Bombing of Dresden in World War II
The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European Theatre. In four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945, 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force and 527 of the United States Army Air Forces dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city; the bombing and the resulting firestorm destroyed over 1,600 acres of the city centre. An estimated 22,700 to 25,000 people were killed, although larger casualty figures have been claimed. Three more USAAF air raids followed, two occurring on 2 March aimed at the city's railway marshalling yard and one smaller raid on 17 April aimed at industrial areas. Immediate German propaganda claims following the attacks and post-war discussions on whether the attacks were justified have led to the bombing becoming one of the moral causes célèbres of the war. A 1953 United States Air Force report defended the operation as the justified bombing of a strategic target, which they noted was a major rail transport and communication centre, housing 110 factories and 50,000 workers in support of the German war effort.
Several researchers claim not all of the communications infrastructure, such as the bridges, were targeted, nor were the extensive industrial areas outside the city center. Critics of the bombing have claimed that Dresden was a cultural landmark of little or no strategic significance, that the attacks were indiscriminate area bombing and not proportionate to the military gains; some in the German far-right refer to the bombing as a mass murder calling it "Dresden's Holocaust of bombs". According to other critics, given the number of civilian casualties and a claimed paucity of strategic targets, Dresden's destruction was unjustifiable and should be called a war crime, they claim the city could have been spared, like Rome and Kyoto, though both British and American militaries defended the bombing as necessary. Large variations in the claimed death toll have fuelled the controversy. In March 1945, the German government ordered its press to publish a falsified casualty figure of 200,000 for the Dresden raids, death toll estimates as high as 500,000 have been given.
The city authorities at the time estimated up to 25,000 victims, a figure that subsequent investigations supported, including a 2010 study commissioned by the city council. Early in 1945, the German offensive known as the Battle of the Bulge had been exhausted, as was the disastrous attack by the Luftwaffe on New Year's Day involving elements of eleven combat wings of the Luftwaffe's day fighter force; the Red Army had launched their Silesian Offensives into pre-war German territory. The German army was retreating on all fronts. On 8 February 1945, the Red Army crossed the Oder River, with positions just 70 km from Berlin. A special British Joint Intelligence Subcommittee report titled German Strategy and Capacity to Resist, prepared for Winston Churchill's eyes only, predicted that Germany might collapse as early as mid-April if the Soviets overran its eastern defences. Alternatively, the report warned that the Germans might hold out until November if they could prevent the Soviets from taking Silesia.
Hence, any assistance provided to the Soviets on the Eastern Front could shorten the war. Plans for a large and intense aerial bombing of Berlin and the other eastern cities had been discussed under the code name Operation Thunderclap in mid-1944, but had been shelved on 16 August; these were now re-examined, the decision was made to plan a more limited operation. On 22 January 1945, the RAF director of bomber operations, Air Commodore Sydney Bufton, sent a memorandum to the Deputy Chief of the Air Staff, Air Marshal Sir Norman Bottomley, suggesting that what appeared to be a coordinated air attack by the RAF to aid the current Soviet offensive would have a detrimental effect on German morale. On 25 January, the Joint Intelligence Committee supported the idea, as it tied in with the Ultra-based intelligence that dozens of German divisions deployed in the west were moving to reinforce the Eastern Front, that interdiction of these troop movements should be a "high priority." Arthur Harris, AOC Bomber Command, nicknamed "Bomber" Harris in the British press, known as an ardent supporter of area bombing, was asked for his view, he proposed a simultaneous attack on Chemnitz and Dresden.
That evening Churchill asked the Secretary of State for Air, Sir Archibald Sinclair, what plans had been drawn up to carry out these proposals. He passed on the request to Sir Charles Portal, the Chief of the Air Staff, who answered that "We should use available effort in one big attack on Berlin and attacks on Dresden and Chemnitz, or any other cities where a severe blitz will not only cause confusion in the evacuation from the East, but will hamper the movement of troops from the West." He mentioned that aircraft diverted to such raids should not be taken away from the current primary tasks of destroying oil production facilities, jet aircraft factories, submarine yards. Churchill was not satisfied with this answer and on 26 January pressed Sinclair for a plan of operations: "I asked whether Berlin, no doubt other large cities in east Germany, should not now be considered attractive targets... Pray report to me tomorrow what is going to be done". In response to Churchill's inquiry, Sinclair approached Bottomley who asked Harris to undertake attacks on Berlin, Dresden and Chemnitz, as soon as moonlight and weather permitted, "... with the particular object of exploiting the confused conditions which are to exist in the above mentioned cities during the successful Russian advance."
This activity allowed S
Josef Goller was a German designer, most notably of stained glass. Goller attended the School of Applied Arts in Munich. After a first employment in Zittau, in 1890 he moved to Dresden, where he joined the well-known stained glass company of Bruno Urban. From 1906 Goller taught at the School of Applied Arts in Dresden, now the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts, from about 1909 as a professor. Among his students were Otto Griebel and Friedrich Kurt Fiedler. In 1928 Goller returned to Munich, he created stained glass for town halls in Nuremberg and Chemnitz and for many churches and schools in Saxony and the synagogue of Görlitz, but for the windows of the neo-Baroque Kaiserpalast, Dresden's most impressive private building at that time, the Dresden Zoo and the Leipzig Hauptbahnhof. Moreover, Goller designed the interior of important national and international exhibitions in Dresden, as well as the colouring of the foyer in the Semperoper. Goller became known for his works in Art Nouveau style, he was a member of Die Elbier, a post-secessionist movement led by Gotthardt Kuehl which reflected impressionism and en plein air.
With time Goller became a supporter of form joined the Deutscher Werkbund. He created noted posters and designed books, he had friendly relations with Johann Vincenz Cissarz. Article in the Stadtwiki Dresden German national picture archive of arts at the University of Marburg Works of Goller at Europeana Frank Fiedler, Uwe Fiedler: Lebensbilder aus der Oberlausitz, Books on Demand, 2017
Schilling & Graebner
Schilling & Graebner was founded by the architects Rudolf Schilling and Julius Graebner in Dresden in 1889. Over the years Schilling & Graebner changed their style repeatedly. Starting with historistic buildings they became known as leading German architects of Art Nouveau and Modernity, their most important building is the church Christuskirche in Strehlen. This landmark of Dresden marks the transition of sacral architecture in Germany from historicism to modernity. Beside such important works like the town hall of Pieschen, Dresden's former most impressive business premises Kaiserpalast, an obelisk in front of Dresden castle on occasion of the 800th anniversary of the House of Wettin in 1896, Schilling & Graebner were engaged in building of Protestant churches, in Dresden but in small towns; the Lutherkirche Radebeul was built in 1891 and the interior of the Kreuzkirche was re-designed from 1897 to 1900, after a fire had destroyed it. Graebner was member of the directorate of the Dürerbund.
As members of Deutscher Werkbund Schilling and Graebner designed many of their villas and sacral buildings according to the principles of modernity as propagated by the Werkbund. The former Zionskirche, built 1908-1912 and destroyed in 1945, was an extraordinary example of this architectural style. After Graebner's death his son joined the office, it had to be closed in 1947. Ricarda Kube: Schilling und Graebner – Das Werk einer Dresdner Architektenfirma. Dissertation an der Technischen Universität Dresden, 2 Bände, 1988. Landkirchen. Entworfen und ausgeführt von den Architekten Graebner. Mit einem Geleitwort von Dr. Paul Schumann. Leipzig, Gilbertsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1903. Guy Eglinton, Peyton Boswell: International studio, Vol. 13. New York Offices of the International Studio, 1901, pp. 283, 284. Ralph Adams Cram: Christian art: an illustrated monthly magazine devoted to current church building and foreign, the allied ecclesiological arts, with expert discussions of all topics relating to Christian archaeology, Vol. 4.
R. S. Badger, 1908, pp 14–18. Schilling & Graebner at Europeana Protestantischer Kirchenbau von Schilling & Graebner
Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs; the city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger and the famous Semper Oper. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany and Europe; the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and ranks first in Saxony. It is dominated by high-tech branches called “Silicon Saxony”; the city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4.3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe. Main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle; the most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche. Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II; the remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, before being rebuilt between 1994 and 2005. Dresden has nearly 560,000 inhabitants, the agglomeration is the largest in Saxony with 780,000 inhabitants. According to the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsinstitut and Berenberg Bank in 2017, Dresden has the fourth best prospects for the future of all cities in Germany. Although Dresden is a recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, the area had been settled in the Neolithic era by Linear Pottery culture tribes ca. 7500 BC.
Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from meaning people of the forest. Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony. Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement existed on the northern bank, it was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, as Altendresden, both "old Dresden". Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene". After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate, it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319. From 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, from 1547 the electors as well.
The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in 1697. He gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden, his reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art. During the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland most of the city's baroque landmarks were built; these include the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Japanese Palace, the Taschenbergpalais, the Pillnitz Castle and the two landmark churches: the Catholic Hofkirche and the Lutheran Frauenkirche. In addition significant art collections and museums were founded. Notable examples include the Dresden Porcelain Collection, the Collection of Prints and Photographs, the Grünes Gewölbe and the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. In 1726 there was a riot for two days after a Protestant clergyman was killed by a soldier who had converted from Catholicism.
In 1729, by decree of King Augustus II the first Polish Military Academy was founded in Dresden. In 1730, it was relocated to Warsaw. Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the Seven Years' War, following its capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, a failed Prussian siege in 1760. Friedrich Schiller wrote his Ode to Joy for the Dresden Masonic lodge in 1785. During the decline of Poland Dresden was site of preparations for the Polish Kościuszko Uprising; the city of Dresden had a distinctive silhouette, captured in famous paintings by Bernardo Bellotto and by Norwegian painter Johan Christian Dahl. Between 1806 and 1918 the city was the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony. During the Napoleonic Wars the French emperor made it a base of operations, winning there the famous Battle of Dresden on 27 August 1813. Following the November Uprising many Poles, including writers Juliusz Słowacki, Stefan Florian Garczyński, Klementyna Hoffmanowa and composer Frédéric Chopin, fled from the Russian Partition of Poland to Dresden.
National poet Adam Mickiewicz stayed several months in Dresden, starting in March 1832. He wrote the poetic drama Dziady, P
Friedrich Hermann Ilgen was a German pharmacist and patron of art and sport
Palais du Rhin
The Palais du Rhin, the former Kaiserpalast, is a building situated in the German quarter of Strasbourg dominating the Place de la République with its massive dome. A huge building, it and the surrounding gardens, as well as the neighbouring stables, are an outstanding landmark of 19th-century Prussian architecture. After the Franco-Prussian War, Strasbourg German, was faced with the question of an official residence for the Kaiser; the decision was made to create a building symbolic of imperial power, after much debate, a square Neo-Renaissance design was chosen, remotely inspired by the Palazzo Pitti in Florence. The architect was Hermann Eggert, who had built, among other things, the Observatory of Strasbourg. Work began on March 22, 1884 in honour of William I's 87th birthday, construction took five years; the project received a good deal of criticism, with many questioning the need and use of the building, its appearance, its price of three million marks. Inaugurated by William II in August 1889, the palace housed the emperor for twelve visits down to 1914.
During the First World War, the building was converted into a military hospital and in 1920 it adopted its current name when the oldest of the European institutions, the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, moved in. In 1923, the palace passed hands to the French state and today houses the Direction régionale des affaires culturelles of Grand Est. Transformed into the'Kommandantur' by the Nazis between 1940 and 1945, the building was recaptured by the troops of General Leclerc, who transformed it into their general headquarters, it was there that he wrote his proclamation announcing the realization of his oath at Kufra, proclaiming that he would fight until the French flag flew again over the cathedrals of Strasbourg and Metz. Threatened with destruction in the 1970s, the palace, classified as monument historique since 1993 houses the Direction régionale des Affaires culturelles of Alsace. In 2008, the Palais was used as the setting of the Paris Gestapo headquarters for the shooting of the French TV mini-series "La Résistance".
Architectural description and photos Exterior and interior views
Baroque Revival architecture
The Baroque Revival known as Neo-Baroque, was an architectural style of the late 19th century. The term is used to describe architecture which displays important aspects of Baroque style, but is not of the Baroque period proper—i.e. The 17th and 18th centuries. Elements of the Baroque architectural tradition were an essential part of the curriculum of the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, the pre-eminent school of architecture in the second half of the 19th century, are integral to the Beaux-Arts architecture it engendered both in France and abroad. An ebullient sense of European imperialism encouraged an official architecture to reflect it in Britain and France, in Germany and Italy the Baroque revival expressed pride in the new power of the unified state. Akasaka Palace, Japan Alferaki Palace, Russia Ashton Memorial, England Belfast City Hall, Northern Ireland Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Saint Petersburg, Russia Bode Museum, Germany British Columbia Parliament Buildings, British Columbia, Canada Burgtheater, Austria Christiansborg Palace, Denmark Cluj-Napoca National Theatre, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Ortaköy Mosque, Turkey Dolmabahçe Palace, Turkey The Elms Mansion, Rhode Island, United States National Theatre, Norway Palais Garnier, France Rosecliff Mansion, Rhode Island, United States Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Semperoper, Germany Sofia University rectorate, Bulgaria Zachęta National Gallery of Art, Poland St. Barbara's Church, New York, United States St. John Cantius Church, United States Church of St. Ignatius Loyola, New York City, United States Church of Saints Peter and Paul, Ireland Cathedral of Salta, Argentina Széchenyi thermal bath, Hungary Volkstheater, Austria National Art Gallery of Bulgaria, Bulgaria Wenckheim Palace, Hungary Stefánia Palace, Hungary Gran Teatro de La Habana, Cuba Old Parliament Building, Sri Lanka Altare della Patria, Italy House of the National Assembly of Serbia, Serbia.
Durban City Hall, South AfricaThere are number of post-modern buildings with a style that might be called "Baroque", for example the Dancing House in Prague by Vlado Milunić and Frank Gehry, who have described it as "new Baroque". Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer Arthur Meinig Sir Edwin Lutyens Members of the Armenian Balyan family Charles Garnier Baroque List of Baroque architecture Second Empire architecture Beaux-Arts architecture Edwardian Baroque architecture Wilhelminism James Stevens Curl. A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. 2000. — Encyclopedia.com. Accessed 3 Jan. 2010