A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively; because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments claim authority to regulate them.
Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via subchannels as well. Television stations require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. In the United States, for example, a television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station's transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages. Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably.
Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer's point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news. To broadcast its programs, a television station requires operators to operate equipment, a transmitter or radio antenna, located at the highest point available in the transmission area, such as on a summit, the top of a high skyscraper, or on a tall radio tower. To get a signal from the master control room to the transmitter, a studio/transmitter link is used; the link can be either by radio or T1/E1. A transmitter/studio link may send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may pick-up that station over-the-air, or via STL or satellite.
The license specifies which other station it is allowed to carry. VHF stations have tall antennas due to their long wavelength, but require much less effective radiated power, therefore use much less transmitter power output saving on the electricity bill and emergency backup generators. In North America, full-power stations on band I are limited to 100 kW analog video and 10 kW analog audio, or 45 kW digital ERP. Stations on band III can go up by 31.6 kW audio, or 160 kW digital. Low-VHF stations are subject to long-distance reception just as with FM. There are no stations on Channel 1. UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, thus requires a shorter antenna, but higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, but UHF does not suffer from as much electromagnetic interference and background "noise" as VHF, making it much more desirable for TV. Despite this, in the U. S. the Federal Communications Commission is taking another large portion of this band away, in contrast to the rest of the world, taking VHF instead.
This means. Since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America for radio astronomy purposes. Most television stations are commercial broadcasting enterprises which are structured in a variety of ways to generate revenue from television commercials, they may be some other structure. They can produce some or all of their programs or buy some broadcast syndication programming for or all of it from other stations or independent production companies. Many stations have some sort of television studio, which on major-network stations is used for newscasts or other local programming. There is a news department, where journalists gather information. There is a section where electronic news-gathering operations are based, receiving remote broadcasts via remote pickup unit or satellite TV. Outside broadcasting vans, production trucks, or SUVs with electronic field production equipment are sent out with reporters, who may bring back news stories on video tape rather than sending them back live.
To keep pace with technology United States television stations have been replacing operators with broadcast automation systems to increas
Janmabhumi is an Indian Malayalam-language daily newspaper, owned by Mathruka Pracharanalayam Ltd. and headquartered in Kochi, Kerala. It was launched in 1975 as an evening paper based in Kozhikode and from 1977 on wards it was upgraded to a daily newspaper publishing from Ernakulam. Janmabhumi has eight editions. Janmabhumi follows the moto: "A Newspaper for Social Reformation and National Reconstruction"; the newspaper publishes editions from Kochi, Kannur, Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode and Kollam. Managing Director: M. Radhakrishnan Managing Editor: K. R. Umakanthan Chief Editor: Leela Menon Editor: T. Arun Kumar; the 16 page multi-colour newspaper has two special issues every week. Varadyam, a Sunday supplement and Mitram, a four-page pullout on Wednesdays. Samskruthi is a regular page with articles on various Indian culture, such as history, Upanishads, Yoga, Art and devotional subjects etc. Janmabhumi publishes several annual and special magazines, related to health, tourism, politics, infrastructure development, etc in Malayalam and English languages.
Some of them include but not limited to: Sanjeevani, a health magazine, My India, an English tourism magazine with four editions in South India, West India and North East, East India. In 1968, the state council of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh was held at Thalassery and considered a proposal by K. Raman Pillai, for starting a daily newspaper in Malayalam language. With U. Dathathreya Rao as chief promoter and C. Prabhakaran, Punnath Chandran, M. Sreedharan, K. C. Sankaran, V. C. Achuthan as co promoters, Mathruka Pracharanalayam Ltd. was registered in January 1973 with the objective of publishing a Malayalam newspaper. Subsequently, the Rashtra Vartha newspaper was taken over by the company. In 1975; the name Janmabhumi was acquired and the necessary declaration was signed. P. Narayanan was the Chief Editor, P. V. K. Nedungadi as Editor, Dathathreya Rao as printer and publisher and a few others as sub-editors and reporters took charge. Janmabhumi was launched as an evening paper from Kozhikode on 28 April 1975....
In the first copy of editorial column it explicitly declared that "Janmabhumi is a total independent national daily. It will approach each problem on the basis of national unity, moral sense and public welfare and think and formulate our opinion. To err is human and we commit mistakes, our capacity is limited. We consider this as a small step to the noble cause and great moment and appealed the co-operation of all people". However, after two months, the state of emergency in India was declared in June 1975. Rao and Narayanan were arrested by the police and kept under detention. Nedungadi was let of after few days. Though there was no ban on the paper the administration created conditions which did not allow to continue. Rao was released. Narayanan was released after four months. After the restoration of democracy in March 1977, Janmabhumi resumed publication from Ernakulam. A new decoration was signed, with Narayanan as printer and publisher and M. P. Manmadhan as Chief Editor. On 14 November 1977, Janmabhumi was launched from Ernakulam.
M. K. Balagopal who worked in The Indian Express associated with the editorial department. Kummanam Rajasekharan trained the amateur newcomers in the paper. K. Chandran, working during the pre-emergency period took charge of the news desk, it was a four-page newspaper with price tag of 0.25 paisa. Its financial base was not strong; the early journalists grew up learning. Balaram Moosad, P. Narayana Kurup and I. K. K. Menon used to write during the early period. After one year Manmadhan wanted to leave the responsibility because of health problem. Nedungadi took charge as Chief Editor. K. G. Marar took charge as Managing Director; the printing of Janmabhumi was in the old method of sheet-fed printing. Under the initiative of Sundaram, a new company was formed, Ayodhya Printers Pvt Ltd. at Elamakkara and installed latest photo composing and offset printing machinery. Janmabhumi shifted to the new location on 21 April 1987; the new press and paper was inaugurated by L. K. Advani. V. M. Korath retired from Mathrubhumi.
But retired after one year due to health fail. P. Narayanan succeeded him in 1993. Kummanam Rajasekharan took charge as Editor. P. E. B. Menon, P. P. Mukundan, K. Sadananda Pillai etc formed an advisory committee to guide both the establishments. M. Mohanan was appointed General Manager of both. M. Mahadevan took charge as the Manager. In 1995 after Marar died, P. P. Mukundan was elected as Managing Director, he expanded the base of Janmabhumi by starting new editions at Kozhikode. On 26 June 1995, L. K. Advani inaugurated the new evening edition at Thiruvananthapuram. K. Mohandas took charges as Editor-in-charge, N. S. Rammohan as Managing Editor and T. M. V. Shenoy as printer and publisher. On 21 March 1996, a fire engulfed the Ayodhya Printers, Janmabhumi faced a crisis but continued to bring out the paper without a day's break; the press was restarted by commissioning a new machine. Photo composing gave way to DTP. In January 2000, Narayan retired and Thuravur Viswambharan became Chief Editor. After a year Hari S. Kartha succeeded him.
Kummanam Rajasekharan once again took charge as Managing Editor. A new phase of expansion started. During this period Kottayam and Thiruvananthapuram editions came into existence. K. B. Sreekumar and K. Kunhikkannan were in charge of those editions. In 2003, colour printing was introduced; the sixth edition of
Rhythm means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions". This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can apply to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or frequency of anything from microseconds to several seconds. In the performance arts, rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale. In some performing arts, such as hip hop music, the rhythmic delivery of the lyrics is one of the most important elements of the style. Rhythm may refer to visual presentation, as "timed movement through space" and a common language of pattern unites rhythm with geometry. In recent years and meter have become an important area of research among music scholars. Recent work in these areas includes books by Maury Yeston, Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff, Jonathan Kramer, Christopher Hasty, Godfried Toussaint, William Rothstein, Joel Lester, Guerino Mazzola. In his television series How Music Works, Howard Goodall presents theories that human rhythm recalls the regularity with which we walk and the heartbeat.
Other research suggests that it does not relate to the heartbeat directly, but rather the speed of emotional affect, which influences heartbeat. Yet other researchers suggest that since certain features of human music are widespread, it is "reasonable to suspect that beat-based rhythmic processing has ancient evolutionary roots". Justin London writes that musical metre "involves our initial perception as well as subsequent anticipation of a series of beats that we abstract from the rhythm surface of the music as it unfolds in time"; the "perception" and "abstraction" of rhythmic measure is the foundation of human instinctive musical participation, as when we divide a series of identical clock-ticks into "tick-tock-tick-tock". Joseph Jordania suggested that the sense of rhythm was developed in the early stages of hominid evolution by the forces of natural selection. Plenty of animals walk rhythmically and hear the sounds of the heartbeat in the womb, but only humans have the ability to be engaged in rhythmically coordinated vocalizations and other activities.
According to Jordania, development of the sense of rhythm was central for the achievement of the specific neurological state of the battle trance, crucial for the development of the effective defense system of early hominids. Rhythmic war cry, rhythmic drumming by shamans, rhythmic drilling of the soldiers and contemporary professional combat forces listening to the heavy rhythmic rock music all use the ability of rhythm to unite human individuals into a shared collective identity where group members put the interests of the group above their individual interests and safety; some types of parrots can know rhythm. Neurologist Oliver Sacks states that chimpanzees and other animals show no similar appreciation of rhythm yet posits that human affinity for rhythm is fundamental, so that a person's sense of rhythm cannot be lost. "There is not a single report of an animal being trained to tap, peck, or move in synchrony with an auditory beat" Human rhythmic arts are to some extent rooted in courtship ritual.
The establishment of a basic beat requires the perception of a regular sequence of distinct short-duration pulses and, as a subjective perception of loudness is relative to background noise levels, a pulse must decay to silence before the next occurs if it is to be distinct. For this reason, the fast-transient sounds of percussion instruments lend themselves to the definition of rhythm. Musical cultures that rely upon such instruments may develop multi-layered polyrhythm and simultaneous rhythms in more than one time signature, called polymeter; such are the cross-rhythms of Sub-Saharan Africa and the interlocking kotekan rhythms of the gamelan. For information on rhythm in Indian music see Tala. For other Asian approaches to rhythm see Rhythm in Persian music, Rhythm in Arabian music and Usul—Rhythm in Turkish music and Dumbek rhythms. Most music and oral poetry establishes and maintains an underlying "metric level", a basic unit of time that may be audible or implied, the pulse or tactus of the mensural level, or beat level, sometimes called the beat.
This consists of a series of identical yet distinct periodic short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time. The "beat" pulse is not the fastest or the slowest component of the rhythm but the one, perceived as fundamental: it has a tempo to which listeners entrain as they tap their foot or dance to a piece of music, it is most designated as a crotchet or quarter note in western notation. Faster levels are division levels, slower levels are mul
Siraj (Malayalam:സിറാജ് ദിനപത്രം, Arabic:سراج اليومية, is a daily newspaper in Malayalam language. It was established in 1984; the newspaper belongs to Thoufeeque Publications. It is published from Calicut, Thiruvananthapuram, Kannur, Dubai and Qatar; the head office of the newspaper is at Calicut. The editor is VPM Faisy Villyapalli, it has eight editions. List of Malayalam-language newspapers List of Malayalam-language periodicals List of newspapers in India
Sinhasan Battisi (TV series)
Singhasan Battisi is a Hindi adventure and fantasy television series that aired on Sony Pal. The show is based on folktales of Singhasan Battisi, it is a prime time serial. The show stars Karan Suchak, Siddharth Arora, Sayantani Ghosh, Aditi Sajwan, Navina Bole and Cheshta Mehta. A dubbed version titled Vikramadithanin Simhasanam was shown in Tamil in 2015 on Puthuyugam TV. In 2017, the show was dubbed into Malayalam as Vikramadithyanum Vethalavum on Kairali TV. A sequel series Betaal Aur Singhasan Battisi aired on SAB TV in 2015. Karan Suchak as King Vikramaditya Siddharth Arora as King Bhoja Sayantani Ghosh as Devi Mahamaya Kajal Jain as Queen Chitralekha Cheshta Mehta as Queen Vallari Aditi Sajwan Navina Bole Nikunj Malik Abhaas Mehta as Betaal Ankit Arora Priyanca Thakare Kunal Bakshi official website
Malayala Manorama is a morning newspaper, in Malayalam language, published from Kottayam, India by Malayala Manorama Company Limited, Headed by Mammen Mathew. It was first published as a weekly on 22 March 1890, has a readership of over 20 million, it is the second oldest Malayalam newspaper in Kerala in circulation, after Deepika, published from Kottayam. According to World Association of Newspapers, as of 2016, it was the fourteenth most circulated newspaper in the world. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations 2013 figures, it is the third largest circulating newspapers in India and largest circulating newspaper in Kerala; the Malayala Manorama Company is a private LLC corporation owned by the Kandathil family of Kottayam. Malayala Manorama Company was incorporated by Kandathil Varghese Mappillai at Kottayam on 14 March 1888; the company started with one hundred shares of Rs 100 each. The investors paid in four equal instalments. With the first instalment, the company brought a Cope press, made in London.
A local craftsman, Konthi Achari, was hired to make Malayalam types for the imported press. Mappillai had worked for a year as editor of Kerala Mitram, a Malayalam newspaper run by Gujarati businessman Devji Bhimji, in Cochin; the maharajah of Travancore Moolam Thirunal approved the logo of the newspaper, a slight modification of the Travancore Coat of Arms, now used by the Government of Kerala with slight modifications. First issue of Malayala Manorama published on 22 March 1890 from M. D Seminary Kottayam, while Kottayam was hosting a popular cattle fair, it was a four-page weekly newspaper, published on Saturdays. The weekly newspaper became a bi-weekly in 1901, a tri-weekly on 2 July 1918 and daily on 2 July 1928. In 1938, Travancore state proscribed Malayala Manorama daily. Editor K. C. Mammen Mappillai was imprisoned on charges of publishing news against the Diwan. Malayala Manorama re-commenced regular publication in 1947. On K. C. Mammen Mappilla's death, his eldest son K. M. Cheriyan took over as the Editor-in-Chief in 1954.
Malayala Manorama was produced in a single edition in the central Kerala town of Kottayam with a circulation of 28,666 copies. By the late 1950s, Manorama increased circulation and overtook Mathrubhumi in circulation, the dominant Malayalam daily at the time; the struggle between Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi demonstrated the forces that would drive the expansion of Indian regional newspapers. The contest illustrated the difficulties if expansion had to rely on Gutenberg-style printing as with the case of Manorama. Comparison of circulation Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi In 1962, Mathrubhoomi launched its second edition in Kochi; the new edition sent Mathrubumi to a circulation of 170,000 copies by 1964, 19,000 more than its rival, Malayala Manorama. With Mathrubhoomis circulation rising, it became a compulsion for Manorama to expand its reach, introduce new technology; the competition set off a keen struggle for more readers, faster equipment and national advertising from major consumer goods companies.
Manorama launched its printing centre at Calicut, Malabar in 1966 with a cast-off press from the paper's base at Kottayam and hand-composed type. But in the run-up to that event, it had installed an offset press at Kottayam and established a teleprinter line with New Delhi in 1965. By 1970, it was the leading daily in Kerala; the circulation of the newspaper rose from around 30,000 to 300,000 by this expansion to Malabar. K. M. Mathew, who took charge as editor in 1973, began a series of renovations, just as the Anandabazar Patrika did in Bengal, he brought in a series of consultants in the management and editorial areas, accepted their guidance. He conducted frequent training sessions for Manorama other employees; the company restructured their organisation in 1980. KM Mathew said that the decision stemmed from the realisation that the daily had either to become "fully professional" or "risk decline". Mathew sent his best journalists and managers to training schools around the world, imported the most effective techniques in international journalism and newspaper production, which brought in a contemporary look and feel to Malayala Manorama.
In 1979, a new printing centre was launched at Cochin and in 1987, the Trivandrum edition was launched. By 1998, the circulation of Malayala Manorama was increased to 1 million. In mid-2000s, the daily started units in the Middle East, focusing on the large Malayali population in the region. Mathew is credited with the introduction of the concept of "editionalising" with larger share for local news and reader-friendly packaging through professional page designing in Manorama, which in turn impacted the entire newspaper industry in Kerala. By 2007, Manorama become the only non-English and non-Hindi daily newspaper in India to cross 1.5 million copies in circulation. K. M. Mathew was succeeded by his son Mammen Mathew in 2010. "In what could only be described as a rarity in Indian language journalism, Mathew showed an unusual commitment to modernisation and professionalism and became a role model for the newspaper industry, which in the early 1980s was at the critical juncture of embarking on a phase of unbelievable expansion."
The Hindu praised KM Mathew in their obituary. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations's January–June 2013 figures, Malayala Manorama holds a circulation of 2.1 mill
India Today is a fortnightly Indian English-language news magazine published by Living Media India Limited. In 2014, India Today launched a new online opinion-orientated site called the DailyO. India Today was established in 1975 by Vidya Vilas Purie, with his daughter Madhu Trehan as its editor and his son Aroon Purie as its publisher. At present, India Today is published in Hindi, Tamil and Telugu; the India Today news channel was launched on 22 May 2015. In October 2017, Aroon Purie passed control of the India Today Group to Kallie Purie. India Today website