Schneider Electric SE is a French multinational corporation headquartered in Rueil-Malmaison, France. It is based at the World Trade Center of Grenoble. Schneider Electric is a Fortune Global 500 company, publicly traded on the Euronext Exchange, is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. In FY2018, the company posted revenues of €25.72 billion. Schneider Electric is the parent company of Square Pelco, APC and others, it is a research company, investing EUR10 billion in innovation and R&D for sustainable development between 2015 and 2025. The company holds 20,000 patents either active or in application worldwide and invests 5% of its annual revenue in Research and Development; the company began in 1836 as Schneider & Cie. It was renamed Schneider Electric in May 1999. Schneider Electric head office in Rueil-Malmaison, France. Schneider Electric has had its head office in the Trianon site in Rueil-Malmaison, France since 2000; the current headquarters located in Rueil-Malmaison housed Schneider subsidiary Télémécanique while the parent company occupied a site in Boulogne-Billancourt.
In June 2011, Schneider Electric corporate headquarters in Rueil-Malmaison was certified as complying with the new ISO 50001 standard for energy management systems. It was the first building in the world to earn such designation; the roots of this company are in the iron and armaments factories of Schneider-Creusot and other industrial concerns. From 1981-1997, the company divested from steel and shipbuilding and focused on electricity through strategic acquisitions. Schneider Electric refocused in 2010 to include software, critical power and smart grid applications through strategic acquisitions. In 2015 the company launched a brand strategy called “Life Is On” which aims to showcase the business and societal value of sustainability and efficiency; the emergence of the digital economy created opportunities for IoT-enabled platforms, which Schneider Electric identified as a growth opportunity. In 2016, the company launched its IoT-enabled architecture. 1836: Brothers Adolphe and Joseph-Eugene Schneider take over an abandoned foundry in Le Creusot, France and, two years create Schneider & Cie, focusing on the steel industry.
Schneider & Cie grows specializing in the production of heavy machinery and transportation equipment, becomes the Schneider Group, a diversified conglomerate. 1975: The Schneider Group acquires an interest in Merlin Gerin, one of the top manufacturers of electrical distribution equipment in France. 1981-1997: Schneider Group re-focuses on the electrical industry by divesting its nonstrategic assets and undertakes a series of strategic acquisitions: Télémécanique in 1988, Square D in 1991 and Merlin Gerin in 1992. 1999: Schneider Group acquires Lexel, one of Europe's largest suppliers of installation systems and control solutions. In May 1999, the Schneider Group is renamed Schneider Electric to identify its expertise in the electrical field. 2010: Schneider Electric launches a €70 million venture capital fund with Alstom to create Aster and to support innovative start-ups in the fields of energy and the environment. The company is an ITER supplier. 2014: Schneider Electric advertises a cooperation with German power supplier RWE.2015 – 2016: Schneider Electricrefocuses on IoT, sustainability and efficiency, introduces its IoT-enabled architecture and platform, EcoStruxure.
2017: Schneider Electric takes control of Aveva Group PLC, a provider of engineering and industrial software based in the UK, folding industrial software assets into Aveva’s operations. MAVERICK Technologies, strategic alliance company Creusot steam hammer Official website
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. is a Japanese multinational engineering, electrical equipment and electronics company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. MHI is one of the core companies of the Mitsubishi Group. MHI's products include aerospace components, air conditioners, automotive components, forklift trucks, hydraulic equipment, machine tools, power generation equipment, printing machines and space launch vehicles. Through its defense-related activities it is the world's 23rd-largest defense contractor measured by 2011 defense revenues and the largest based in Japan. On November 28, 2018, the company was ordered by the South Korea Supreme Court to pay compensation for forced labor which the company oversaw during the Japanese occupation of Korea. In 1857, at the request of the Tokugawa Shogunate, a group of Dutch engineers began work on the Nagasaki Yotetsusho, a modern, Western-style foundry and shipyard near the Dutch settlement of Dejima, at Nagasaki; this was renamed Nagasaki Seitetsusho in 1860, construction was completed in 1861.
Following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the shipyard was placed under control of the new Government of Meiji Japan. The first dry dock was completed in 1879. In 1884, Yataro Iwasaki, the founder of Mitsubishi, leased the Nagasaki Seitetsusho from the Japanese government, renamed it the Nagasaki Shipyard & Machinery Works and entered the shipbuilding business on a large scale. Iwasaki purchased the shipyards outright in 1887. In 1891, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Yokohama Machinery Works was started as Yokohama Dock Company, Ltd, its main business was ship repairs, to which it added ship servicing by 1897. The works was renamed Mitsubishi Shipyard of Mitsubishi Goshi Kaisha in 1893 and additional dry docks were completed in 1896 and 1905; the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Shimonoseki Shipyard & Machinery Works was established in 1914. It produced industrial merchant ships; the Nagasaki company was renamed Mitsubishi Shipbuilding & Engineering Company, Ltd. in 1917 and again renamed as Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 1934.
It became the largest private firm in Japan, active in the manufacture of ships, heavy machinery and railway cars. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries merged with the Yokohama Dock Company in 1935. From its inception, the Mitsubishi Nagasaki shipyards were involved in contracts for the Imperial Japanese Navy; the largest battleship Musashi was completed at Nagasaki in 1942. The company housed the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, the Akunoura Engine Works, Mitsubishi Arms Plant, Mitsubishi Electric Shipyards, Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works, which employed 90% of the city's labor force, accounted for 90% of the city's industry; these connections made Nagasaki a legitimate target for strategic bombing during World War II by the Allied air forces, which dropped an atomic bomb on the city on August 9, 1945. This attack, followed by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima three days earlier, dealt a devastating blow to the Japanese leadership, contributing to the surrender of Japan six days later.
The Kobe Shipyard of Mitsubishi Goshi Kaisha was established in 1905. The Kobe Shipyard merged with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 1934; the Kobe Shipyard constructed the ocean liner Argentina Maru, the submarines the I-19 and I-25. Following the dissolution of the zaibatsu after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, Mitsubishi divided into three companies. Mitsubishi Nagasaki became Ltd.. The Nagasaki Shipyard was renamed Mitsubishi Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. Ltd. in 1952. The Mitsubishi Kobe Shipyard became Central Japan Heavy Industries, Ltd. in 1950. In 1964, the three independent companies from the 1950 break-up were merged again into one company under the name of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd; the Nagasaki works was renamed the Nagasaki Engine Works. The Kobe works was renamed the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Kobe Machinery Works. In 1970, MHI's automobile parts department became an independent company as Mitsubishi Motors. In 1974, its Tokyo headquarters was targeted in a bombing.
MHI participated in a ¥540 billion emergency rescue of Mitsubishi Motors in January 2005, in partnership with Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Tokyo Financial Group. As part of the rescue, MHI acquired ¥50 billion of Mitsubishi Motors stock, increasing its ownership stake to 15 percent and making the automaker an affiliate again. In October 2009, MHI announced an order for up to 100 regional jets from the United States-based airline Trans States Holdings. MHI entered talks with Hitachi in August 2011 about a potential merger of the two companies, in what would have been the largest merger between two Japanese companies in history; the talks subsequently were suspended. In November 2012, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Hitachi agreed to merge their thermal power generation businesses into a joint venture to be owned 65% by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and 35% by Hitachi; the joint venture began operations in February 2014. In June 2014 Siemens and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries announced their formation of joint ventures to bid for Alstom's troubled energy and transportation businesses.
A rival bid by General Electric has been criticized by French government sources, who consider Alstom's operations as a "vital national interest" at a moment when the French unemployment level stands above 10% and some voters are turning towards the far-right. MHI has aerospace facilities in Nagoya, Komaki and Mississauga, Canada. In the 1950s the company began to re-enter the aeros
USS Haggard (DD-555)
USS Haggard was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy named for Captain Haggard of the Louisa, who fought in the Quasi-War. Haggard was launched by Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Co. Seattle, Wash. 9 February 1943, sponsored by Mrs. E. B. McKinney. Haggard departed for shakedown training off California 29 September and after completing it departed Seattle 24 November for Pearl Harbor; the ship arrived 30 November 1943 and spent the next 2 months in tactical exercises with other destroyers in Hawaiian waters. Her first combat operation was to be the forthcoming invasion of the Marshall Islands, next step on the island road to Japan; the ship sailed 22 January 1944 for the Marshalls. She covered the unopposed landings on Majuro 31 January and sailed to Kwajalein Atoll. Taking up firing position inside the lagoon 2 February, she provided gunfire support for the advancing Marines until the island was secured 3 days later. Haggard patrolled and escorted transports in the Kwajalein area until sailing for Engebi, Eniwetok Atoll 17–19 February.
There the destroyer again provided close fire support with her 5-inch guns, helping to secure Eniwetok. With the Marshalls in American hands, Haggard arrived 7 March at New Hebrides. For the next months, Haggard operated with 3rd Fleet in the New Guinea-Solomons area, her duties included reconnaissance patrols and screening escort carriers. She worked with minecraft and screened a minelaying operation 9 May in the Solomons, passing within 800 yards of an enemy-held beach on Buka Passage. During the night of 16–17 May the destroyer was patrolling with Franks and Johnston when she picked up an underwater sound contact. With quickness and accuracy the three ships delivered depth charge attacks and were credited with the sinking of the Japanese submarine I-176. Haggard joined 5th Fleet at Eniwetok 21 May to prepare for the Marianas operation, as America's amphibious might pressed across the Pacific. Departing Eniwetok 8 July, Haggard arrived Guam with battleships Pennsylvania and New Mexico and other fleet units 17 July and began a devastating bombardment of the beach fortifications.
With the landing on Guam of Marines 21 July, the destroyer turned to close fire support, lending her accurate gunfire to the battle ashore. Next on the timetable of the Pacific island campaign was the Palau group, needed to provide an air base for further advances. Haggard was withdrawn from Guam to Espiritu Santo 24 August 1944 and joined the Western Escort Carrier Group off the Solomons 4 September. During the invasion of Peleliu 15 September Haggard screened carrier groups as they provided bombardment and close fire support for Marines ashore. Aircraft from her group bombarded Ulithi before the ships returned to Manus' Seeadler Harbor 1 October. Haggard’s next operation was the long-awaited invasion of the Philippines, she was assigned to an escort carrier group off Samar in support of the invasion of Leyte and the fleet surface actions 23–25 October. A part of Rear Admiral Felix Stump's "Taffy 2" in the Battle off Samar and her group were surprised on the morning of 25 October by heavy units to the northward under Admiral Takeo Kurita heading toward the invasion beaches on Leyte Gulf.
As the carriers of "Taffy 3" retired at top speed, the destroyers, including Hoel and Johnston, attacked the Japanese at close range, while planes from both carrier groups attacked in the hope of diverting the overwhelming Japanese force and allowing the American light units to escape. Haggard took position astern of her carriers to protect them, took many near misses from the big guns of the Japanese fleet. Although two escort carriers and three destroyers were sunk, the attacks saved the smaller American group and inflicted damage on its attackers. Admiral Kurita decided not returned to the northward. Haggard remained with the escort carrier groups through November during air operations in support of the Philippines campaign. After a brief stay at Ulithi 25 November–10 December, the destroyer joined Task Force 38 in support of the Luzon invasion. 10–20 January 1945, Admiral William Halsey's 3d Fleet made a striking incursion into the South China Sea. With Haggard and other destroyers screening, the carrier groups struck Luzon, Formosa and the Chinese mainland destroying shipping and airfields in a memorable demonstration of mobile sea power.
The destroyer returned to Ulithi on 26 January 1945, but soon sailed with Task Group 58.4 for strikes against Japan itself. Departing on 9 February, the group, including carriers Randolph and Yorktown, hit Tokyo 16–17 February, just before the landings on Iwo Jima. Haggard’s carrier group lent air support to the assault on Iwo Jima until returning to Ulithi 4 March 1945. With the Pacific campaign reaching its climax, Haggard sortied again with Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher's 5th Fleet carriers for attacks on Japan. During strikes on Honshū on 18–19 March, Japanese suicide planes struck back at the task force. Haggard's gunners shot down several kamikazes, as carriers Enterprise were damaged. After fueling at sea, the fast carrier group, moved toward Okinawa on 22 March, with Haggard acting as picket destroyer ahead of the formation. Shortly before midnight she detected a surfaced submarine with radar, after the submarine dived attacked with depth charges. Ten minutes the submarine surfaced on Haggard's port beam.
Commander Soballe brought his ship into a hard left turn toward his adversary. With full throttle and guns blazing, Haggard rammed the submarine I-371 amids
Port Moresby referred to as Pom City or Moresby, is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea and the largest city in the South Pacific outside of Australia and New Zealand. It is located on the shores of the Gulf of Papua, on the south-western coast of the Papuan Peninsula of the island of New Guinea; the city emerged as a trade centre in the second half of the 19th century. During World War II it was a prime objective for conquest by the Imperial Japanese forces during 1942–43 as a staging point and air base to cut off Australia from Southeast Asia and the Americas. In 2000 it had a population of 254,158; as of 2011, it had a population of 364,145, giving it an annual growth rate of 2.1% over a nine-year period. The place where the city was founded has been inhabited by the Motu-Koitabu people for centuries; the first Briton to see it was Captain John Moresby in 1873. It was named in honour of Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. Although Port Moresby is surrounded by Central Province, of which it is the capital, it is not part of that province, but forms the National Capital District.
Port Moresby hosted the APEC summit in November 2018, however there were concerns about security given the capital's reputation for violent crime. The Motuan people of the area now known as Port Moresby traded their pots for sago, other food and canoe logs, sailing from Hanuabada and other villages built on stilts above the waters of the bay, their language, was the basis of Hiri Motu, an official language of Papua New Guinea. It has been in decline since the 1960s when Tok Pisin began to grow in popularity; the Hiri expeditions were large scale. As many as 20 multi-hulled canoes or lakatoi, crewed by some 600 men, carried about 20,000 clay pots on each journey. To the Motuans, the Hiri was an economic enterprise and it confirmed their tribal identity through its long and dangerous voyages. There was an important trade centre on the site of Port Moresby when the English Captain John Moresby of HMS Basilisk first visited it, he sailed through the Coral Sea at the eastern end of New Guinea, saw three unknown islands, landed there.
At 10 a.m. on 20 February 1873, he claimed the land for Britain and named it after his father, Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. He called the other Port Moresby. In 1883 Queensland attempted to annex the south-eastern corner of the New Guinea Island, fearing that Germany would take control of the entire eastern half of the island. British authorities refused to approve the annexation following the German annexation of New Guinea in 1884, but four years it established a protectorate over Papua as British New Guinea. In 1905 the federated Australian government passed the Papua Act which came into effect in 1906; the act transferred Papua, with Port Moreseby as its capital. From until 1941 Port Moresby grew slowly; the main growth was on the peninsula, where port facilities and other services were improved. The first butcher's shop and grocery opened in 1909, electricity was introduced in 1925, piped water supply provided in 1941. During World War II, some Papuan men enlisted in the Papua Infantry Battalion and others as carriers over trails and rough terrains as supply support to Allied and Japanese armies during long jungle marches.
Historian William Manchester makes it plain in his biography of General Douglas MacArthur, American Caesar, that acting as porters was well down the natives' list of acceptable voluntary activities and that they would fade away without great inducements. Many Papuan residents of Port Moresby either returned to their family villages or were evacuated to camps when the threat of Japanese invasion loomed; the city became, by September 1942, home to an important Allied complex of bases and thousands of troops were stationed in the area or more staged through it, as it was the last Allied bastion on the island and, conversely, a key staging and jumping off point as the Allies began conducting offensive warfare themselves, pushing back the Japanese advances. In 1945, the Territory of Papua and New Guinea was formed when Papua and the former German New Guinea, administered by Australia since 1918, were amalgamated under a single Australian administration though several laws remained in two territories and remain so, which can be complicating with provinces sitting on two sides of the otherwise extinct boundary.
Port Moresby became the capital of the new combined territory and a focal point for the expansion of public services. In September 1975, Papua New Guinea became an independent country with Port Moresby as its capital city. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, represented the Queen of Papua New Guinea at the celebrations. New government and cultural buildings were constructed in the suburb of Waigani to supplement and replace those of downtown Port Moresby, they included those for government departments, including a National Parliament Building, opened in 1984 by Prince Charles and blends traditional design with modern building technology. The Papua New Guinea National Museum and National Library are in Waigani. A mansion was built in Port Moresby just west of the old legislative building but the last pre-independence chief minister and first prime minister of the sovereign state declared it not nearly grand enough. Several of the government buildings have been abandoned due to long-term neglect. Ch
Sasebo is a core city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 October 2016, the city has an estimated population of 251,417 and a population density of 590 persons per km²; the total area is 426.47 km2. The city includes a part of Saikai National Park. Located in the southern part of the city is the Dutch-styled theme park Huis Ten Bosch; the area of present-day Sasebo was a small fishing village under the control of nearby Hirado Domain until shortly after the start of the Meiji period. Imperial Japanese Navy Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, when surveying the coasts of northwestern Kyūshū for the site of a navy base, selected his location based on its protected, deep-water harbor, geographic proximity to China and Korea, the presence of nearby coal fields. Sasebo Naval District, founded in 1886, became the major port for the Japanese navy in its operations in the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War, remained a major naval base to the end of World War II. Along with the base facilities, the navy constructed the Sasebo Naval Arsenal, which included major shipyards and repair facilities.
Sasebo City was founded on April 1, 1902. The city which had 206,000 inhabitants in 1945 suffered severe damage by bombing on June 29, 1945 during World War II and was destroyed by 48%. Sasebo was one of the original 17 targets selected for the dropping of the atomic bomb. After the end of the war, part of the base facilities were taken over by the United States Navy, forming U. S. Fleet Activities Sasebo; some parts of the base are shared with the Japan Self-Defense Forces, in particular the JMSDF, though the primary base of the JGSDF's Western Army Infantry Regiment is among the facilities there. On April 1, 2005 the towns of Sechibaru and Yoshii were merged into Sasebo. On March 31, 2006 the towns of Kosaza and Uku were merged into Sasebo. On March 31, 2010 the towns of Emukae and Shikamachi were merged into Sasebo. Shipbuilding and associated heavy industries continue to dominate the economy of Sasebo. Adjacent to the naval base is the Sasebo Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. shipyard. The Port of Sasebo has an active fishing fleet, many oyster and pearl farms are located on the Kujū-ku Islands.
The Mikawachi district has a 400-year-old pottery manufacturing industry. Sasebo Station is the westernmost station in the JR passenger train system and is about two hours by train from Hakata Station in the city of Fukuoka and about an hour and half from Nagasaki Station in the city of Nagasaki. Across the street from Sasebo Station is the Sasebo Bus Center, which provides connecting service to many local destinations; the climate is similar to that of Virginia. Rainy season lasts from early June to mid-July, the summer is hot and humid. During the winter, there may be some freezing. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Sasebo has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is somewhat lower in winter. Seishin Cathedral, a large church, built in a neogothic style in 1930, is the symbol of Sasebo, it is opposite the main railway station in Miura-cho district. Sasebo is the only Japanese city which uses the symbol of a Christian church as part of its seal/flag.
Kujū-ku Islands Kōzakihana, westernmost point on the island of Kyūshū Tenkaihō Saikai Pearl Sea Resort Japanese Maritime Self Defense Forces Museum Sasebo Zoological Park and Botanical Garden Huis Ten Bosch, inspired by a Dutch trading post in nearby Hirado Hirado, to the north, was a foreign trade port and where William Adams is buried Ureshino, to the south, has hot springs resorts Sasebo has sister-city relations with three places outside Japan and one within the country: Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia Xiamen, China Kokonoe, Ōita Sasebo City official website Sasebo Tourist Information site Japan National Tourism organization
Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation
Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation is the shipbuilding subsidiary of Kawasaki Heavy Industries. It produces specialized commercial vessels, including LNG carriers, LPG carriers, container ships, bulk carriers, oil tankers, as well as high speed passenger jetfoils. In addition, it is a producer of warships for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, including submarines. Kawasaki produces marine machinery, including marine engines, steering gears and fishing machinery. Kawasaki's origins go back to April 1878, when Shozo Kawasaki established Kawasaki Tsukiji Shipyard in Tokyo with the support of fellow Satsuma native and Vice Minister of Finance, Matsukata Masayoshi. In 1886, Kawasaki established a second shipyard in Hyōgo prefecture. With the First Sino-Japanese War, the two shipyards were flooded with new orders and ship repair requests; the two shipyards were merged in 1896 as Ltd.. Realizing the limitation of private management, Kawasaki decided to take the company public, chose Matsukata Kojiro, the third son of Matsukata Masayoshi, as his successor.
Matsukata remained president for the next 32 years until 1928. Matsukata expanded business into rolling stock, aircraft and shipping, he implemented Japan's first eight-hour work day system in 1919, after a massive strike by 30,000 workers threatened to bring down the government of Prime Minister Takashi Hara. Under Matsukata, Kawasaki Dockyards expanded its Hyōgo operations with a large dry dock, completed in 1902; this dry dock is now listed as an Important Cultural Property by the Japanese government. In 1906, after numerous technical difficulties, Kawasaki completed the first submarines made in Japan for the Imperial Japanese Navy. Kawasaki produced numerous warships for the Japanese navy, ranging from destroyers to aircraft carriers until the end of World War II. Kawasaki started manufacturing rolling stock in 1907, 4 years produced its first steam locomotive, for the Japanese Ministry of Railways. Kawasaki manufactured 3,237 steam locomotives in total until 1971; this division was spun off in 1928 and incorporated as Kawasaki Heavy Industries Rolling Stock Company.
In 1918, an Aircraft Division was established at the Hyōgo Works, only 15 years after the Wright brothers first flight. Kawasaki went on to build numerous innovative designs for the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy air services prior to World War II. In 1937, the Aircraft Division was incorporated as Kawasaki Aircraft Co. Ltd.. In 1969, Kawasaki Dockyard, Kawasaki Rolling Stock Manufacturing and Kawasaki Aircraft merged to become Kawasaki Heavy Industries. However, in 2002, Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation reemerged as a wholly owned subsidiary company. Oil Tankers LNG carriers Bulk carriers Container Ships Ro/Ro Vessels Jetfoils Warships Fuyushio, Natsushio class submarine Unryu, Sōryū class submarine Oyashio, Isoshio, Yaeshio, Oyashio class submarine Natsushio, Fuyushio, Harushio class submarine Zuikaku, Shōkaku class Aircraft Carrier Taihō, Taihō class aircraft carrier Ise, Ise-class battleship Marine steam turbines Marine diesel engines Marine Thrusters Ship Control Systems Hane, Mikiso.
Modern Japan: A Historical Survey. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3756-9. McCain, James L. Japan: A Modern History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04156-5. Schencking, J. Charles. Making Waves: Politics, And The Emergence Of The Imperial Japanese Navy, 1868-1922. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4977-9. Spang, Christian W. Japanese-German Relations, 1895-1945 War and Diplomacy. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-34248-1. Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation
Espiritu Santo is the largest island in the nation of Vanuatu, with an area of 3,955.5 km2 and a population of around 40,000 according to the 2009 census. The island belongs to the archipelago of the New Hebrides in the Pacific region of Melanesia, it is in the Sanma Province of Vanuatu. The town of Luganville, on Espiritu Santo's southeast coast, is Vanuatu's second-largest settlement and the provincial capital. Roads run north and west from Luganville, but most of the island is far from the limited road network. Around Espiritu Santo lie a number of small islets. Vanuatu's highest peak is the 1879 metre Mount Tabwemasana in west-central Espiritu Santo. In 1998, Espiritu Santo hosted the Melanesia Cup. A Spanish expedition led by Portuguese explorer Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, established a settlement in 1606 at Big Bay on the north side of the island. Espiritu Santo takes its name from Queirós, who named the entire island group La Austrialia del Espíritu Santo in acknowledgment of the Spanish king's descent from the royal House of Austria, believing he had arrived in the Great Southern Continent, Terra Australis.
During the time of the British–French Condominium, Hog Harbour, on the northeast coast, was the site of the British district administration, while Segond, near Luganville was the French district administration. During World War II after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the island was used by American naval and air forces as a military supply and support base, naval harbor, airfield. In fictionalized form, this was the locale of James Michener's Tales of the South Pacific, of the following Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, South Pacific; the presence of the Americans contributed to the island's tourism in scuba diving, as the Americans dumped most of their used military and naval equipment, their refuse, at what is now known as "Million Dollar Point". A shipwreck off Espiritu Santo, that of the SS President Coolidge, is a popular diving spot; the SS President Coolidge was a converted luxury liner that hit a sea mine during the war and was sunk. Between May and August 1980 the island was the site of a rebellion during the transfer of power over the colonial New Hebrides from the condominium to the independent Vanuatu.
Jimmy Stevens' Nagriamel movement, in alliance with private French interests and backed by the Phoenix Foundation and American libertarians hoping to establish a tax-free haven, declared the island of Espiritu Santo to be independent of the new government. The "Republic of Vemerana" was proclaimed on May 28. France recognized the independence on June 3. On June 5, the tribal chiefs of Santo named the French Ambassador Philippe Allonneau the "King of Vemerana", Jimmy Stevens became the Prime Minister. Luganville is renamed Allonneaupolis. Next, negotiations with Port-Vila failed, from July 27 to August 18, British Royal Marines and a unit of the French Garde Mobile were deployed to the Vanuatu's capital island, but they did not invade Espiritu Santo as the soon-to-be government had hoped; the troops were recalled shortly before independence. Following independence, now governed by Father Walter Lini, requested assistance from Papua New Guinea, whose army invaded and conquered Espiritu Santo, keeping it in Vanuatu.
Espiritu Santo, with many wrecks and reefs to be explored, is a popular tourist destination for divers. Champagne Beach draws tourists with clear waters; the "Western Side" of the island contains many caves which can be explored, cruise ships stop in at Luganville. The local people make their living by supporting the tourist trade, by cash-crop farming copra, but some cocoa beans and kava, as well as peanuts, or by subsistence farming and fishing. Most of the people are Christians; the largest church groups on the island are the Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu, the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of Melanesia. Active are the Apostolic Church, the Church of Christ, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, others. However, in many villages in Big Bay and South Santo, the people are "heathen", a term that in Vanuatu has no pejorative connotation — it denotes someone who has not embraced Christianity. Customary beliefs of a more modern sort are found among followers of the Nagriamel movement based in Fanafo.
For all of Espiritu Santo's people, custom plays a large part in their lives, regardless of their religion. The chief system continues in most areas; the people of Santo face some health problems malaria and tuberculosis. Although there is a hospital, most local people consult either their own witch doctor or medical clinics set up by western missionaries. Kava is the popular drug of the island. With the rising number of adults using alcohol, there is a rising crime rate involving violence toward women, tribal warfare. Luganville is the only true town on the island. From Luganville, three "main roads" emerge. Main Street leaves the town to the west and winds along the south coast of the island for about 40 km ending at the village of Tasiriki on the southwest coast. Canal Road runs along the southern and eastern coasts of the island, north through Hog Harbor and Golden Beach, ending at Port Olry. Big Bay Highway splits off from Canal Road near Turtle Bay on the east coast, runs west to the mountains, it leads north to Big Bay.
The international airport is about five km east of the center of Luganville. Numerous rivers run to the