane was born to James and Erenia Chikane and he grew up in Soweto attending Naledi High School; as the son of a preacher in the Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa, a South African Pentecostal church, Chikane was able to receive an education. After finishing primary school, Chikane went to the University of the North to study sciences in hopes of becoming a physician. However, while at the university, Chikane became involved in the Black Consciousness Movement, met future post-apartheid South African leader and businessman, Cyril Ramaphosa, among others, the chair-person of Bidvest, a business listed on the JSE. Chikane led protests at the university against apartheid, which resulted in his leaving the university without a degree in 1975. In early 1977, while working in the AFM as a layman, he was detained for a month under the Terrorism Act No 83 of 1967 but was released after a judge dismissed his case.
Chikane was ordained by the church in 1980, when he began advocating social programs such as a soup kitchen and adult education within the church for its African population. For these actions, Chikane was suspended from the conservative minded AFM in 1981, which would last until his reinstatement in 1990. After suspension from the AFM, Chikane joined the Institute for Contextual Theology, a Christian think-tank inside of the South African Council of Churches which promoted Liberation Theology of which he became the general-secretary in 1987. On 20 August 1983 the United Democratic Front was launched in the Rocklands community hall, Mitchell's Plain, near Cape Town. After a conference of delegates from 565 organisations, a public rally was held, attended by about 10,000 people. Frank Chikane, the first major speaker, called the day "a turning point in the struggle for freedom". In 1985, Chikane was one of the leading promoters of the Kairos Document, a leading Christian denunciation of Apartheid.
In late 1989, agents of the apartheid government attempted to assassinate Chikane by lacing his underwear with Paraoxon, two of the suspects being former Police Minister Adriaan Vlok and his police chief Johan van der Merwe. Each of them received suspended 10-year sentences. Vlok sought forgiveness from Rev. Chikane in 2006 by washing his feet. From 1987 to 1994, Chikane was secretary general of the SACC. In 1995 he earned a master of public administration from the Harvard Kennedy School. From 1997 onward, he has been a member of the African National Congress' National Executive Committee. Since 1999, Chikane has been the Director General of the presidency of South Africa under Thabo Mbeki, he was consulting for Presidents Kgalema Motlanthe and Jacob Zuma. He is the President of The AFM International an international religious body to promote the image of the Apostolic Faith Mission worldwide and to coordinate fellowship between AFM National Churches in all countries, he published politically charged articles in one of South Africa's national newspapers The Star.
These articles were dubbed The Chikane Files. Biography on DACB.com