A man is a male human. The term man is reserved for an adult male, with the term boy being the usual term for a male child or adolescent. However, the term man is sometimes used to identify a male human, regardless of age, as in phrases such as "men's basketball". Like most other male mammals, a man's genome inherits an X chromosome from his mother and a Y chromosome from his father; the male fetus produces larger amounts of androgens and smaller amounts of estrogens than a female fetus. This difference in the relative amounts of these sex steroids is responsible for the physiological differences that distinguish men from women. During puberty, hormones which stimulate androgen production result in the development of secondary sexual characteristics, thus exhibiting greater differences between the sexes. However, there are exceptions to the above for some intersex men; the English term "man" is derived from a Proto-Indo-European root *man-. More directly, the word derives from Old English mann.
The Old English form had a default meaning of "adult male", though it could signify a person of unspecified gender. The related Old English pronoun man was used just as it is in Modern German to designate "one"; the Old English form is derived from Proto-Germanic *mannz, "human being, person", the etymon of German Mann "man, husband" and man "one", Old Norse maðr, Gothic manna. According to Tacitus, the mythological progenitor of the Germanic tribes was called Mannus. *Manus in Indo-European mythology was the first man, see Mannus, Manu. The term manhood is used to describe the period in a human male's life after he has transitioned from boyhood, having passed through puberty having attained male secondary sexual characteristics, symbolises a male's coming of age; the word man is used to mean any adult male. In English-speaking countries, many other words can be used to mean an adult male such as guy, buddy, fellow and sometimes boy or lad; the term manhood is associated with masculinity and virility, which refer to male qualities and male gender roles.
Humans exhibit sexual dimorphism in many characteristics, many of which have no direct link to reproductive ability, although most of these characteristics do have a role in sexual attraction. Most expressions of sexual dimorphism in humans are found in height and body structure, though there are always examples that do not follow the overall pattern. For example, men tend to be taller than women, but there are many people of both sexes who are in the mid-height range for the species; some examples of male secondary sexual characteristics in humans, those acquired as boys become men or later in life, are: more pubic hair more facial hair larger hands and feet broader shoulders and chest larger skull and bone structure larger brain mass and volume greater muscle mass a more prominent Adam's apple and deeper voice greater height a higher tibia:femur ratio In mankind, the sex of an individual is determined at the time of fertilization by the genetic material carried in the sperm cell. If a sperm cell carrying an X chromosome fertilizes the egg, the offspring will be female.
Persons whose anatomy or chromosomal makeup differ from this pattern are referred to as intersex. This is referred to as the XY sex-determination system and is typical of most mammals, but quite a few other sex-determination systems exist, including some that are non-genetic; the term primary sexual characteristics denotes the kind of gamete the gonad produces: the ovary produces egg cells in the female, the testis produces sperm cells in the male. The term secondary sexual characteristics denotes all other sexual distinctions that play indirect roles in uniting sperm and eggs. Secondary sexual characteristics include everything from the specialized male and female features of the genital tract, to the brilliant plumage of male birds or facial hair of humans, to behavioral features such as courtship. Biological factors are not sufficient determinants of whether a person considers themselves a man or is considered a man. Intersex individuals, who have physical or genetic features considered to be mixed or atypical for one sex or the other, may use other criteria in making a clear determination.
There are transgender and transsexual men, who were assigned as female at birth, but identify as men. The male sex organs are part of the reproductive system, consisting of the penis, vas deferens, the prostate gland; the male reproductive system's function is to produce semen which carries sperm and thus genetic information that can unite with an egg within a woman. Since sperm that enters a woman's uterus and fallopian tubes goes on to fertilize an egg which develops into a fetus or child, the male reproductive system plays no necessary role during the gestation; the concept of fatherhood and family exists in human societies. The study of male reproduction and associated organs is called andrology. In mammals, the hormones that influence sexual differentiation and development are androgens, which stimulate development of the ovary. In the sexually undifferentiated embryo, testosterone stimulates the development of the Wolffian ducts, the penis, closure of the labioscrotal folds into the scrotum.
Another significant hormone in sexual differentiation is the
The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, Hāna. Native Hawaiian tradition gives the origin of the island's name in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiian Islands. According to it, Hawaiʻiloa named the island after his son, who in turn was named for the demigod Māui; the earlier name of Maui was ʻIhikapalaumaewa.
The Island of Maui is called the "Valley Isle" for the large isthmus separating its northwestern and southeastern volcanic masses. Maui's diverse landscapes are the result of a unique combination of geology and climate; each volcanic cone in the chain of the Hawaiian Islands is built of dark, iron-rich/quartz-poor rocks, which poured out of thousands of vents as fluid lava over a period of millions of years. Several of the volcanoes were close enough to each other that lava flows on their flanks overlapped one another, merging into a single island. Maui is such a "volcanic doublet," formed from two shield volcanoes that overlapped one another to form an isthmus between them; the older, western volcano has been eroded and is cut by numerous drainages, forming the peaks of the West Maui Mountains. Puʻu Kukui is the highest of the peaks at 5,788 feet; the larger, younger volcano to the east, Haleakalā, rises to more than 10,000 feet above sea level, measures 5 miles from seafloor to summit. The eastern flanks of both volcanoes are cut by incised valleys and steep-sided ravines that run downslope to the rocky, windswept shoreline.
The valley-like Isthmus of Maui that separates the two volcanic masses was formed by sandy erosional deposits. Maui's last eruption occurred around 1790. Although considered to be dormant by volcanologists, Haleakalā is capable of further eruptions. Maui is part of a much larger unit, Maui Nui, that includes the islands of Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Molokaʻi, the now submerged Penguin Bank. During periods of reduced sea level, including as as 20,000 years ago, they are joined together as a single island due to the shallowness of the channels between them; the climate of the Hawaiian Islands is characterized by a two-season year and uniform temperatures everywhere, marked geographic differences in rainfall, high relative humidity, extensive cloud formations, dominant trade-wind flow. Maui itself has a wide range of climatic conditions and weather patterns that are influenced by several different factors in the physical environment: Half of Maui is situated within 5 miles of the island's coastline. This, the extreme insularity of the Hawaiian Islands account for the strong marine influence on Maui's climate.
Gross weather patterns are determined by elevation and orientation towards the Trade winds. Maui's rugged, irregular topography produces marked variations in conditions. Air swept inland on the Trade winds is shunted one way or another by the mountains and vast open slopes; this complex three-dimensional flow of air results in striking variations in wind speed, cloud formation, rainfall. Maui displays a unique and diverse set of climatic conditions, each of, specific to a loosely defined sub-region of the island; these sub-regions are defined by major physiographic features and by location on the windward or leeward side of the island. Windward lowlands – Below 2,000 feet on north-to-northeast sides of an island. Perpendicular to direction of prevailing trade winds. Moderately rainy. Skies are cloudy to cloudy. Air temperatures are more uniform than those of other regions. Leeward lowlands – Daytime temperatures are a little higher and nighttime temperatures are lower than in windward locations. Dry weather is prevalent, with the exception of sporadic showers that drift over the mountains to windward and during short-duration storms.
Interior lowlands – Intermediate conditions sharing characteristics of other lowland sub-regions. Experience intense local afternoon showers from well-developed clouds that formed due to local daytime heating. Leeward side high-altitude mountain slopes with high rainfall – Extensive cloud cover and rainfall all year long. Mild temperatures are prevalent. Leeward side lower mountain slopes – Rainfall is higher than on the adjacent leeward lowlands, but much less than at similar altitudes on the windward side.
An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand was an official encyclopaedia about New Zealand, published in three volumes by the Government of New Zealand in 1966. Edited by Dr. Alexander Hare McLintock, the parliamentary historian, assisted by two others, the encyclopaedia included over 1,800 articles and 900 biographies, written by 359 contributing authors; the encyclopaedia is more comprehensive and more representative of minorities than previous New Zealand reference works such as the vanity press The Cyclopedia of New Zealand published around sixty years earlier, but not as representative as the more modern Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. A number of women were present as representing firsts, including Kate Edger, its publication met with an enthusiastic response. After the last 3,000 copies were sold it was never reprinted, more due to the non-commercial priorities of the government-run printing office than any lack of demand or interest from the general public; the encyclopaedia was well received by scholars and teachers, it is still regarded as an important New Zealand reference work considering its errors and omissions, the biases of its time.
Jock Phillips, writing in 2003 about his editorship of its successor Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, considers it an "illustrious predecessor" and describes it as now, a most impressive work. It remains an essential source of reference for students and scholars of New Zealand But it is much a creature of a particular time and place; the work's importance, both as a reference and as an historical snapshot of mid-20th century New Zealand, motivated the Ministry for Culture and Heritage to digitise and republish the work online. The text and images have been made available, without corrections or updates, as a separate resource within its successor Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand – digitised version at Te Ara
In Māori mythology, Whaitiri is a female deity, a personification of thunder, the grandmother of Tāwhaki and Karihi. Whaitiri is the granddaughter of Te Kanapu, the great-granddaughter of Te Uira, both of whom are personified forms of lightning. In Maori mythology, there is a male deity of thunder, Tāwhirimātea. Whaitiri is a fearsome figure, fond of cannibalism; when she hears of a mortal named Kaitangata, she is certain. She comes down to earth and marries him, but is disappointed to learn that he is a gentle person, nothing like his name suggests. Whaitiri kills her favourite slave, takes out her heart and liver, offers them to Kaitangata as a sign of her affection, he is horrified at the grisly offering. Kaitangata is a hard worker, he has never learned how to make hooks with a barb, so most of his fish escape. Whaitiri gives him a barbed hook, he catches a groper, which she offers to the gods. Whaitiri tires of a diet of fish, so when her husband is away fishing, she takes a net and catches two of her husband's relatives, Tupeke-ti and Tupeke-ta.
When Kaitangata returns, she asks him to perform the incantations that are used when human flesh is offered to the gods. He does not know the chants, so she tries to perform them herself, not willing to confess that she is ignorant of the correct words to use, she mumbles nonsense words, before cooking the bodies, cutting them up and gorging herself on the flesh, to the disgust of the villagers. Only the bones are left. Kaitangata uses the bones to make barbed hooks, goes fishing, he catches groper, gives them to Whaitiri. He does not tell her that he used hooks made from the bones of Tupeke-ta, she eats the fish, because the fish is infused with the tapu from the bodies of the two men, Whaitiri begins to go blind. At first she is mystified at the reason for this, but she is visited by a woman from the underworld who tells her what has happened. One day, Whaitiri overhears her husband describe her to two strangers, she is offended when she hears him say that his wife's skin is like the wind, her heart is as cold as snow.
On another occasion, she is ashamed. She explains to her husband that she is unable to wash her children because she is a sacred being from the heavens, she tells him for the first time that her name is thunder, she prepares to return to her true home in the heavens, foretells that her children will follow her one day. She departs in a cloud, leaving her children, one of whom is Hemā; this is fulfilled when Hemā's sons, set off to climb up to the sky. At the foot of the ascent they find their grandmother, now blind, who sits continually counting the tubers of sweet potato or taro that are her only food; the brothers tease her by snatching them away, one by one, upsetting her count. They reveal themselves to her and restore her sight. In return, she gives them advice about. Karihi makes the error of climbing up the aka taepa, or hanging vine, he is blown violently around by the winds of heaven, falls to his death. Tāwhaki climbs by the aka matua, or parent vine, recites the right incantations, reaches the highest of the 10 heavens.
There he learns many spells from Tama-i-waho, marries a woman named Hāpai, or as others say, Maikuku-makaka. They have a son, according to some versions of the story it is this child, named Wahieroa. Waitiri Whatitiri Whaitiri-mātakataka Waitiri Station, a large Central Otago New Zealand high country ranch. Named after the thundering waters of the Kawarau River. Waitiri Station is the major ranch of the Kawarau Gorge and runs from the Bungy Bridge to the Roaring Meg on SH6, it is run in conjunction with Eastburn Station. Waitiri Run A Grade IV at less than 11,000 cubic feet per second and Grade V over 11,000 cubic feet per second. Length 2 miles BIG water, technically simple but intimidating. Waitiri Station provides exit access. Matakerepō, linked with Whaitiri B. G. Biggs,'Maori Myths and Traditions' in A. H. McLintock, Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, 3 Volumes. 1966, II:447-454. A. W. Reed, Treasury of Maori Folklore, 1963. A. Cook,'The Gibbston Story'
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods; because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification; the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Most fish are ectothermic, allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish can communicate in their underwater environments through the use of acoustic communication. Acoustic communication in fish involves the transmission of acoustic signals from one individual of a species to another; the production of sounds as a means of communication among fish is most used in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship behaviour. The sounds emitted by fish can vary depending on the stimulus involved, they can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.
Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and hadal depths of the deepest oceans, although no species has yet been documented in the deepest 25% of the ocean. With 33,600 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean, they are caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, as the subjects of art and movies. Fish do not represent a monophyletic group, therefore the "evolution of fish" is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a group of small, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawless fish lineages are extinct.
An extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils; the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or a combination of factors. Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways; the first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood, although the reverse is the case. Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the "Class Pisces" seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications. Traditional classification divides fish into three extant classes, with extinct forms sometimes classified within the tree, sometimes as their own classes: Class Agnatha Subclass Cyclostomata Subclass Ostracodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Subclass Elasmobranchii Subclass Holocephali Class Placodermi † Class Acanthodii † Class Osteichthyes Subclass Actinopterygii Subclass Sarcopterygii The above scheme is the one most encountered in non-specialist and general works.
Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, in that they have given rise to successive groups: Agnathans are ancestral to Chondrichthyes, who again have given rise to Acanthodiians, the ancestors of Osteichthyes. With the arrival of phylogenetic nomenclature, the fishes has been split up into a more detailed scheme, with the following major groups: Class Myxini Class Pteraspidomorphi † Class Thelodonti † Class Anaspida † Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae Class Conodonta † Class Cephalaspidomorphi † Galeaspida † Pituriaspida † Osteostraci † Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class Placodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Class Acanthodii † Superclass Osteichthy
In Māori mythology, Rehua is a sacred personage, who lives in Te Putahi-nui-o-Rehua in Rangi-tuarea, the tenth and highest of the heavens in some versions of Māori lore. Rehua is identified with certain stars. To the Tūhoe people of the North Island he is Antares. Others say he is Sirius; because he lives in the highest of the skies, Rehua is untouched by death, has power to cure blindness, revive the dead, heal any disease. He is a son of Rangi and Papa, the father of Kaitangata, as well as the ancestor of Māui. A Ngāi Tahu legend from the South Island speaks of Rehua as the eldest son of Rangi and Papa, who first manifested as lightning, but assumed human shape when he travelled into the skies, his brother Tāne went to pay him a visit, Rehua had birds in his hair, feeding on his lice. Rehua had his servants cook and prepare the birds as a meal for Tāne, shocked and declined to eat them because the birds had eaten the lice from Rehua's head, tapu; however Rehua gave him birds to bring down to this world, showed him how to snare them.
Tāne brought with him the fruit trees that the birds fed on, so it is that there are forests and birds on the earth. In Tahiti, Rehua was a star-god, the star of the New Year, who produced the Twins as well as the Pleiads, considered lord of the year. M. Orbell, The Concise Encyclopedia of Māori Myth and Legend, 1998. E. R. Tregear, Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, 1891
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body or similar space. Water or various other chemicals may compose the crystals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature, they are seen in the Earth's homosphere. Nephology is the science of clouds, undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere. Cloud types in the troposphere, the atmospheric layer closest to Earth's surface, have Latin names due to the universal adaptation of Luke Howard's nomenclature. Formally proposed in 1802, it became the basis of a modern international system that divides clouds into five physical forms that appear in any or all of three altitude levels.
These physical types, in approximate ascending order of convective activity, include stratiform sheets, cirriform wisps and patches, stratocumuliform layers, cumuliform heaps, large cumulonimbiform heaps that show complex structure. The physical forms are divided by altitude level into ten basic genus-types; the Latin names for applicable high-level genera carry a cirro- prefix, an alto- prefix is added to the names of the mid-level genus-types. Most of the genera can be further subdivided into varieties. Low stratiform clouds that extend down to the Earth's surface are given the common names fog and mist, but have no Latin names. Several clouds that form higher up in the stratosphere and mesosphere have common names for their main types, they are seen infrequently in the polar regions of Earth. Clouds have been observed in the atmospheres of other planets and moons in the Solar System and beyond. However, due to their different temperature characteristics, they are composed of other substances such as methane and sulfuric acid as well as water.
Taken as a whole, homospheric clouds can be cross-classified by form and level to derive the ten tropospheric genera, the fog and mist that forms at surface level, several additional major types above the troposphere. The cumulus genus includes three species. Clouds with sufficient vertical extent to occupy more than one altitude level are classified as low- or mid-level according to the altitude range at which each forms; however they are more informally classified as multi-level or vertical. The origin of the term cloud can be found in the old English clud or clod, meaning a hill or a mass of rock. Around the beginning of the 13th century, the word came to be used as a metaphor for rain clouds, because of the similarity in appearance between a mass of rock and cumulus heap cloud. Over time, the metaphoric usage of the word supplanted the old English weolcan, the literal term for clouds in general. Ancient cloud studies were not made in isolation, but were observed in combination with other weather elements and other natural sciences.
In about 340 BC the Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote Meteorologica, a work which represented the sum of knowledge of the time about natural science, including weather and climate. For the first time and the clouds from which precipitation fell were called meteors, which originate from the Greek word meteoros, meaning'high in the sky'. From that word came the modern term meteorology, the study of clouds and weather. Meteorologica was based on intuition and simple observation, but not on what is now considered the scientific method, it was the first known work that attempted to treat a broad range of meteorological topics. After centuries of speculative theories about the formation and behavior of clouds, the first scientific studies were undertaken by Luke Howard in England and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in France. Howard was a methodical observer with a strong grounding in the Latin language and used his background to classify the various tropospheric cloud types during 1802, he believed. Lamarck had worked independently on cloud classification the same year and had come up with a different naming scheme that failed to make an impression in his home country of France because it used unusual French names for cloud types.
His system of nomenclature included twelve categories of clouds, with such names as hazy clouds, dappled clouds and broom-like clouds. By contrast, Howard used universally accepted Latin, which caught on after it was published in 1803; as a sign of the popularity of the naming scheme, the German dramatist and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe composed four poems about clouds, dedicating them to Howard. An elaboration of Howard's system was formally adopted by the International Meteorological Conference in 1891; this system covered only the tropospheric cloud types, but the discovery of clouds above the troposphere during the late 19th century led to the creation separate classification schemes for these high clouds. Terrestrial clouds can be found throughout most of the homosphere, which includes the troposphere and mesosphere. Within these layers of the atmosphere, air can become saturated as a result of being cooled to its dew point or by having moisture added from an adjacent source. In the latter case, saturation occurs when the dew po