Bitter Springs, Arizona
Bitter Springs is a census-designated place in Coconino County, Arizona, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the CDP population was 452. Bitter Springs is located at 36°37′15″N 111°39′23″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.0 square miles, all of it land. The mean elevation is 5,115 feet above sea level; the US Postal Service ZIP code is 86040. Bitter Springs is the terminus of U. S. Route 89A, a spur route cut off by the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam; as of the census of 2000, there were 547 people, 104 households, 97 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 66.1 people per square mile. There were 127 housing units at an average density of 15.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 98.72% Native American and 1.28% White, with 0.73% of the population made up of Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 104 households out of which 73.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 26.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% were non-families.
4.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 5.26 and the average family size was 5.34. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 48.3% under the age of 18, 14.3% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 10.6% from 45 to 64, 2.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 19 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $24,886, the median income for a family was $30,217. Males had a median income of $11,477 versus $14,038 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $7,985. About 25.0% of families and 29.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.2% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Bitter Springs is served by the Page Unified School District; the schools that serve Bitter Springs are located in the city of Page
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Tusayan is a town, but was a census-designated place during the 2010 census. It is located in Coconino County, United States, it was incorporated in 2010. A resort town near the south entrance to Grand Canyon National Park, Tusayan is served by Grand Canyon National Park Airport; the population was 558 at the 2010 census. Tusayan is located at 35°58′32″N 112°7′45″W; as an incorporated town, Tusayan has a land area of only 144 acres, or 0.225 square miles, making it the smallest town in Arizona by area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the census-designated place in 2000 had a total area of 28.6 square miles, of which, 28.6 square miles of it is land and 0.04% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 562 people, 222 households, 101 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 19.7 people per square mile. There were 313 housing units at an average density of 11.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 69.22% White, 15.84% Native American, 1.07% Black or African American, 11.57% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races.
30.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 222 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.2% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 54.1% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.38. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 25.4% under the age of 18, 15.5% from 18 to 24, 36.5% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 2.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 128.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 125.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $34,917, the median income for a family was $45,625. Males had a median income of $28,125 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,637. About 14.9% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.
Tusayan is two miles from the south entrance to Grand Canyon National Park. The town's businesses serve tourists visiting the park although some local residents have shown interest in making the town itself a tourist destination. Grand Canyon Airlines and Air Grand Canyon are headquartered on the grounds of Grand Canyon National Park Airport in Tusayan. Grand Canyon National Park Airport is in Tusayan. Arizona State Route 64, coming from Williams and U. S. Route 180, coming from Flagstaff serve Tusayan, they share a four-lane highway through town. The route designations split south of town at Valle; the community first explored incorporation in the early 1990s. Legislation passed to allow it, but was challenged and defeated as unconstitutional because it applied only to Tusayan. In 2003, new legislation was passed allowing any community of 500 or more to incorporate if located in proximity to a national park or monument; the Tusayan-Grand Canyon Chamber of Commerce appointed a task force of community leaders who studied the issue for four years.
In June 2007, they made a neutral presentation to the community, offering revenue projections and an overview of pros and cons. In April 2008, about 30 voters signed a petition to put the question of incorporation on the September 2, 2008, ballot; the measure was defeated by a vote of 78 to 62. Another vote, held on March 9, 2010, proved more successful when the measure was approved by a margin of 116 to 71, making Tusayan the 91st incorporated place in the state of Arizona. An interim town council appointed by the Coconino County Board of Supervisors held the town's first council meeting on April 7. Opposition to the town's incorporation have filed a lawsuit to overturn the election as fraudulent, with opening arguments in the case being scheduled for April 14. Tusayan National Forest Media related to Tusayan, Arizona at Wikimedia Commons Tusayan travel guide from Wikivoyage
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Valle is a census-designated place in Coconino County, United States. As of the 2010 US Census the population of Valle was 832, it lies at an altitude of 5,994 feet, at the junction of U. S. Route 180 and State Route 64, its attractions include the Valle Airport, the Planes of Fame Air Museum, Flintstones Bedrock City amusement park. Drivers stop at the town on their way to the Grand Canyon from either Williams or Flagstaff, as it is at the halfway point. Valle is not shown on the Rand McNally Road Atlas annual series; the town sits to the west of the highway intersections, with some streets to the east of US 180. The area is subdivided by roads for a planned community in which 1-acre lots were sold during the early 1960s; these roads are all dirt with the exception of the two main highways. With the exception of a few property owners who have set up camp on their land, the area has not been developed. Valle maintains no website, it has two main gas stations, several gift shops, a small post office.
Note: Bedrock City closed January 28th, 2019. Montoya Ranch of South Rim. Poultry and small livestock. Animal advocate and resources. Valle Area Plan Planes of Fame Museum Valle Airport Flintstones Bedrock City
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Flagstaff is a city in and the county seat of Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States. In 2015, the city's estimated population was 70,320. Flagstaff's combined metropolitan area has an estimated population of 139,097; the city is named after a ponderosa pine flagpole made by a scouting party from Boston to celebrate the United States Centennial on July 4, 1876. Flagstaff lies near the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, along the western side of the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the continental United States. Flagstaff is next to Mount Elden, just south of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona. Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet, is about 10 miles north of Flagstaff in Kachina Peaks Wilderness. Flagstaff's early economy was based on the lumber and ranching industries. Today, the city remains an important distribution hub for companies such as Nestlé Purina PetCare, is home to Lowell Observatory, The U.
S. Naval Observatory, the United States Geological Survey Flagstaff Station, Northern Arizona University. Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, Oak Creek Canyon, the Arizona Snowbowl, Meteor Crater, historic Route 66; the city is a growing center for medical and biotechnology manufacturing, home to corporations such as SenesTech and W. L. Gore and Associates. There are several legends about the origin of the city's name. Surveyors and investors had traveled through the area in the mid- to late-19th century, the act of stripping a pine tree to fly an American flag has been attributed to several individuals over a twenty-year span, it is said that, because of the flag, raised, the area surrounding it became known as Flagstaff. The first permanent settlement was in 1876, when Thomas F. McMillan built a cabin at the base of Mars Hill on the west side of town. During the 1880s, Flagstaff began to grow, opening its first post office and attracting the railroad industry.
The early economy was based on timber and cattle. The Arizona Lumber and Timber Company was prominent. By 1886, Flagstaff was the largest city on the railroad line between Albuquerque and the west coast of the United States. A circa 1900 diary entry by journalist Sharlot Hall described the houses in the city as a "third rate mining camp", with unkempt air and high prices of available goods. In 1894, Massachusetts astronomer Percival Lowell hired A. E. Douglass to scout an ideal site for a new observatory. Douglass, impressed by Flagstaff's elevation, named it as an ideal location for the now famous Lowell Observatory, saying: "other things being equal, the higher we can get the better". Two years the specially designed 24-inch Clark telescope that Lowell had ordered was installed. In 1930, Pluto was discovered using one of the observatory's telescopes. In 1955 the U. S. Naval Observatory joined the growing astronomical presence, established the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, where Pluto's satellite, was discovered in 1978.
During the Apollo program in the 1960s, the Clark Telescope was used to map the moon for the lunar expeditions, enabling the mission planners to choose a safe landing site for the lunar modules. In homage to the city's importance in the field of astronomy, asteroid 2118 Flagstaff is named for the city, 6582 Flagsymphony for the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra; the Northern Arizona Normal School was established in 1899, renamed Northern Arizona University in 1966. Flagstaff's cultural history received a significant boost on April 11, 1899, when the Flagstaff Symphony made its concert debut at Babbitt's Opera House; the orchestra continues today as the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra, with its primary venue at the Ardrey Auditorium on the campus of Northern Arizona University. The city grew primarily due to its location along the east–west transcontinental railroad line in the United States. In the 1880s, the railroads purchased land in the west from the federal government, sold to individuals to help finance the railroad projects.
By the 1890s, Flagstaff found itself along one of the busiest railroad corridors in the U. S. with 80–100 trains travelling through the city every day, destined for Chicago, Los Angeles, elsewhere. Route 66 ran through Flagstaff. Flagstaff was incorporated as a city in 1928, in 1929, the city's first motel, the Motel Du Beau, was built at the intersection of Beaver Street and Phoenix Avenue; the Daily Sun described the motel as "a hotel with garages for the better class of motorists." The units rented for $2.60 to $5.00 each, with baths, double beds and furniture. Flagstaff went on to become a popular tourist stop along Route 66 due to its proximity to the Grand Canyon. Flagstaff prospered through the 1960s. During the 1970s and 1980s, many businesses started to move from the city center, the downtown area entered an economic and social decline. Sears and J. C. Penney left the downtown area in 1979 to open up as anchor stores in the new Flagstaff Mall, joined in 1986 by Dillard's. By 1987, the Babbitt Brothers Trading Company, a retail fixture in Flagstaff since 1891, closed its doors at Aspen Avenue and San Francisco Street.
The Railroad Addition Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. In 1987, the city drafted a new master plan known as the Growth Management Guide 2000, which would transform downtown Flagstaff from a shopping and trade center into a regional center for finance, office use, government; the city built a new city hall and the Coconino County Admin