Arnhem Land is one of the five regions of the Northern Territory of Australia. It is located in the north-eastern corner of the territory and is around 500 km from the territory capital Darwin; the region has an area of 97,000 km2, which covers the area of Kakadu National Park, a population of 16,230. In 1623, Dutch East India Company captain William van Colster sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape Arnhem is named after his ship, the Arnhem, which itself was named after the city of Arnhem in the Netherlands; the area covers about 97,000 km2 and has an estimated population of 16,000, of whom 12,000 are Yolngu, the traditional owners. The region's service hub is Nhulunbuy, 600 km east of Darwin, set up in the early 1970s as a mining town. Other major population centres are Yirrkala, Gunbalanya and Maningrida. A substantial proportion of the population, Aboriginal, lives on small outstations; this outstation movement started in the early 1980s. Many Aboriginal groups moved to very small settlements on their traditional lands to escape the problems on the larger townships.
These population groups have little Western influence culturally speaking, Arnhem Land is arguably one of the last areas in Australia that could be seen as a separate country. Many of the region's leaders have called and continue to call for a treaty that would allow the Yolngu to operate under their own traditional laws. In 2013–14, the entire region contributed around $1.3 billion or 7% to the Northern Territory's gross state product through bauxite mining. Arnhem Land has been occupied by indigenous people for tens of thousands of years and is the location of the oldest-known stone axe, which scholars believe to be 35,500 years old; the Gove Peninsula was involved in the defence of Australia during World War II. At least since the 18th century Muslim traders from Makassar of Sulawesi visited Arnhem Land each year to trade and process sea cucumbers or trepang; this marine animal is prized in Chinese cuisine, for folk medicine, as an aphrodisiac. This Macassan contact with Australia is the first recorded example of interaction between the inhabitants of the Australian continent and their Asian neighbours.
This contact had a major effect on local indigenous Australians. The Makassans exchanged goods such as cloth, knives and alcohol for the right to trepang coastal waters and employ local labour. Makassar pidgin became a lingua franca along the north coast among several indigenous Australian groups who were brought into greater contact with each other by the seafaring Makassan culture; these traders from the southwest corner of Sulawesi introduced the word balanda for white people, long before western explorers set foot on the coasts of northern Australia. In Arnhem Land, the word is still used today to refer to white Australians; the Dutch started settling in Sulawesi Island in the early 17th century. Archeological remains of Makassar contact, including trepang processing plants from the 18th and 19th centuries, are still found at Australian locations such as Port Essington and Groote Eylandt; the Makassans planted tamarind trees. After processing, the sea slugs were traded by the Makassans to Southern China.
In 2014, an 18th-century Chinese coin was found in the remote area of Wessel Islands off the coast on a beach on Elcho Island during a historical expedition. The coin was found near known Macassan trepanger fishing sites where several other Dutch coins have been discovered nearby, but never a Chinese coin; the coin was made in Beijing around 1735. The area is from Port Roper on the Gulf of Carpentaria around the coast to the East Alligator River, where it adjoins Kakadu National Park; the major centres are Jabiru on the Kakadu National Park border, Maningrida at the Liverpool River mouth, Nhulunbuy in the far north-east, on the Gove Peninsula. Gove is the site of large-scale bauxite mining with an associated alumina refinery, its administrative centre is the town of Nhulunbuy, the fourth-largest population centre in the Northern Territory. The climate of Arnhem Land is tropical monsoon with a dry season; the temperature has little seasonal variation. Declared an Aboriginal Reserve in 1931, it remains one of the largest Aboriginal Reserves in Australia and is best known for its isolation, the art of its people, the strong continuing traditions of its indigenous inhabitants.
Northeast Arnhem Land is home to the indigenous Yolngu people, one of the largest indigenous groups in Australia, who have succeeded in maintaining a vigorous traditional indigenous culture. The Malays and Makassans are believed to have had contact with the coastal Aboriginal groups and traded with them prior to European settlement of Australia; the 2006 film Ten Canoes captures life in Arnhem Land through a story tapping into the Aboriginal mythic past. The film and the documentary about the making of the film, The Balanda and the Bark Canoes, give a remarkable testimony to the indigenous struggle to keep their culture alive – or rather revive it in the wake of considerable relative modernisation and influence of white cultural imposition; the Aboriginal community of Yirrkala, just outside Nhulunbuy, is internationally known for bark paintings, promoting the rights of Indige
Captain Matthew Flinders was an English navigator and cartographer who led the first circumnavigation of Australia and identified it as a continent. Flinders made three voyages to the southern ocean between 1791 and 1810. In the second voyage, George Bass and Flinders confirmed. In the third voyage, Flinders circumnavigated the mainland of what was to be called Australia, accompanied by Aboriginal man Bungaree. Heading back to England in 1803, Flinders' vessel needed urgent repairs at Isle de France. Although Britain and France were at war, Flinders thought the scientific nature of his work would ensure safe passage, but a suspicious governor kept him under arrest for more than six years. In captivity, he recorded details of his voyages for future publication, put forward his rationale for naming the new continent'Australia', as an umbrella term for New Holland and New South Wales – a suggestion taken up by Governor Macquarie. Flinders' health had suffered and although he reached home in 1810, he did not live to see the success of his praised book and atlas, A Voyage to Terra Australis.
The location of his grave was lost by the mid-19th century but archaeologists excavating a former burial ground near London's Euston railway station for the High Speed 2 project, announced in January 2019 that his remains had been identified. Matthew Flinders was born in Donington, England, the son of Matthew Flinders, a surgeon, his wife Susannah, née Ward, he was educated at Cowley's Charity School, from 1780 and at the Reverend John Shinglar's Grammar School at Horbling in Lincolnshire. In his own words, he was "induced to go to sea against the wishes of my friends from reading Robinson Crusoe", in 1790, at the age of fifteen, he joined the Royal Navy. Serving on HMS Alert, he transferred to HMS Scipio, in July 1790 was made midshipman on HMS Bellerophon under Captain Pasley. By Pasley's recommendation, he joined Captain Bligh's expedition on HMS Providence, transporting breadfruit from Tahiti to Jamaica; this was Bligh's second "Breadfruit Voyage" following on from the ill-fated voyage of the Bounty.
Flinders' first voyage to New South Wales, first trip to Port Jackson, was in 1795 as a midshipman aboard HMS Reliance, carrying the newly appointed governor of New South Wales Captain John Hunter. On this voyage he established himself as a fine navigator and cartographer, became friends with the ship's surgeon George Bass, three years his senior and had been born 11 miles from Donington. Not long after their arrival in Port Jackson and Flinders made two expeditions in two small open boats, named Tom Thumb and Tom Thumb II respectively: the first to Botany Bay and Georges River, the second, in the larger Tom Thumb II, south from Port Jackson to Lake Illawarra, during which expedition they had to seek shelter at Wattamolla. In 1798, Matthew Flinders, now a lieutenant, was given command of the sloop Norfolk with orders "to sail beyond Furneaux's Islands, should a strait be found, pass through it, return by the south end of Van Diemen's Land"; the passage between the Australian mainland and Tasmania enabled savings of several days on the journey from England, was named Bass Strait, after his close friend.
In honour of this discovery, the largest island in Bass Strait would be named Flinders Island. The town of Flinders near the mouth of Western Port commemorates Bass' discovery of that bay and port on 4 January 1798. Flinders never entered Western Port, passed Cape Schanck only on 3 May 1802. Flinders once more sailed Norfolk, this time north on 17 July 1799, he touched down at Pumicestone Passage and Coochiemudlo Island and rowed ashore at Clontarf. During this visit he named Redcliffe after the Red Cliffs. In March 1800, Flinders set sail for England. Flinders' work had come to the attention of many of the scientists of the day, in particular the influential Sir Joseph Banks, to whom Flinders dedicated his Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen's Land, on Bass's Strait, etc.. Banks used his influence with Earl Spencer to convince the Admiralty of the importance of an expedition to chart the coastline of New Holland; as a result, in January 1801, Flinders was given command of HMS Investigator, a 334-ton sloop, promoted to commander the following month.
Investigator set sail for New Holland on 18 July 1801. Attached to the expedition were the botanist Robert Brown, botanical artist Ferdinand Bauer, landscape artist William Westall, gardener Peter Good, geological assistant John Allen, John Crosley as astronomer. Vallance et al. comment that compared to the Baudin expedition this was a'modest contingent of scientific gentlemen', which reflects'British parsimony' in scientific endeavour. On 17 April 1801, Flinders married his longtime friend Ann Chappelle and had hoped to bring her with him to Port Jackson; however the Admiralty had strict rules against wives accompanying captains. Flinders brought Ann on board ship and planned to ignore the rules, but the Admiralty learned of his plans and he was chastised for his bad judgement and told he must remove her from the ship; this is well documented in correspondence between Flinders and his chief benefactor, Sir Joseph Banks, in May 1801: I have but time to tell you that the news of your marriage, published in the Lincoln paper, has reached me.
The Lords of the Admiralty have heard that Mrs. Flinders is on board the Investigator, that you have some thought of carrying her to sea with you; this I was sorry to hear, if, the case I beg to give you my
Pandanus is a genus of monocots with some 750 accepted species. They are palm-like, dioecious shrubs native to the Old World tropics and subtropics. Common names include pandan, screw palm, screw pine, they are classified in family Pandanaceae. Called pandanus palms, these plants are not related to palm trees; the species vary in size from small shrubs less than 1 m tall, to medium-sized trees 20 m tall with a broad canopy, heavy fruit, moderate growth rate. The trunk is stout, wide-branching, ringed with many leaf scars. Mature plants can have branches. Depending on the species, the trunk can be rough, or warty; the roots form a pyramidal tract to hold the trunk. They have many thick stilt roots near the base, which provide support as the tree grows top-heavy with leaves and branches; these roots are adventitious and branched. The top of the plant has one or more crowns of strap-shaped leaves that may be spiny, varying between species from 30 cm to 2 m or longer, from 1.5 cm up to 10 cm broad. They are dioecious, with male and female flowers produced on different plants.
The flowers of the male tree are 2 -- 3 cm fragrant, surrounded by narrow, white bracts. The female tree produces flowers with round fruits that are bract-surrounded; the individual fruit is a drupe, these merge to varying degrees forming multiple fruit, a globule structure, 10–20 cm in diameter and have many prism-like sections, resembling the fruit of the pineapple. The fruit changes from green to bright orange or red as it matures; the fruits can stay on the tree for more than 12 months. These plants grow from sea level to 3,300 m. Pandanus trees are of cultural and economic importance in the Pacific, second only to the coconut on atolls, they grow wild in semi-natural vegetation in littoral habitats throughout the tropical and subtropical Pacific, where they can withstand drought, strong winds, salt spray. They propagate from seed, but popular cultivars are widely propagated from branch cuttings by local people. Species growing on exposed coastal headlands and along beaches have thick'stilt roots' as anchors in the loose sand.
Those stilt roots emerge from the stem close to but above the ground, which helps to keep the plants upright and secure them to the ground. While pandanus are distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical islands and coastlines of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, they are most numerous on the low islands and barren atolls of Polynesia and Micronesia. Other species are adapted to mountain habitats and riverine forests; the tree is propagated from shoots that form spontaneously in the axils of lower leaves. Pandanus fruits are eaten by animals including bats, rats and elephants, but the vast majority of species are dispersed by water, its fruit can spread to other islands without help from humans. Pandanus leaves are used for handicrafts. Artisans collect the leaves from plants in the wild, cutting only mature leaves so that the plant will regenerate; the leaves are sorted for further processing. Weavers produce basic pandan mats of standard size or roll the leaves into pandan ropes for other designs.
This is followed by a coloring process, in which pandan mats are placed in drums with water-based colors. After drying, the colored mats are shaped into final products, such as placemats or jewelry boxes. Final color touch-ups may be applied. Pandan leaves from Pandanus amaryllifolius are used in Southeast Asian and South Asian cuisines to add a distinct aroma to various dishes and to complement flavors like chocolate; because of their similarity in usage, pandan leaves are sometimes referred to as the "vanilla of Asia." Fresh leaves are torn into strips, tied in a knot to facilitate removal, placed in the cooking liquid removed at the end of cooking. Dried leaves and bottled extract may be bought in some places. Pandan leaves are known as daun pandan in Malay. In Southeast Asia, pandan leaves are used in sweets such as coconut jam and pandan cake. In Indonesia and Malaysia, pandan is added to rice and curry dishes such as nasi lemak. In the Philippines, pandan leaves are paired with coconut meat in various desserts and drinks like maja blanca and gulaman.
In Indian cooking, the leaf is added whole to biryani, a kind of rice pilaf, made with ordinary rice. The basis for this use is that both basmati and pandan leaf contains the same aromatic flavoring ingredient, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. In Sri Lanka, pandan leaves are a major ingredient used in the country's cuisine. Kewra is an extract distilled from the pandan flower, used to flavor drinks and desserts in Indian cuisine. Kewra or kevada is used in religious worship, the leaves are used to make hair ornaments worn for their fragrance as well as decorative purpose in western India. Species with large and medium fruit are edible, notably the many cultivated forms of P. tectorius and P. utilis. The fruit is cooked. Small-fruited pandanus may be astringent. Karuka nuts are an important staple food in New Guinea. Over 45 cultivated varieties are known. Entire households will move, in some areas will speak a pandanus language at
The dugong is a medium-sized marine mammal. It is one of four living species of the order Sirenia, which includes three species of manatees, it is the only living representative of the once-diverse family Dugongidae. The dugong is the only herbivorous marine mammal; the dugong is the only sirenian in its range, which spans the waters of some 40 countries and territories throughout the Indo-West Pacific. The dugong is dependent on seagrass communities for subsistence and is thus restricted to the coastal habitats which support seagrass meadows, with the largest dugong concentrations occurring in wide, protected areas such as bays, mangrove channels, the waters of large inshore islands and inter-reefal waters; the northern waters of Australia between Shark Bay and Moreton Bay are believed to be the dugong's contemporary stronghold. Like all modern sirenians, the dugong has a fusiform body with hind limbs; the forelimbs or flippers are paddle-like. The dugong is distinguished from the manatees by its fluked, dolphin-like tail, but possesses a unique skull and teeth.
Its snout is downturned, an adaptation for feeding in benthic seagrass communities. The molar teeth are peg-like unlike the more elaborate molar dentition of manatees; the dugong has been hunted for thousands of years for its oil. Traditional hunting still has great cultural significance in several countries in its modern range northern Australia and the Pacific Islands; the dugong's current distribution is fragmented, many populations are believed to be close to extinction. The IUCN lists the dugong as a species vulnerable to extinction, while the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species limits or bans the trade of derived products. Despite being protected in many countries, the main causes of population decline remain anthropogenic and include fishing-related fatalities, habitat degradation and hunting. With its long lifespan of 70 years or more, slow rate of reproduction, the dugong is vulnerable to extinction; the word "dugong" derives from the Visayan dugung. The name was first adopted and popularized by the French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, as "dugon" in Histoire Naturelle, after descriptions of the animal from the island of Leyte in the Philippines.
Other common local names include "sea cow", "sea pig" and "sea camel". Dugong dugon is the only extant species of the family Dugongidae, one of only four extant species of the Sirenia order, the others forming the manatee family, it was first classified by Müller in 1776 as Trichechus dugon, a member of the manatee genus defined by Linnaeus. It was assigned as the type species of Dugong by Lacépède and further classified within its own family by Gray and subfamily by Simpson. Dugongs and other sirenians are not related to other marine mammals, being more related to elephants. Dugongs and elephants share a monophyletic group with hyraxes and the aardvark, one of the earliest offshoots of eutherians; the fossil record shows sirenians appearing in the Eocene, where they most lived in the Tethys Ocean. The two extant families of sirenians are thought to have diverged in the mid-Eocene, after which the dugongs and their closest relative, the Steller's sea cow, split off from a common ancestor in the Miocene.
The Steller's sea cow became extinct in the 18th century. No fossils exist of other members of the Dugongidae. Molecular studies have been made on dugong populations using mitochondrial DNA; the results have suggested. Australia has two distinct maternal lineages, one of which contains the dugongs from Africa and Arabia. Limited genetic mixing has taken place between those in Southeast Asia and those in Australia around Timor. One of the lineages stretches all the way from Moreton Bay to Western Australia, while the other only stretches from Moreton Bay to the Northern Territory. There is not yet sufficient; the dugong's body is large with a cylindrical shape. It has thick, smooth skin, a pale cream colour at birth, but darkens dorsally and laterally to brownish-to-dark-grey with age; the colour of a dugong can change due to the growth of algae on the skin. The body is sparsely covered in short hair, a common feature among sirenians which may allow for tactile interpretation of their environment.
These hairs are most developed around the mouth, which has a large horseshoe-shaped upper lip forming a mobile muzzle. This muscular upper lip aids the dugong in foraging; the dugong's tail flukes and flippers are similar to those of dolphins. These flukes are raised up and down in long strokes to move the animal forward, can be twisted to turn; the forelimbs are paddle-like flippers which aid in slowing. The dugong lacks nails on its flippers; the tail has deep notches. A dugong's brain weighs a maximum of about 0.1 % of the animal's body weight. With small eyes, dugongs have limited vision, but acute hearing within narrow sound thresholds, their ears, which lack pinnae, are located on the sides of their head. The nostrils can be closed using valves. Dugongs have two teats, one located behind each flipper. There are few differences between sexes. A male's testes are not externally located, the main difference between males and females is the location of the genital aperture in relation t
Aristotle was a philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", his writings cover many subjects – including physics, zoology, logic, aesthetics, theatre, rhetoric, linguistics, economics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry; as a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion. Little is known about his life. Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Northern Greece, his father, died when Aristotle was a child, he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven.
Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC. He established a library in the Lyceum which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books on papyrus scrolls. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication; the fact that Aristotle was a pupil of Plato contributed to his former views of Platonism, following Plato's death, Aristotle developed an increased interest in natural sciences and adopted the position of immanent realism. Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl arm of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century.
His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard and John Buridan. Aristotle's influence on logic continued well into the 19th century He influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as "The First Teacher" and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas as "The Philosopher", his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics, such as in the thinking of Alasdair MacIntyre and Philippa Foot. In general, the details of Aristotle's life are not well-established; the biographies written in ancient times are speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points. Aristotle, whose name means "the best purpose" in Ancient Greek, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, about 55 km east of modern-day Thessaloniki.
His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Both of Aristotle's parents died when he was about thirteen, Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. Although little information about Aristotle's childhood has survived, he spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy, he remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus, although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato died. Aristotle accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. After the death of Hermias, Aristotle travelled with his pupil Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon.
While in Lesbos, Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. In 343 BC, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest and Aristotle's own attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be "a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants". By 335 BC, Aristotle had returned to Athens. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus.
According to the Suda, he had an erômenos, Palaephatus of Abydus. This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works, he wrote many dialogues. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. Born in Perth, Western Australia, his family moved to Tokyo and lived there from 1907 to 1915, where his father worked as an accountant at the Salvation Army mission in Japan, Norman attended the American School in Japan where his closest friend was Gordon Bowles, a Quaker who, like him became an anthropologist; the family returned to Perth in August 1917, soon after moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a library cadet at the Adelaide Public Library, together with another cadet, the future physicist, Mark Oliphant. In 1919 he began work as an entomologist at the South Australian Museum. From his early years, he had absorbed the habit of taking notes on everything he observed, cross-indexing them before going to sleep, a practice which he continued throughout his life, which lay at the basis of the vast archive of notes he left to posterity: he was observed writing by lamplight far into the night long after others had gone to bed, during an expedition to the Pinacate.
Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in an acetylene gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologist's Assistant to the formidable Arthur Mills Lea, he had published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale's first ethnographic expedition took place over 1921-1922, his principal aim was to gather entomological specimens for the South Australian Museum, the ethnographic aspect being an accidental sideline which developed, as his curiosity was stimulated, into close observation of the indigenous people he encountered from the Cobourg Peninsula to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Tindale's family background had qualified him to be taken on by the Church Missionary Society of Australia and Tasmania, interested in proselytizing in the north, he spent half a year, accompanying the missionary Hubert E. Warren to sound out the area for an appropriate site for an Anglican mission, which as the Emerald River Mission, was subsequently established on west coast of Groote Eylandt.
He followed this up with a further 9 months nearby on the mainland around the Roper River. Tindale wrote up his observations for the South Australian Museum in two continuous reports which constitute the first detailed account we have of the Warnindhilyagwa people on that island. In 1938-39, Tindale teamed up with Joseph Birdsell of Harvard University to undertake an extensive anthropological survey of Aboriginal missions across Australia; the relationship forged between the two developed into a half century of collaboration between the two. On the outbreak of World War 2, Tindale tried to enlist, but was rejected because of his poor eyesight; when Japan precipitated war with the United States however, Tindale's knowledge of Japanese, rare in Australia at the time, made him an asset for military intelligence. In 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and, assigned the rank of Wing Commander, he was transferred to The Pentagon, where he worked with the Strategic Bombing Survey as an analyst for estimating the impact of bombing on the military and civilian population of Japan.
In 1942 an Air Technical Intelligence Unit was established under Captain Frank T. McCoy at Hangar 7, Eagle Farm airfield just outside Brisbane, and, on Tindale's initiative it was tasked with examining parts recovered from the wreckage of Japanese airplanes, shot down, working out whatever intelligence could be gathered from the manufacturing markings, reassembling them where possible. Jones states that Tindale's unit's meticulous analysis of the metallurgical débris and serial numbers enabled them to arrive at the companies responsible for producing the components, deduce production figures and infer what crucial alloys the Japan military was beginning to suffer shortfalls in. Tindale played a major intelligence role in putting a halt to Japan's balloon bombing assault on the western coast of the United States, his team's forensic analysis of the debris enabled the U. S. airforce to bomb the production facilities in Japan. Jones adds two other key contributions by Tindale to the war effort: He was instrumental in cracking the Japanese aircraft production code system, which gave the Allies reliable information as to Japanese air power.
More he and his unit deciphered the Japanese master naval code. On retirement after 49 years service with the South Australian Museum, Tindale took up a teaching position at the University of Colorado and remained in the United States until his death, aged 93, in Palo Alto, California; the Adelaide Board for Anthropological Research began a programme for filming Aboriginal life in 1926, was the first to systematically do so. Over an 11-year period they produced over 10 hours of footage concerning many aspects of Aboriginal life, from material culture to hunting and gathering practices, love-making and ceremonies of circumcision observed during their field expeditions. Tindale produced the film while the actual camera-work was undertaken by E. O. Stocker. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various tribal groupings of Indigenous Australians; this interest began with a research trip to Groote Eylandt where Tindale's helper and interpreter, a Ngandi impressed him with the importance of knowing with precision tribal boundaries.
This led Tindale to question the official orthodoxy of the time, that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region. While Tindal
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964, is the country's most circulated nationally distributed newspaper, available in each state and territory. It rivals with other nationally distributed newspapers like the business-focused Australian Financial Review and The Saturday Paper; the Australian is owned by News Corp Australia. The Australian is published by News Corp Australia, an asset of News Corp, which owns the sole daily newspapers in Brisbane, Adelaide and Darwin, the most circulated metropolitan daily newspapers in Sydney and Melbourne. News Corp's Chairman and Founder is Rupert Murdoch; the Australian integrates content from overseas newspapers owned by News Corp Australia's international parent News Corp, including The Wall Street Journal and The Times of London. The first edition of The Australian was published by Rupert Murdoch on 15 July 1964, becoming the third national newspaper in Australia following shipping newspaper Daily Commercial News and Australian Financial Review.
Unlike other original Murdoch newspapers, it is not a tabloid publication. At the time, a national paper was considered commercially unfeasible, as newspapers relied on local advertising for their revenue; the Australian was printed in Canberra plates flown to other cities for copying. From its inception the paper struggled for financial viability and ran at a loss for several decades; the Australian's first editor was Maxwell Newton, before leaving the newspaper within a year, was succeeded by Walter Kommer, by Adrian Deamer. Under his editorship The Australian encouraged female journalists, was the first mainstream daily newspaper to hire an Aboriginal reporter, John Newfong. During the 1975 election, campaigning against the Whitlam government by its owner led to the newspaper's journalists striking over editorial direction. Editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell was appointed in 2002 and retired on 11 December 2015. In May 2010, the newspaper launched. In October 2011 The Australian announced that it was planning to become the first general newspaper in Australia to introduce a paywall, with the introduction of a $2.95 per week charge for readers to view premium content on its website, mobile phone and tablet applications.
The paywall was launched on 24 October, with a free 3 month trial. In September 2017 The Australian launched their Chinese website. In October 2018 it was announced that Chris Dore, former editor of The Daily Telegraph, would be taking over as editor-in-chief. Daily sections include National News followed by Worldwide News and Business News. Contained within each issue is a prominent op/ed section, including regular columnists and non-regular contributors. Other regular sections include Technology, Features, Legal Affairs, Defence, Horse-Racing, The Arts, Health and Higher Education. A Travel & Indulgence section is included on Saturdays, along with The Inquirer, an in-depth analysis of major stories of the week, alongside much political commentary. Saturday lift-outs include Review, focusing on books, arts and television, The Weekend Australian Magazine, the only national weekly glossy insert magazine. A glossy magazine, Wish, is published on the first Friday of the month. "The Australian has long maintained a focus on issues relating to Aboriginal disadvantage."
It devotes attention to the information technology and mining industries, as well as the science and politics of climate change. It has published numerous "special reports" into Australian energy policy; the Australian Literary Review was a monthly supplement from September 2006 to October 2011. Former editor Paul Kelly stated in 1991 that "The Australian has established itself in the marketplace as a newspaper that supports economic libertarianism". Laurie Clancy asserted in 2004 that the newspaper "is conservative in tone and oriented toward business. Former editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell has said that the editorial and op-ed pages of the newspaper are centre-right. In 2007 Crikey described the newspaper as in support of the Liberal Party and the then-Coalition government, but has pragmatically supported Labor governments in the past as well. In 2007 The Australian announced their support for the Rudd Australian Labor Party in the Federal election; the Australian presents varying views on climate change, publishing articles by those who disagree with the scientific consensus such as Ian Plimer, authors who agree with the scientific consensus such as Tim Flannery and Bjørn Lomborg.
A 2011 study of the previous seven years of articles claimed that four out of every five articles were opposed to taking action on climate change. In 2010 the ABC's Media Watch presenter Paul Barry accused The Australian of waging a campaign against the Australian Greens, the Greens' federal leader Bob Brown wrote that The Australian has "stepped out of the fourth estate by seeing itself as a determinant of democracy in Australia." In response, The Australian opined that "Greens leader Bob Brown has accused The Australian of trying to wreck the alliance between the Greens and Labor. We wear Senator Brown's criticism with pride. We believe he and his Green colleagues are hypocrites.