Neuquén is a province of Argentina, located in the west of the country, at the northern end of Patagonia. It borders Mendoza Province to the north, Rio Negro Province to the southeast, Chile to the west, it meets La Pampa Province at its northeast corner. The Neuquén Province receives its name from the Neuquén River; the term "Neuquén" derives from the Mapudungun word "Nehuenken" meaning drafty, which the aborigines used for the river. The word is a palindrome. Lácar Department in Neuquén Province has the southernmost known remains of maize before the diffusion of associated with the Inca Empire; the site where maize remains were found Melinquina lies at 40°19' S the maize being found in Melinquina, the maize being found inside pottery datet to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile. In that location maize remains were found inside pottery date to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP; this maize was brought across the Andes from Chile. Inhabited by Tehuelches and Pehuenche, the territory was explored by conquistadores coming from Chile.
In 1670 a Jesuit priest established in Chiloé Archipelago, Nicolás Mascardi, founded the Jesuit mission Nuestra Senora de Nahuel Huapi. The Jesuit missions lasted few years and the last mission in Neuquén was destroyed in 1717; the suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1767 halted further missionary activity. The Neuquén area came under Argentine influence after explorer Perito Francisco Moreno made several trips to Patagonia and made accurate descriptions of the area in his book "Viaje al Pais de las Manzanas", reaching Nahuel Huapi lake in 1875. In 1879 Julio Argentino Roca started the Conquest of the Desert that broke the aboriginal resistance. In 1884 Patagonia's political divisions were restructured and the Territory of Neuquén acquired its current boundaries; the capital of the province moved several times to Norquín, Campana Mahuida, Chos Malal, Confluencia known as Neuquén. At the beginning of the 20th century the railway reached the city of Neuquén, a new irrigation system was finished, facilitating the production and transportation of crops.
Petroleum was found in Plaza Huincul in 1918. Local politics have long been dominated by a single political party, the MPN or Movimiento Popular Neuquino founded by Elias Sapag, a prosperous businessman born in Lebanon. Migrating to Argentina, the Sapag family arrived in Neuquén Territory around 1910 with the railroad making their home in Zapala, whose dry, fertile mountain valleys and orchards were reminiscent of their native Lebanon. Neuquén is rich in natural resources such as natural gas, virgin forests and water resources suitable for electric power and tourism alike; these resources were managed by the central National Government, which resulted in little local benefit at the time. Because of social unrest, Elias Sapag and two younger brothers and Amado, started the MPN, an active political movement rooted in federalism and greater local rights over the territory and its resources; the territory was made a province on June 15, 1955, its constitution promulgated on November 28, 1957. Felipe Sapag soon became politically prominent.
Although he was elected governor in 1962 representing the Movimiento Popular Neuquino, a coup against progressive President Arturo Frondizi that March prevented Sapag from taking office. Becoming governor in 1963-66 and 1973–76, he presided over one of Argentina's fastest-growing provinces; the national government established the University of Neuquén in 1964 incorporated into the new National University of Comahue in 1971. Removed as governor following the violent March 1976 coup against Isabel Perón, Felipe Sapag was returned to office in 1983-87 and 1995-99, his emphasis on public works and political independence from Buenos Aires have helped him and his successors with the MPN win every province-wide election since. His brother Elias Sapag became senator in 1963-66, 1973–76 and from 1983 until his death in 1993, becoming the longest-serving senator in national history; the MPN elected Governors Pedro Salvatori, Jorge Sobisch and current Governor Jorge Sapag. Neuquén has, since 1955, become a prosperous province with a high impact on the national energy supply and, as a growing tourist destination, outperforming most other provinces in the Patagonia region and in Argentina.
The province's limits are the Colorado River to the northeast, separating it from the Mendoza Province, the Limay River to the southeast toward the Río Negro Province, the Andes mountains to the west, separating it from Chile. There are two main distinctive landscapes; the lacustrine system includes other less-important rivers such as the Aluminé River, the Malleo, the Picún Leufú River, a series of lakes including Nahuel Huapi Lake, shared with Río Negro Province, Aluminé Lake, Lácar Lake, Huechulaufquen Lake, Lolog Lake, Hermoso, Quillén, Ñorquinco and Falkner. The province is home to the magnificent Arrayanes forest at the Los Arrayanes National Park. Other National parks include Lanín National Park and the Lanín extinct volcano, the Nahuel Huapí National Park shared with Río Negro Province, the Laguna Blanca National Park. Neuquén Province, being far away from both the Atlantic coast and the Pacific ocean by the Andes mountai
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Barapasaurus is a genus of basal sauropod dinosaur from Early Jurassic rocks of India. The only species is B. tagorei. Barapasaurus comes from the lower part of the Kota Formation, that dates back to the Sinemurian and Pliensbachian stages of the early Jurassic, it is therefore one of the earliest known sauropods. Barapasaurus is known from 300 bones from at least six individuals, so that the skeleton is completely known except for the anterior cervical vertebrae and the skull; this makes Barapasaurus one of the most known sauropods from the early Jurassic. The name Barapasaurus is derived from bara meaning'big' and pa meaning'leg' in several Indian languages including Bengali; this name was used as a nomen nudum since a femur measuring over 1.7 m was unearthed at 1961. The specific name tagorei means'Tagore's', which honors Bengali poet, writer and musician Rabindranath Tagore; the first year of fieldwork was carried out in the centenary year of Tagore's birth. Although a early and unspecialized sauropod, Barapasaurus shows the building plan typical for more derived sauropods: the cervical vertebrae were elongated, resulting in a long neck.
The trunk holds columnar limbs which indicate an obligate quadrupedal posture. The size, estimated at 14 meters, is comparable with that of sauropods; the vertebral column shows many traits that are typical for sauropods which allowed them to attain great body sizes, although in sauropods these traits are much more developed. The central and neural spines show early hints of hollowing as a weight-saving measure; the dorsal vertebrae are stabilized with hyposphene-hypantrum articulations, accessory projections that link the vertebrae with each other. The sacrum is strengthened through an additional fourth sacral vertebra. From the skull, only three whole teeth and three crowns are known; the largest known tooth is 5.8 cm in height. Like that of sauropods, the teeth are spoon shaped and show wrinkled enamel. A basal trait is the coarse serration; the relationships of this genus within the Sauropoda are debated. When first described in 1975, it was not attributed to one specific group at all, although the presence of many basal, prosauropod-like features was noted.
Since 1984, Barapasaurus was united with another early sauropod, Vulcanodon, in a family called Vulcanodontidae, although this family was declared invalid by Paul Upchurch in 1995 because it was recognized as polyphyletic. Upchurch erected a clade named Eusauropoda that includes all known sauropods except some basal forms. While Vulcanodon was classified outside the Eusauropoda, Barapasaurus was classified inside it, which means that Barapasaurus is more derived than Vulcanodon. Although Upchurch's classification was accepted by most paleontologists, a recent study from Bandyopadhyay and colleagues came to a contrary conclusion: these paleontologists stated that Barapasaurus was in fact more basal than Vulcanodon and removed it from Eusauropoda. All known fossils come from a single locality in the vicinity of the village of Pochampally, (Pochampally is a mandal in Nalgonda District, Telangana, in southern India and is popularly known as Silk City of India, India; the first bones were discovered in 1958, but most specimens were unearthed in 1960 and 1961.
In 1975, the finds were described scientifically by colleagues. In 2010, a more detailed osteological description was published by colleagues; the material is archived in the paleontological collection of the Indian Statistical Institute, while a majority of the bones are part of a mount at the Geological Museum of the ISI. Barapasaurus comes from sandstone that belongs to the lower part of the Kota Formation. Other vertebrates of this part include another early sauropod, Kotasaurus, as well as the mammals Kotatherium and Indozostrodon; the upper part of the Kota Formation additionally contained a pterosaur, a turtle, two rhynchocephalians, a lepidosaur and some mammals. The 300 bones were found together with large trunks of trees scattered over an area of 276 square meters. Although one of the specimens was found articulated, most bones were found disarticulated; because there are six left femora, the total number of individuals is at least six. Bandyopadhyay and colleagues interpret this assemblage as a herd that died due to a catastrophic event a flood.
This flood could have unearthed the trees and transported both trees and Barapasaurus a distance before they began to decompose. After decomposition progressed, the bones began to disarticulate; the disarticulated skull bones were removed by the water stream because they were light, leaving only the heavy postcranial bones at the site, which would explain why no skull bones were found. Barapasaurus Barapasaurus
Antetonitrus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur found in Early Jurassic rocks in South Africa. The only species is Antetonitrus ingenipes; as one of the oldest known sauropods, it is crucial for the understanding of the origin and early evolution of this group. It was a quadrupedal herbivore, like all of its relatives, but shows primitive adaptations to use the forelimbs for grasping, instead of purely for weight support. Adam Yates, an Australian expert on early sauropodomorphs, named Antetonitrus in a 2003 report co-authored by South African James Kitching; the name is derived from the Latin ante- and tonitrus, which refers to its existence, before other known sauropods Brontosaurus. The one known species of Antetonitrus is called A. ingenipes, from the Latin ingens and pes, because it shows the beginning of the development of feet designed to support weight. The fossils now known as Antetonitrus were discovered by Kitching in 1981 in the Free State of South Africa, were stored in the Bernard Price Institute where they were labeled as Euskelosaurus.
Yates published a description several years later. The holotype, or original specimen, consists of several vertebrae and numerous bones from both forelimb and hind limb, all presumed to be from one individual. Five more limb bones from another smaller individual were referred to the genus; the holotype specimen may have measured 8 to 10 m in total body length and was 1.5 to 2 m high at the hips. However, the neural arches of the vertebrae were not fused with the centra, indicating that this individual was not grown. Antetonitrus shows several features which appear to be similar to those of sauropods, but still retains some primitive features. Unlike most of its smaller and more built ancestors, Antetonitrus was quadrupedal. Like sauropods, its forelimbs were much longer relative to its hind legs than earlier animals, while the metatarsus was shortened. However, the first digit of the hand called the "thumb" or pollex, was still twisted and flexible, capable of grasping against the hand. In more derived sauropods, the wrist bones are large and thick, arranged in such a way as to lock the hand into a permanently pronated position for full-time weight support, the hand is incapable of grasping.
Antetonitrus shows adaptations for an increasing body size as seen in all sauropods: The wrist bones were broader and thicker to support more weight, whereas the femur was elliptical in cross section. The vertebrae bear high neural spines and well developed hyposphene-hypantrum articulations which add rigidity to the trunk; the first toe of the hind foot bears a large claw longer than the first metatarsal. The femur was sigmoidal in lateral view rather than straight as in other sauropods. A cladistic analysis by Yates and Kitching recognizes Antetonitrus as a basal sauropod, occupying a position between more derived animals such as Isanosaurus or Vulcanodon, more basal sauropods like Melanorosaurus; the back vertebrae are similar to Lessemsaurus from South America, while the limb bones are similar to Blikanasaurus, another stocky early sauropod from South Africa. However, these animals were not included in a cladistic analysis with Antetonitrus because they are poorly known. Apaldetti et al. erected Lessemsauridae, a clade containing Antetonitrus and Ingentia.
Their cladogram is reproduced below: While Antetonitrus is not the earliest sauropod from a phylogenetic standpoint, it one of the oldest known sauropod chronologically, or rather tied for that distinction with other early sauropods from the same formation, like Melanorosaurus and Blikanasaurus. Fossils of these animals were recovered from the Elliot Formation, it was though to be recovered from the Lower Elliot Formation which dates to the Norian stage of the Late Triassic, or 221 to 210 million years ago. Studies indicate that it was recovered from the Early Jurassic Upper Elliot Formation. Before Antetonitrus and the other animals recovered from the Elliot Formation were recognized as sauropods, the oldest known sauropod had been Isanosaurus from the Rhaetian stage of Thailand. Early sauropods and their prosauropod relatives were found around the world as all of the continents were at the time united into the single supercontinent, which made dispersal across the entire terrestrial world possible.
Post about Antetonitrus on the Dinosaur Mailing List, written by Adam Yates
The Coniacian is an age or stage in the geologic timescale. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series and spans the time between 89.8 ± 1 Ma and 86.3 ± 0.7 Ma. The Coniacian is followed by the Santonian; the Coniacian is named after the city of Cognac in the French region of Saintonge. It was first defined by French geologist Henri Coquand in 1857; the base of the Coniacian stage is at the first appearance of the inoceramid bivalve species Cremnoceramus rotundatus. An official reference profile for the base had in 2009 not yet been appointed; the top of the Coniacian is defined by the appearance of the inoceramid bivalve Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus. The Coniacian overlaps the regional Emscherian stage of Germany, coeval with the Coniacian and Santonian stages. In magnetostratigraphy, the Coniacian is part of magnetic chronozone C34, the so-called Cretaceous Magnetic Quiet Zone, a long period with normal polarity. After a maximum of the global sea level during the early Turonian, the Coniacian was characterized by a gradual fall of the sea level.
This cycle is in sequence stratigraphy seen as a first order cycle. During the middle Coniacian a shorter, second order cycle, caused a temporary rise of the sea level on top of the longer first order trend; the following regression separates the Middle from the Upper Coniacian substage. An shorter third order cycle caused a new transgression during the Late Coniacian. Beginning in the Middle Coniacian, an anoxic event occurred in the Atlantic Ocean, causing large scale deposition of black shales in the Atlantic domain; the anoxic event lasted till the Middle Santonian and is the longest and last such event during the Cretaceous period. The Coniacian is subdivided into Lower and Upper substages, it encompasses three ammonite biozones in the Tethys domain: zone of Paratexanites serratomarginatus zone of Gauthiericeras margae zone of Peroniceras tridorsatumIn the boreal domain the Coniacian overlaps just one ammonite biozone: that of Forresteria petrocoriensis Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Meyers, P.
A.. M. & Forster, A.. GeoWhen Database - Coniacian Late Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Late Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago, to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic era; the concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles and archosaurs; the world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa. The Carboniferous rainforest collapse left behind vast regions of desert within the continental interior. Amniotes, who could better cope with these drier conditions, rose to dominance in place of their amphibian ancestors; the Permian ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the largest mass extinction in Earth's history, in which nearly 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species died out.
It would take well into the Triassic for life to recover from this catastrophe. Recovery from the Permian–Triassic extinction event was protracted; the term "Permian" was introduced into geology in 1841 by Sir R. I. Murchison, president of the Geological Society of London, who identified typical strata in extensive Russian explorations undertaken with Édouard de Verneuil; the region now lies in the Perm Krai of Russia. Official ICS 2017 subdivisions of the Permian System from most recent to most ancient rock layers are: Lopingian epoch Changhsingian Wuchiapingian Others: Waiitian Makabewan Ochoan Guadalupian epoch Capitanian stage Wordian stage Roadian stage Others: Kazanian or Maokovian Braxtonian stage Cisuralian epoch Kungurian stage Artinskian stage Sakmarian stage Asselian stage Others: Telfordian Mangapirian Sea levels in the Permian remained low, near-shore environments were reduced as all major landmasses collected into a single continent—Pangaea; this could have in part caused the widespread extinctions of marine species at the end of the period by reducing shallow coastal areas preferred by many marine organisms.
During the Permian, all the Earth's major landmasses were collected into a single supercontinent known as Pangaea. Pangaea straddled the equator and extended toward the poles, with a corresponding effect on ocean currents in the single great ocean, the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, a large ocean that existed between Asia and Gondwana; the Cimmeria continent rifted away from Gondwana and drifted north to Laurasia, causing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean to shrink. A new ocean was growing on its southern end, the Tethys Ocean, an ocean that would dominate much of the Mesozoic era. Large continental landmass interiors experience climates with extreme variations of heat and cold and monsoon conditions with seasonal rainfall patterns. Deserts seem to have been widespread on Pangaea; such dry conditions favored gymnosperms, plants with seeds enclosed in a protective cover, over plants such as ferns that disperse spores in a wetter environment. The first modern trees appeared in the Permian. Three general areas are noted for their extensive Permian deposits—the Ural Mountains and the southwest of North America, including the Texas red beds.
The Permian Basin in the U. S. states of Texas and New Mexico is so named because it has one of the thickest deposits of Permian rocks in the world. The climate in the Permian was quite varied. At the start of the Permian, the Earth was still in an ice age. Glaciers receded around the mid-Permian period as the climate warmed, drying the continent's interiors. In the late Permian period, the drying continued although the temperature cycled between warm and cool cycles. Permian marine deposits are rich in fossil mollusks and brachiopods. Fossilized shells of two kinds of invertebrates are used to identify Permian strata and correlate them between sites: fusulinids, a kind of shelled amoeba-like protist, one of the foraminiferans, ammonoids, shelled cephalopods that are distant relatives of the modern nautilus. By the close of the Permian, trilobites and a host of other marine groups became extinct. Terrestrial life in the Permian included diverse plants, fungi and various types of tetrapods; the period saw a massive desert covering the interior of Pangaea.
The warm zone spread in the northern hemisphere. The rocks formed at that time were stained red by iron oxides, the result of intense heating by the sun of a surface devoid of vegetation cover. A number of older types of plants and animals became marginal elements; the Permian began with the Carboniferous flora still flourishing. About the middle of the Permian a major transition in vegetation began; the swamp-loving
Kotasaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Early Jurassic period. The only known species is Kotasaurus yamanpalliensis, it was discovered in the Kota Formation of Telangana and shared its habitat with the related Barapasaurus. So far the remains of at least 12 individuals are known; the greater part of the skeleton is known, but the skull is missing, with the exception of two teeth. Like all sauropods, it was a quadrupedal herbivore with long neck and tail. Kotasaurus is one of the most basal sauropods known; the general body plan was that of a typical sauropod, but in several basal features it resembles prosauropods. Like all sauropods, Kotasaurus was an obligate quadruped, while prosauropods were primitively bipedal; the body length is estimated at nine meters, with a weight of 2.5 tonnes, therefore comparable with that of sauropods. The femur was straight and oval in cross section, which means that the limbs were columnar; the teeth were spoon-shaped, like those of sauropods. Basal features, on the other hand, include the short and twisted humerus, as well as the retention of a lesser trochanter on the femur.
The neural spines of the vertebrae were built and their centra are massive, in contrast to those of the related Barapasaurus, which show more hollowing, be it without pneumatisation, of the sides as a weight-saving measure. Autapomorphies include the slender limb bones as well as the low and elongated preacetabular process, it was not clear if Kotasaurus represents a true sauropod or a basal sauropodomorph that has to be classified outside Sauropoda. Some paleontologists placed it inside a basal sauropod family called Vulcanodontidae though, together with Barapasaurus and the fragmentary Ohmdenosaurus and Zizhongosaurus; this grouping is now recognized to be paraphyletic. Today Kotasaurus is recognized as one of the most basal sauropods known; the exact relationships are not clear, however. A recent study by Bandyopadhyay and colleagues renders Kotasaurus to be more basal than Barapasaurus and Vulcanodon but more derived than Jingshanosaurus and Chinshakiangosaurus. All known fossils come from an area of 2,400 m² near the village of Yamanpalli in Telangana forty kilometres north of the Barapasaurus type locality.
These finds, altogether 840 skeletal parts, were found in the late 1970s. In 1988 they were named and described by P. M. Yadagiri as a new genus and species of sauropod, Kotasaurus yamanpalliensis; the generic name refers to the Kota Formation. The specific name reflects the provenance from Yamanpalli; the holotype is an ilium. The Geological Survey of India combined several elements into a skeletal mount and displayed it at the Birla Science Museum, Hyderabad. In 2001, Yadagiri described the osteology in more detail